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Encyclopedia > Gautama Buddha
Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet.

Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from Nepal and the founder of Buddhism.[1] He is generally recognized by Buddhists as the Supreme Buddha (Sammāsambuddha) of our age. The time of his birth and death are uncertain: a majority of 20th-century historians date his lifetime from circa 563 BCE to 483 BCE, but some more recent scholars have suggested dates around 410 or 400 BCE for his death. Some suggest even later dates.[2] These alternative chronologies, however, have not yet been accepted by all other historians.[3][4] Siddhartha or Siddharta is the birth name of the historical and religious figure Gautama Buddha, known as the Buddha. ... Gautama can mean: Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism Another Indian philosopher, Gautama This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Download high resolution version (428x749, 92 KB)Standing Buddha, Gandhara, 1st century CE. Guimet Museum, Paris. ... Download high resolution version (428x749, 92 KB)Standing Buddha, Gandhara, 1st century CE. Guimet Museum, Paris. ... Media:Example. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Guimet in his museum. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For university teachers, see professor. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Media:Example. ... Parturition redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC Events and Trends 562 BC - Amel-Marduk succeeds Nebuchadnezzar as king of Babylon 560 BC - Neriglissar succeeds... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC - 483 BC - 482 BC 481 BC...


Gautama, also known as Sakyamuni or Shakyamuni (“sage of the Shakyas”), is the key figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules were summarized after his death and memorized by the sangha. Passed down by oral tradition, the Tripitaka, the collection of discourses attributed to Gautama, was committed to writing about 400 years later. Śākya (Sanskrit) or Sakya (Pāli) is the name (derived from Sanskrit Å›akya, capable, able) of an Indo-Aryan-speaking nation or janapada of the (the so-called warrior caste). The Śākyas formed independent tribes or kingdoms near the foothills of the Himālayas. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... The Tripiá¹­aka (Sanskrit त्रिपिटक, lit. ...

Contents

Buddha's life

The prime sources of information regarding Siddhārtha Gautama's life are the Buddhist texts. The Buddha and his monks spent four months each year discussing and rehearsing his teachings, and after his death his monks set about preserving them. A council was held shortly after his death, and another was held a century later. At these councils the monks attempted to establish and authenticate the extant accounts of the life and teachings of the Buddha following systematic rules. They divided the teachings into distinct but overlapping bodies of material, and assigned specific monks to preserve each one. This was done orally until three generations after the Buddha's death, when they were recorded. By this point, the monks had added or altered some material themselves, in particular magnifying the figure of the Buddha.[5] There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...


The ancient Indians were not concerned with chronologies, being far more focused on philosophy. The Buddhist texts reflect this tendency, and we have a much clearer picture of what the Buddha thought than of the dates of the events in his life. These texts contain descriptions of the culture and daily life of ancient India which can be corroborated from the Jain scriptures, and make the Buddha's time the earliest period in Indian history for which substantial accounts exist.[6] The following is a summary of what is found in these texts. JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...


Conception and birth

According to tradition, Siddhārtha was born more than 200 years before the reign of the Maurya king Aśoka (273–232 BCE). Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... Ashoka redirects here. ...

The birth of Siddhartha, (2nd-3rd century).

Siddhartha was born in Lumbini,Nepal.[7] His father was King Suddhodana, the chief of the Shakya nation, one of several ancient tribes in the growing state of Kosala; Gautama was the family name. His mother, Queen Maha Maya (Māyādevī) and Suddhodana's wife, was a Koliyan princess. On the night Siddhartha was conceived, Queen Maya dreamt that a white elephant with six white tusks entered her right side, and ten lunar months later Siddhartha was born from her right side (see image right). As was the Shakya tradition, when his mother Queen Maya fell pregnant, she returned to her father's kingdom to give birth, but after leaving Kapilavastu, she gave birth along the way at Lumbini in a garden beneath a sal tree. Download high resolution version (895x653, 368 KB)The birth of Siddharta, Gandhara, 2-3rd century. ... Download high resolution version (895x653, 368 KB)The birth of Siddharta, Gandhara, 2-3rd century. ... Lumbini(27° 28 60N, 83° 16 60E) (Sanskrit: , the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal. ... King Suddhodana (Sanskrit: Åšuddhodana) was the father of Siddhartha Gautama, later known as the Buddha. ... Kosala was an ancient Indian Aryan kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. ... A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Queen Māyās white elephant dream, and the conception of the Buddha. ... In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive similar syzygies (new moons or full moons). ... Kapilvastu, formerly Taulihawa (or, Kapilbastu Kapilvastu District or Tilaurakot), aprox. ... Lumbini(27° 28 60N, 83° 16 60E) (Sanskrit: , the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal. ... Binomial name Roth Sal (Shorea robusta) is a species of tree native to southern Asia, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. ...

Maya Devi Temple in Lumbini, Nepal.

The day of the Buddha's birth is widely celebrated in Theravada countries as Vesak.[8] Various sources hold that the Buddha's mother died at his birth, a few days or seven days later. The infant was given the name Siddhartha (Pāli: Siddhatta), meaning “he who achieves his aim”. During the birth celebrations, the hermit seer Asita journeyed from his mountain abode and announced that would either become a great king (chakravartin) or a great holy man . This occurred after Siddhartha placed his feet in Asita's hair and Asita examined the birthmarks. Suddhodarna held a naming ceremony on the fifth day, and invited eight brahmin scholars to read the future. All gave a dual prediction that the baby would either become a great king or a great holy man. Kaundinya (Pali: Kondanna), the youngest, and later to be the first arahant, was the only one who unequivocally predicted that Siddhartha would become a Buddha.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Clairvoyance, from 17th century French Clair meaning clear and voyant meaning seeing, is a term used to describe the transference of information about an object, location or physical event through means other than the 5 traditional senses (See Psi). ... This term first used to describe Ashoka of the Mauryan Dynasty literally translates to he for whom the wheel of law turns. ... Holiness is the state of being holy, that is, set apart for the worship or service of God or gods. ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Chinese Luohan statue from the Liao Dynasty in Hebei Province, China In the sramanic traditions of ancient India (most notably those of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha) arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) signified a spiritual practitioner who had—to use an expression common in the tipitaka—laid down the burden... Media:Example. ...


While later tradition and legend characterized Śuddhodana as a hereditary monarch, the descendant of the Solar Dynasty of Ikṣvāku (Pāli: Okkāka), many scholars believe that Śuddhodana was the elected chief of a tribal confederacy.
For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...


Early life and marriage

Siddhartha, destined to a luxurious life as a prince, had three palaces (for seasonal occupation) especially built for him. His father, King Śuddhodana, wishing for Siddhartha to be a great king, shielded his son from religious teachings or knowledge of human suffering. Siddhartha was brought up by his mother's younger sister, Maha Pajapati.[10] Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... Mahapajapati Gotami (in Pali; Mahaprajapati Gautami in Sanskrit) was the first woman to request ordination from the Buddha and to join the Sangha. ...


As the boy reached the age of 16, his father arranged his marriage to Yaśodharā (Pāli: Yasodharā), a cousin of the same age. In time, she gave birth to a son, Rahula. Siddhartha spent 29 years as a Prince in Kapilavastu, a place now situated in Nepal. Although his father ensured that Siddhartha was provided with everything he could want or need, Siddhartha felt that material wealth was not the ultimate goal of life.[11] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Rahula (534 BC-?; Chinese: 羅侯羅) is generally accepted to be the name of the son of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... Kapilvastu, formerly Taulihawa (or, Kapilbastu Kapilvastu District or Tilaurakot), aprox. ...


The Great Departure

The Four Heavenly Messengers
The Four Heavenly Messengers

At the age of 29, Siddhartha left his palace in order to meet his subjects. Despite his father's effort to remove the sick, aged and suffering from the public view, Siddhartha was said to have seen an old man. Disturbed by this, when told that all people would eventually grow old by his charioteer Channa, the prince went on further trips where he encountered, variously, a diseased man, a decaying corpse, and an ascetic. Deeply depressed by these sights, he sought to overcome old age, illness, and death by living the life of an ascetic. Siddhartha escaped his palace, accompanied by Channa aboard his horse Kanthaka, leaving behind this royal life to become a mendicant. It is said that, "the horse's hooves were muffled by the gods" [12] to prevent guards from knowing the Bodhisatta's departure. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1713x1467, 702 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gautama Buddha ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1713x1467, 702 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gautama Buddha ... Channa (Pali: Channa; Sanskrit:Chandaka) (6th century BC, in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India) was a royal servant and head charioteer of Prince Siddhartha, who became a disciple of the later-to-become Gautama Buddha, and achieved arahanthood, described in the 78th verse of the Dhammapada. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kanthaka ( in Pali and Sanskrit) (6th century BC, in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India) was a white horse of length eighteen cubits that was a royal servant and favourite horse of Prince Siddhartha, who later became Gautama Buddha. ... The term mendicant refers to begging or otherwise relying on charitable donations, and is most widely used for religious followers or ascetics who rely exclusively on charity to survive. ...


Siddhartha initially went to Rajagaha and began his ascetic life by begging for alms in the street. Having been recognised by the men of King Bimbisara, Bimbisara offered him the throne after hearing of Siddhartha's quest. Siddhartha rejected the offer, but promised to visit his kingdom of Magadha first, upon attaining enlightenment. , Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Bimbisara (ruled 544-491 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ...


Siddhartha left Rajagaha and practiced under two hermit teachers. After mastering the teachings of Alara Kalama, Siddhartha was asked by Kalama to succeed him, but moved on after being unsatisfied with his practices. He then became a student of Udaka Ramaputta, but although he achieved high levels of meditative consciousness and was asked to succeed Ramaputta, he was still not satisfied with his path, and moved on.[13]

The Buddha as an ascetic. Gandhara, 2-3rd century CE. British Museum.
The Buddha as an ascetic. Gandhara, 2-3rd century CE. British Museum.

Siddhartha and a group of five companions led by Kondanna then set out to take their austerities even further. They tried to find enlightenment through near total deprivation of worldly goods, including food, practicing self-mortification. After nearly starving himself to death by restricting his food intake to around a leaf or nut per day, he collapsed in a river while bathing and almost drowned. Siddhartha began to reconsider his path. Then, he remembered a moment in childhood in which he had been watching his father start the season's plowing, and he had fallen into a naturally concentrated and focused state that was blissful and refreshing, the jhana. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x1337, 488 KB) Image of the Buddha. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x1337, 488 KB) Image of the Buddha. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flagellants mortifying the flesh, at the time of the Black Death Mortification of the flesh literally means putting the flesh to death. The term is primarily used in religious and spiritual contexts. ... Dhyāna means meditation in Sanskrit. ...


The Great Enlightenment

After asceticism and concentrating on meditation and Anapana-sati (awareness of breathing in and out), Siddhartha is said to have discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way—a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. He accepted a little milk and rice pudding from a village girl named Sujata, who wrongly believed him to be the spirit that had granted her a wish, such was his emaciated appearance. Then, sitting under a pipal tree, now known as the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, he vowed never to arise until he had found the Truth. Kaundinya and the other four companions, believing that he had abandoned his search and become undisciplined, left. After 49 days meditating, at the age of 35, he attained Enlightenment; according to some traditions, this occurred approximately in the fifth lunar month, and according to others in the twelfth. Gautama, from then on, was known as the Buddha or "Awakened One." Buddha is also sometimes translated as "The Enlightened One." Often, he is referred to in Buddhism as Shakyamuni Buddha or "The Awakened One of the Shakya Clan." For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... The Middle Way or Middle Path (Sanskrit Madhyama Marga, Pali Majjhima Magga) is the Buddhist philosophy expounded by Gautama Buddha. ... This article does not cite any sources. ... Sujata is a Sanskrit word meaning from a good family or bringer of luck. It is a common name for an Indian female, and may refer to: Sujata Bhatt, an Indian poet Sujata Madhok, an Indian activist Sujata Manohar, an Indian judge Sujata Massey, an English mystery writer Sujata Nahar... Binomial name Ficus religiosa L. The Sacred Fig Ficus religiosa, also known as Bo, Pipal (Peepul) or Ashwattha tree, is a species of banyan fig native to India, southwest China and Indochina east to Vietnam. ... The Bodhi Tree at the Mahabodhi Temple. ... , Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bodhi (बोधि) is the Pāli and Sanskrit word for the awakened or knowing consciousness of a fully liberated yogi, generally translated into English as enlightenment. It is an abstract noun formed from the verbal root budh (to awake, become aware, notice, know or understand), corresponding to the verbs bujjhati (P... Media:Example. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he...


At this point, he realized complete awakening and insight into the nature and cause of human suffering which was ignorance, along with steps necessary to eliminate it. These truths were then categorized into the Four Noble Truths; the state of supreme liberation—possible for any being—was called Nirvana. He then came to possess the Nine Characteristics, which are said to belong to every Buddha. The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Media:Example. ...


According to one of the stories in the Āyācana Sutta (Samyutta Nikaya VI.1), a scripture found in the Pāli and other canons, immediately after his Enlightenment, the Buddha was wondering whether or not he should teach the Dharma to human beings. He was concerned that, as human beings were overpowered by greed, hatred and delusion, they would not be able to see the true dharma, which was subtle, deep and hard to understand. However, a divine spirit, Brahmā Sahampati, interceded and asked that he teach the dharma to the world, as "there will be those who will understand the Dharma". With his great compassion to all beings in the universe, the Buddha agreed to become a teacher. Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fÇŽ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... A Brahmā in Buddhism is the generic name for a type of exalted, passionless deity (deva), of which there are a very large number in Buddhist cosmology. ...


Formation of the sangha

Painting of the first sermon depicted at Wat Chedi Liem in Thailand.
Painting of the first sermon depicted at Wat Chedi Liem in Thailand.

After becoming enlightened, two merchants whom the Buddha met, named Tapussa and Bhallika became the first lay disciples. They are given some hairs from the Buddha's head, which are believed to now be enshrined in the Shwe Dagon Temple in Rangoon, Burma. The Buddha intended to visit Asita, and his former teachers, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta to explain his findings, but they had already died. Download high resolution version (475x640, 92 KB)Photo of painting of Gautama Buddhas first sermon at the Deer Park taken by user:KayEss The picture is at Wat Chedi Liem. ... Download high resolution version (475x640, 92 KB)Photo of painting of Gautama Buddhas first sermon at the Deer Park taken by user:KayEss The picture is at Wat Chedi Liem. ... The main hall (bot) of the temple Wat Chedi Liem (originally Wat Kuu Kham) is one of the wats in the ancient Thai city of Wiang Kum Kam, now part of present day Chiang Mai. ... Shwedagon Paya The Shwedagon Paya (Burmese: ) is a 98 meter gilded stupa located in Yangon, Myanmar. ... Yangôn, formerly Rangoon, population 4,504,000 (2001), is the capital of Myanmar. ...


The Buddha thus journeyed to Deer Park near Vārāṇasī (Benares) in northern India, he set in motion the Wheel of Dharma by delivering his first sermon to the group of five companions with whom he had previously sought enlightenment. They, together with the Buddha, formed the first saṅgha, the company of Buddhist monks, and hence, the first formation of Triple Gem (Buddha, Dharma and Sangha) was completed, with Kaundinya becoming the first stream-enterer. All five soon become arahants, and with the conversion of Yasa and fifty four of his friends, the number of arahants swelled to 60 within the first two months. The conversion of the three Kassapa brothers and their 200, 300 and 500 disciples swelled the sangha over 1000, and they were dispatched to explain the dharma to the populace. , VārāasÄ« ( , Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras ( , Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi ( , Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... Media:Example. ... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fÇŽ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Buddhism, a sotapanna (Pali, Sanskrit: srotapanna) (or sotapatti), a stream-enterer or stream-winner, is a partially-enlightened person, who has eradicated the first three fetters of the mind, that prevent freedom. ... Yassa, alternatively Yasa, was the written code of law created by Genghis Khan It was in force in the Mongol empire. ...


Ministry

For the remaining 45 years of his life, the Buddha is said to have traveled in the Gangetic Plain, in what is now Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and southern Nepal, teaching his doctrine and discipline to an extremely diverse range of people— from nobles to outcaste street sweepers, mass murderers such as Angulimala and cannibals such as Alavaka. This extended to many adherents of rival philosophies and religions. The Buddha founded the community of Buddhist monks and nuns (the Sangha) to continue the dispensation after his Parinirvāna (Pāli: Parinibbāna) or "complete Nirvāna", and made thousands of converts. His religion was open to all races and classes and had no caste structure. He was also subject to attack from opposition religious groups, including attempted murders and framings. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India and parts of Pakistan. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... In South Asias caste system, a Dalit (formerly known as untouchable or achuta) is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Angulimala chases Gautama Buddha Angulimala (Pāli: The wearer of Garland of fingers) is an important early figure in Buddhism, particularly within the Theravada school. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... The death of the Buddha, or Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara 2-3rd century. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, // 1555, a race of men, from L. casto chaste, from castus pure, cut off, separated, pp. ...


The sangha travelled from place to place in India, expounding the dharma. This occurred throughout the year, except during the four months of the vassana rainy season. Due to the heavy amount of flooding, travelling was difficult, and ascetics of all religions in that time did not travel, since it was more difficult to do so without stepping on submerged animal life, unwittingly killing them. During this period, the sangha would retreat to a monastery, public park or a forest and people would come to them.


The first vassana was spent at Varanasi when the sangha was first formed. After this, he travelled to Rajagaha, the capital of Magadha to visit King Bimbisara, in accordance with his promise after enlightenment. It was during this visit that Sariputta and Mahamoggallana were converted by Assaji, one of the first five disciples; they were to become the Buddha's two foremost disciples. The Buddha then spent the next three seasons at Veluvana Bamboo Grove monastery in Rajagaha, the capital of Magadha. The monastery, which was of a moderate distance from the city centre was donated by Bimbisara. , Vārāasī ( , Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras ( , Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi ( , Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Rajgir is an ancient town, and has reference in Mahabharata,Buddhist and Jain texts. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Bimbisara (ruled 544-491 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire. ... Śāriputra (Pali: Sariputta; Chinese: 舍利弗) was the one of the disciples of the Buddha, an arhat who was renowned for his wisdom. ... This article incorporates text from the Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G. P. Malalasekera, a publication now in the public domain. ... Assaji (Pali:Assaji, Sanskrit:Asvajit) was one of the first five arahants of Gautama Buddha. ... Rajgir is an ancient town, and has reference in Mahabharata,Buddhist and Jain texts. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ...


Upon hearing of the enlightenment, Suddhodana dispatched royal delegations to ask the Buddha to return to Kapilavastu. Nine delegations were sent in all, but the delegates joined the sangha and became arahants. Neglecting worldly matters, they did not convey their message. The tenth delegation, lead by Kaludayi, a childhood friend, resulted in the message being successfully conveyed as well as becoming an arahant. Since it was not the vassana, the Buddha agreed, and two years after his enlightenment, took a two month journey to Kapilavastu by foot, preaching the dharma along the way. Upon his return, the royal palace had prepared the midday meal, but since no specific invitation had come, the sangha went for an alms round in Kapilavastu. Hearing this, Suddhodana hastened to approach the Buddha, stating "Ours is the warrior lineage of Mahamassata, and not a single warrior has gone seeking alms", to which the Buddha replied Kapilvastu, formerly Taulihawa (or, Kapilbastu Kapilvastu District or Tilaurakot), aprox. ...

That is not the custom of your royal lineage. But it is the custom of my Buddha lineage. Several thousands of Buddhas have gone by seeking alms
Statue of Gautama Buddha

Suddhodana invited the sangha back to the royal palace for the meal, followed by a dharma talk, after which he became a sotapanna. During the visit, many members of the royal family joined the sangha. His cousins Ananda and Anuruddha were to become two of his five chief disciples. His son Rahula also joined the sangha at the age of seven, and was one of the ten chief disciples. His half-brother Nanda also joined the sangha and became an arahant. Another cousin Devadatta also became a monk although he later became an enemy and tried to kill the Buddha on multiple occasions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Gautama Buddha Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Gautama Buddha Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... In Buddhism, a sotapanna (Pali, Sanskrit: srotapanna) (or sotapatti), a stream-enterer or stream-winner, is a partially-enlightened person, who has eradicated the first three fetters of the mind, that prevent freedom. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... For Paulina Rubio album of the same title, see Ananda (album). ... Anuruddha was one of the five chief disciples and a cousin of Gautama Buddha. ... Rahula (534 BC-?; Chinese: 羅侯羅) is generally accepted to be the name of the son of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... Nanda Dynasty, ruled Eastern India in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE Nanda (mythology), in Hinduism, a peasant and foster-father of Krishna Nanda (Buddhism), half-brother of the Buddha NANDA, North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Nanjing University, colloquially called Nanda (pinyin Nándà, Chinese characters 南大) Nanda, a Jat and... Devadatta was a Buddhist monk recorded as having attempted to create a schism in the sangha, or monastic community, by putting forward a modified set of rules (vinaya) for monks to follow. ...


Of his disciples, Sariputta, Mahamoggallana, Mahakasyapa, Ananda and Anuruddha comprised the five chief disciples. His ten foremost disciples were completed by the quintet of Upali, Subhoti, Rahula, Mahakaccana and Punna. Śāriputra (Pali: Sariputta; Chinese: 舍利弗) was the one of the disciples of the Buddha, an arhat who was renowned for his wisdom. ... This article incorporates text from the Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G. P. Malalasekera, a publication now in the public domain. ... This article is about Maha Kashyapa, a disciple of Shakyamuni Buddha. ... For Paulina Rubio album of the same title, see Ananda (album). ... Anuruddha was one of the five chief disciples and a cousin of Gautama Buddha. ... Upali (Sanskrit उपालि upāli) was a monk, one of the ten chief disciples of the Buddha. ... Subhuti ( from Sanskrit: su good, bhūti existence) was one of the Buddha Shakyamunis Ten Major Disciples, a contemporary of such famous arhats as Sariputra, Mahakasyapa, Maudgalyayana, and Vimalakirti. ... Rahula (534 BC-?; Chinese: 羅侯羅) is generally accepted to be the name of the son of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... In the Hindu and Jain theory of Karma, Punya is merit that accumulates as a result of good deeds, acts or thoughts and that carries over to later in life or to a persons next birth. ...


In the fifth vassana, the Buddha was staying at Mahavana near Vesali. Hearing of the impending death of Suddhodana, the Buddha went to his father and preached the dharma, and Suddhodana became an arahant prior to death. The death and cremation led to the creation of the order of nuns. Buddhist texts record that he was reluctant to ordain women as nuns. His foster mother Maha Pajapati approached him asking to join the sangha, but the Buddha refused, and began the journey from Kapilavastu back to Rajagaha. Maha Pajapati was so intent on renouncing the world that she lead a group of royal Sakyan and Koliyan ladies, following the sangha to Rajagaha. The Buddha eventually accepted them five years after the formation of the Sangha on the grounds that their capacity for enlightenment was equal to that of men, but he gave them certain additional rules (Vinaya) to follow. This occurred after Ananda interceded on their behalf. Yasodhara also became a nun, with both becoming arahants. Vaishali can refer to: Vaishali District, in Bihar state, India. ... Mahapajapati Gotami (in Pali; Mahaprajapati Gautami in Sanskrit) was the first woman to request ordination from the Buddha and to join the Sangha. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... For Paulina Rubio album of the same title, see Ananda (album). ... Yashodhara was the wife and cousin of Buddha. ... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (also arahat or arahant; Chinese: 阿羅漢, aluohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ...


During his ministry, Devadatta (who was not an arahant) frequently tried to undermine the Buddha. At one point Devadatta asked the Buddha to stand aside to let him lead the sangha. The Buddha declined, and stated that Devadatta's actions did not reflect on the Triple Gem, but on him alone. Devadatta conspired with Prince Ajatasattu, son of Bimbisara, so that they would kill and usurp the Buddha and Bimbisara respectively. Devadatta attempted three times to kill the Buddha. The first attempt involved the hiring of a group of archers, whom upon meeting the Buddha became disciples. A second attempt followed when Devadatta attempted to roll a large boulder down a hill. It hit another rock and splintered, only grazing the Buddha in the foot. A final attempt by plying an elephant with alcohol and setting it loose again failed. Failing this, Devadatta attempted to cause a schism in the sangha, by proposing extra restrictions on the vinaya. When the Buddha declined, Devadatta started a breakaway order, criticising the Buddha's laxity. At first, he managed to convert some of the bhikkhus, but Sariputta and Mahamoggallana expounded the dharma to them and succeeded in winning them back. Devadatta was a Buddhist monk recorded as having attempted to create a schism in the sangha, or monastic community, by putting forward a modified set of rules (vinaya) for monks to follow. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... Ajātashatru (Sanskrit अजातशत्रु; ruled 491-461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India. ... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ...


When the Buddha reached the age of 55, he made Ananda his chief attendant.


The Great Passing

Buddha's entry into Parinirvana.
Buddha's entry into Parinirvana.

According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Pali canon, at the age of 80, the Buddha announced that he would soon enter Parinirvana or the final deathless state abandoning the earthly body. After this, the Buddha ate his last meal, which, according to different translations, was either a mushroom delicacy or soft pork, which he had received as an offering from a blacksmith named Cunda. Falling violently ill, Buddha instructed his attendant Ānanda to convince Cunda that the meal eaten at his place had nothing to do with his passing and that his meal would be a source of the greatest merit as it provided the last almsmeal for a Buddha. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1407x1383, 603 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gautama Buddha ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1407x1383, 603 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gautama Buddha ... The death of the Buddha, or Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara 2-3rd century. ... For the Mahāparinirvāṇa SÅ«tra, a text of East Asian Mahayana Buddhism, see Nirvana Sutra. ... The death of the Buddha, or Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara 2-3rd century. ... In Buddhism, Cunda was a blacksmith who gave the Buddha either mushrooms or pork to eat. ... For Paulina Rubio album of the same title, see Ananda (album). ... In Buddhism, Cunda was a blacksmith who gave the Buddha either mushrooms or pork to eat. ...


Ananda protested Buddha's decision to enter Parinirvana in the abandoned jungles of Kuśināra (Pāli: Kusināra) of the Mallas. Buddha, however, reminded Ananda how Kushinara was a land once ruled by a righteous wheel-turning king that resounded with joy: Kushinagar or Kusinagar (26. ... The Malla are frequently mentioned in Buddhist and Jain works. ...

44. Kusavati, Ananda, resounded unceasingly day and night with ten sounds -- the trumpeting of elephants, the neighing of horses, the rattling of chariots, the beating of drums and tabours, music and song, cheers, the clapping of hands, and cries of "Eat, drink, and be merry!"
The sharing of the relics of the Buddha.

Buddha then asked all the attendant Bhikshus to clarify any doubts or questions they had. They had none. He then finally entered Parinirvana. The Buddha's final words were, "All composite things pass away. Strive for your own salvation with diligence." The Buddha's body was cremated and the relics were placed in monuments or stupas, some of which are believed to have survived until the present. For example, The Temple of the Tooth or "Dalada Maligawa" in Sri Lanka is the place where the relic of the right tooth of Buddha is kept at present. Download high resolution version (1586x945, 866 KB)The end of ascetism (Buddha). ... Download high resolution version (1586x945, 866 KB)The end of ascetism (Buddha). ... Categories: Buddhism-related stubs | Buddhist terms ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... The Sri Dalada Maligawa or The Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a temple in the city of Kandy in Sri Lanka. ... The Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy, Sri Lanka The tooth sanctuary The Sacred Relic of the tooth of the Buddha is venerated in Sri Lanka as a relic of the founder of Buddhism. ...


According to the Pāli historical chronicles of Sri Lanka, the Dīpavaṃsa and Mahāvaṃsa, the coronation of Aśoka (Pāli: Asoka) is 218 years after the death of Buddha. According to one Mahayana record in Chinese (十八部論 and 部執異論), the coronation of Aśoka is 116 years after the death of Buddha. Therefore, the time of Buddha's passing is either 486 BCE according to Theravāda record or 383 BCE according to Mahayana record. However, the actual date traditionally accepted as the date of the Buddha's death in Theravāda countries is 544 or 543 BCE, because the reign of Aśoka was traditionally reckoned to be about 60 years earlier than current estimates. The Dipavamsa (Island Chronicle in Pali) is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka, believed to be compiled in the 4th century. ... Mahavansa The Mahavansa (or Mahavamsa - Great Chronicle) was written in the 5th century CE and records the history of Sri Lanka after it became a Buddhist country in the 3rd century BCE. External links Online text of the Mahavansa ... Ashoka redirects here. ...

Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Musée Guimet.
Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Musée Guimet.

At his death, the Buddha told his disciples to follow no leader, but to follow his teachings (dharma). However, at the First Buddhist Council, Mahakasyapa was held by the sangha as their leader, with the two chief disciples Mahamoggallana and Sariputta having died before the Buddha. Download high resolution version (548x786, 126 KB)Gandhara Buddha. ... Download high resolution version (548x786, 126 KB)Gandhara Buddha. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Guimet in his museum. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka King Ajatasattu sponsored the First Buddhist council. ... This article is about Maha Kashyapa, a disciple of Shakyamuni Buddha. ... This article incorporates text from the Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G. P. Malalasekera, a publication now in the public domain. ... Śāriputra (Pali: Sariputta; Chinese: 舍利弗) was the one of the disciples of the Buddha, an arhat who was renowned for his wisdom. ...


Physical characteristics

Buddha is perhaps one of the few sages for whom we have mention of his rather impressive physical characteristics. A kshatriya by birth, he had military training in his upbringing, and by Shakyan tradition was required to pass tests to demonstrate his worthiness as a warrior in order to marry. He had a strong enough body to be noticed by one of the kings and was asked to join his army as a general. He is also believed by Buddhists to have "the 32 Signs of the Great Man". One of the first representations of the Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Greco-Buddhist art, Gandhara. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Thirty-two marks of the Buddha are mentioned in the Lakkhana Sutta and are very cultural in origin. ...


The Brahmin Sonadanda described him as "handsome, good-looking, and pleasing to the eye, with a most beautiful complexion. He has a godlike form and countenance, he is by no means unattractive."(D,I:115).


"It is wonderful, truly marvellous, how serene is the good Gotama's appearance, how clear and radiant his complexion, just as the golden jujube in autumn is clear and radiant, just as a palm-tree fruit just loosened from the stalk is clear and radiant, just as an adornment of red gold wrought in a crucible by a skilled goldsmith, deftly beaten and laid on a yellow-cloth shines, blazes and glitters, even so, the good Gotama's senses are calmed, his complexion is clear and radiant." (A,I:181)


A disciple named Vakkali, who later became an Arahant, was so obsessed by Buddha's physical presence that Buddha has to tell him to stop and reminded Vakkali to know Buddha through the Dhamma and not physical appearances.


Although the Buddha was not represented in human form until around the 1st century CE (see Buddhist art), his physical characteristics are described in one of the central texts of the traditional Pali canon, the Digha Nikaya. They help define the global aspect of the historical Buddha, his physical appearance is described by Yasodhara to his son Rahula upon Buddha's return in the scripture of the "Lion of Men". (Redirected from 1st century AD) (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Footprint of the Buddha. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... Yashodhara was the wife and cousin of Buddha. ... Rahula (534 BC-?; Chinese: 羅侯羅) is generally accepted to be the name of the son of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...


Teachings

Main article: Buddhist philosophy

"The original teachings of the historical Buddha are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to recover or reconstruct."[14] While there is disagreement amongst various Buddhist sects over more esoteric aspects of Buddha's teachings and over disciplinary rules for monks, there is generally agreement over these points, among many others: Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ...

  • The Four Noble Truths: that suffering is an inherent part of existence; that the origin of suffering is ignorance and the main symptoms of that ignorance are attachment and craving; that attachment and craving can be ceased; and that following the Noble Eightfold Path will lead to the cessation of attachment and craving and therefore suffering.
  • The Noble Eightfold Path: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.
  • The concept of dependent origination: that any phenomenon 'exists' only because of the ‘existence’ of other phenomena in a complex web of cause and effect covering time past, present and future. Because all things are thus conditioned and transient (anicca), they have no real independent identity (anatta).
  • Rejection of the infallibility of accepted scripture: Teachings should not be accepted unless they are borne out by our experience and are praised by the wise. See the Kalama Sutta for details.
  • Anicca (Sanskrit: anitya): That all things are impermanent.
  • Anatta (Sanskrit: anātman): That the perception of a constant "self" is an illusion.
  • Dukkha (Sanskrit: duḥkha): That all beings suffer from all situations due to unclear mind.

According to tradition, the Buddha emphasized ethics and correct understanding. He questioned the average person's notions of divinity and salvation. He stated that there is no intermediary between mankind and the divine; distant gods are subjected to karma themselves in decaying heavens; and the Buddha is solely a guide and teacher for the sentient beings who must tread the path of Nirvāṇa (Pāli: Nibbāna) themselves to attain the spiritual awakening called bodhi and see truth and reality as it is. The Buddhist system of insight and meditation practice is not believed to have been revealed divinely, but by the understanding of the true nature of the mind, which must be discovered by personally treading a spiritual path guided by the Buddha's teachings. The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aá¹­á¹­haá¹…giko maggo; Sanskrit: Ä€rya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuÉ£tan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aá¹­á¹­haá¹…giko maggo; Sanskrit: Ä€rya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuÉ£tan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in... The doctrine of PratÄ«tyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Impermanence (Sanskrit: anitya; Pali anicca; Tibetan: mi rtag pa; Chinese: 無常, wúcháng; Japanese: mujō) is one of the essential doctrines of Buddhism. ... In Buddhist philosophy, anatta (Pāli) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to non-self or absence of separate self[1]. One scholar describes it as ...meaning non-selfhood, the absence of limiting self-identity in people and things. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... The Kalama Sutta (Sanskrit: Kalama Sutra) is a Buddhist sutta in the Anguttara Nikaya of the Tipitaka. ... Impermanence (Sanskrit: anitya; Pali anicca; Tibetan: mi rtag pa; Chinese: 無常, wúcháng; Japanese: mujō) is one of the essential doctrines of Buddhism. ... In Buddhist philosophy, anatta (Pāli) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to non-self or absence of separate self[1]. One scholar describes it as ...meaning non-selfhood, the absence of limiting self-identity in people and things. ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Bodhi (बोधि) is the Pāli and Sanskrit word for the awakened or knowing consciousness of a fully liberated yogi, generally translated into English as enlightenment. It is an abstract noun formed from the verbal root budh (to awake, become aware, notice, know or understand), corresponding to the verbs bujjhati (P... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ...


Language

It is unknown what language the Buddha spoke, and no conclusive documentation has been made at this point. However, some modern scholars, primarily philologists, believe it is most likely that the Buddha spoke a vulgate then current in eastern India, Mâgadhî Prakrit. Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India after the decline of Sanskrit as an official language. ...


Buddha as viewed by other religions

Hinduism

Some Hindu traditions regard Buddha as the 9th avatar(incarnation) of Vishnu.
Some Hindu traditions regard Buddha as the 9th avatar(incarnation) of Vishnu.
Main article: Buddha from the Hindu perspective

Gautama Buddha is mentioned as an Avatar of Vishnu in the Puranic texts of Hinduism.[15] In the Bhagavata Purana he is twenty fourth of twenty five avatars, prefiguring a forthcoming final incarnation. A number of Hindu traditions portray Buddha as the most recent of ten principal avatars, known as the "Dasavatara" (Ten Incarnations of God). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Buddha giving the Sermon in the Deer Park, depicted at Wat Chedi Liem-KayEss Gautama Buddha is mentioned as an Avatar of Vishnu in the Puranic texts of Hinduism. ... The ten avatars of Vishnu, copyright BBT In Hindu philosophy, an avatar (also spelt as avatara) (Sanskrit: , ), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The ten avatars of Vishnu, copyright BBT In Hindu philosophy, an avatar (also spelt as avatara) (Sanskrit: , ), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth. ...


Siddhartha Gautama's teachings deny the authority of the Vedas and consequently [at least atheistic] Buddhism is generally viewed as a nāstika school (heterodox, literally "It is not so"[16]) from the perspective of orthodox Hinduism. Veda redirects here. ... Nastika is a Sanskrit term meaning: It is the antonym of astika, or one who asserts. ...


However, while He was against the authority of the Vedas, he might not have been against the Vedas themself. Buddhist scholar Rahula Vipola wrote that the Buddha was trying to shed the true meaning of the Vedas. Buddha is said to be a knower of the Veda (vedajña) or of the Vedanta (vedântajña) (Sa.myutta, i. 168) and (Sutta Nipâta, 463).


Taoism, Confucianism and Shinto

Some early Chinese Taoist-Buddhists thought Buddha to be a reincarnation of Lao Tzu born in the land of barbarians.[17] Taoism Taoism. ... Media:Example. ... Lao Zi (also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) was a famous Chinese philosopher who is believed to have lived in approximately the 4th century BC, during the Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Periods. ...


In Japan, since one of the symbols of Dainichi Nyorai (one of the non-historical buddhas of Mahayana Buddhism) was the sun, many equated Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess, with a previous reincarnation (bodhisattva) of Dainichi Nyorai. This article is about the primordial Buddha Vairocana. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ...


Islam

If you desire to see the most noble of mankind, look at the king in beggar's clothing; it is he whose sanctity is great among men.

—Abdul Atahiya, Arab Poet.[18]

The mission of the Buddha was quite unique in its character, and therefore it stands quite apart from the many other religions of the world. His mission was to bring the birds of idealism flying in the air nearer to the earth, because the food for their bodies belonged to the earth.

—Hazrat Inayat Khan.[19]

The Indian scholar Maulana Abul Kalam Azad proposed in a commentary on the Qur'an that Siddhartha Gautama is the prophet Dhū'l-Kifl referred to in Sura 21 and Sura 38 of the Qur'an together with the Biblical characters Ishmael, Idris (Enoch), and Elisha. Azad suggested that the Kifl in Dhū'l-Kifl (Ar: "possessor of a double portion") is an Arabic pronunciation of Kapilavastu, where the Buddha spent his early life.[20] Azad did not, however, provide direct historical evidence to support his speculation. According to other ancient Muslim scholars Dhū'l-Kifl was either a righteous man and not a prophet, or he was the prophet called Ezekiel in the Bible. Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (b. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Dhul-Kifl (Arabic ذو الكفل ) is considered by Muslims to be either a prophet of Islam or simply a righteous man mentioned in the Quran. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Idris (Arabic: إدريس ) is a Prophet in Islam. ... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... Not to be confused with Elishah. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Kapilvastu, formerly Taulihawa (or, Kapilbastu Kapilvastu District or Tilaurakot), aprox. ... Ezekiel (Hebrew: יחזקאל, ) is a prophet in the Hebrew Bible of the Book of Ezekiel. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Mirza Tahir Ahmad, in his book Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth, argues that Buddha was indeed a prophet of God who preached Monotheism. He quotes from the inscriptions on Ashoka's stupas which mention "Isa'na" which means God. He quotes, "'Thus spake Devanampiya Piyadasi: "Wherefore from this very hour, I have caused religious discourses to be preached, I have appointed religious observances that mankind, having listened thereto, shall be brought to follow in the right path, and give glory to God* (Is'ana)."[21] Mirza Tahir Ahmad (* 18 December 1928 in Qadian, † 19 April 2003 in London) was Khalifatul Masih IV., Head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. ... Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth is a book written by Mirza Tahir Ahmad, the head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community from 1982 to 2003. ...


In Afghanistan, the Islamic theocratic Taliban government destroyed a number of ancient Buddhist relics, most notably the Bamiyan Buddhas. The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... One of the Buddhas of Bamiyan as it stood in 1963 The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Persian: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamiyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of...


Christianity and Judaism

The Greek legend of "Barlaam and Ioasaph", sometimes mistakenly attributed to the 7th century John of Damascus but actually written by the Georgian monk Euthymios in the 11th century, was ultimately derived, through a variety of intermediate versions (Arabic and Georgian) from the life story of the Buddha. The king-turned-monk Ioasaph (Georgian Iodasaph, Arabic Yūdhasaf or Būdhasaf) ultimately derives his name from the Sanskrit Bodhisattva, the name used in Buddhist accounts for Gautama before he became a Buddha. Barlaam and Ioasaph were placed in the Greek Orthodox calendar of saints on 26 August, and in the West they were entered as "Barlaam and Josaphat" in the Roman Martyrology on the date of 27 November. Extent of Christianity, Buddhism, and international trade routes in the early 1st century CE. Christianity and Buddhism are two major religions that are compared and contrasted by scholars, with parallels between the two revolving around perceived similarities in the teachings and in the spiritual intent and practices. ... Saint Josaphat is said to have lived and died in the 3rd century or 4th century in India. ... John of Damascus (Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Arabic: Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Josaphat is said to have lived and died in the 3rd century or 4th century in India. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The story was translated into Hebrew in the Middle Ages as "Ben-Hamelekh Vehanazir" ("The Prince and the Nazirite"), and is widely read by Jews to this day. A nazirite or nazarite, (in Hebrew: נזיר, nazir), refers to a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in Numbers 6:1-21. ...


Bahá'í views

In Bahá'í Buddha is classified as one of the Manifestations of God which is a title for a major prophet in the Bahá'í faith. [22] The Baháí Faith refers to what are commonly called Prophets as Manifestations of God, or simply Manifestations (mazhar) who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. ...


See also

Statue of the Buddha calling the earth to witness, the most common representation of the Buddha. ... Buddha giving the Sermon in the Deer Park, depicted at Wat Chedi Liem-KayEss Gautama Buddha is mentioned as an Avatar of Vishnu in the Puranic texts of Hinduism. ... Media:Example. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... In most Theravada countries it is the custom for Buddhists to hold elaborate festivals to honor 28 Buddhas. ... In Buddhism, Maitreya Buddha is the future Buddha. ... One of the first representations of the Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Greco-Buddhist art, Gandhara. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.ancientindia.co.uk/buddha/home_set.html
  2. ^ The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article
  3. ^ Hans Wolfgang Schumann (2003). The Historical Buddha: The Times, Life, and Teachings of the Founder of Buddhism, p. xv. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 8120818172.
  4. ^ Alex Wayman (1993) Untying the Knots in Buddhism: Selected Essays, pp 37-58. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
  5. ^ Michael Carrithers, The Buddha, 1983, page 13. Found in Founders of Faith, Oxford University Press, 1986.
  6. ^ Carrithers, page 15.
  7. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 2006. Lumbini, the birthplace of the Lord Buddha. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=666. Accessed 17 November 2006.
  8. ^ Turpie, D. 2001. Wesak And The Re-Creation of Buddhist Tradition. Master's Thesis. Montreal, Quebec: McGill University. (p. 3). Available from: http://www.mrsp.mcgill.ca/reports/pdfs/Wesak.pdf. Accessed 17 November 2006.
  9. ^ Narada (1992), p11-12
  10. ^ Narada (1992), p14
  11. ^ Narada (1992), p14
  12. ^ Narada (1992), pp15-16
  13. ^ Narada (1992), pp19-20
  14. ^ Lopez, Buddhism in Practice, Princeton University Press, 1995, page 4
  15. ^ Bhagavata Purana, Canto 1, Chapter 3 - SB 1.3.24: "Then, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Lord will appear as Lord Buddha, the son of Anjana, in the province of Gaya, just for the purpose of deluding those who are envious of the faithful theist." ... SB 1.3.28: "All of the above-mentioned incarnations [avatars] are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord [Krishna or Vishnu]"
  16. ^ "in Sanskrit philosophical literature, 'āstika' means 'one who believes in the authority of the Vedas' or 'one who believes in life after death'. ('nāstika' means the opposite of these). The word is used here in the first sense." Satischandra Chatterjee and Dhirendramohan Datta. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Eighth Reprint Edition. (University of Calcutta: 1984). p. 5, footnote 1.
  17. ^ The Cambridge History of China, Vol.1, (The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 BC—220 BC) ISBN 0-521-24327-0 hardback
  18. ^ K. Sri Dhammananda, Buddhism in the Eyes of Intellectuals
  19. ^ Hazrat Inayat Khan, The Sufi Message. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 2003, ISBN 81-208-0609-3.
  20. ^ Introduction to Buddhism from an Islamic Viewpoint
  21. ^ [1]Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth, Mirza Tahir Ahmad, Chapter, Buddhism.
  22. ^ Hornby, Helen Bassett (1994). Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust (New Deli, India), p. 502 (#1684). ISBN 8185091463

Motilal Banarsidass is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903 located in Delhi, India. ...

Further reading

  • Armstrong, Karen. Buddha. (New York: Penguin Books, 2001).
  • Bechert, Heinz (ed.) (1996) When Did the Buddha Live? The Controversy on the Dating of the Historical Buddha. Delhi: Sri Satguru.
  • Sathe, Shriram: Dates of the Buddha. Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti, Hyderabad 1987.

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Persondata
NAME Gautama Buddha
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Siddhārtha Gautama (birth name); Siddhattha Gotama (Pali); Śākya-muni (honorific); Sakyamuni (honorific); Tathāgata (honorific)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Founder of Buddhism
DATE OF BIRTH c. 563 BCE
PLACE OF BIRTH Lumbini, Nepal
DATE OF DEATH c. 483 BCE
PLACE OF DEATH Kusinagara, India

A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel... The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... Buddhism - Percentage by country The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas sorted by location. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The ten avatars of Vishnu, copyright BBT In Hindu philosophy, an avatar (also spelt as avatara) (Sanskrit: , ), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Incarnation of Vishnu as a Fish, from a devotional text. ... A carving of the Kurma avatar on a pillar at the Vittala Temple, Hampi, India Kurma is also an alternative transliteration of korma. ... Varaha is the third avatar of Vishnu, a boar sent to defeat Hiranyaksha, a demon who had taken the Earth (prthivi) and carried it to the bottom of what is described as the cosmic ocean in the story. ... Yoga Narasimha form at a temple in Vijayanagara, Hampi, India (man-lion) (also spelt as Narasingh, Narasinga) (नरसिंह in Devanagari) is described as the fourteenth incarnation (avatara) of Vishnu within the Puranic texts of Hinduism [1] who takes the form of half-man / half-lion, having a human torso and lower... In Hinduism, Vamana is the fifth avatar of Vishnu, a dwarf. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Bhargava Rama (Discuss) Parashurama Bhargava (Sanskrit: परशुराम भार्गव) or Parasurama (Axe-wielding Rama) is the Sixth avatar of Vishnu, belongs to the Treta yuga, and is the son of Jamadagni & Renuka. ... Rama ( in IAST, in Devanāgarī) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Balarama, next to the river Yamuna. ... In Hindu traditions, Kalki (Sanskrit: कल्कि; also rendered by some as Kalkin and Kalaki) is the tenth and final Maha Avatara (great incarnation) of Vishnu the Preserver, who will come to end the Kali Yuga, (The Age of Darkness and Destruction). ... Image File history File links HinduSwastika. ... Lumbini(27° 28 60N, 83° 16 60E) (Sanskrit: , the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar is a town and a nagar panchayat in Kushinagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gautama Buddha - Indian History (350 words)
Siddhartha Gautama was a prince who lived in the kingdom of Sakyas, near the present day border of India and Nepal, more than 2500 years ago.
Gautama Buddha laid emphasis on non-violence and compassion in his teachings.
Gautama Buddha used Pali, the language of the people, to preach.
Gautama Buddha (889 words)
Gautama Buddha was an Indian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BC and 483 BC.
Explained by Gautama Buddha, he also stated that there is no intermediary between mankind and the divine; distant gods and God are subjected to karma themselves in decaying heavens.
Gautama Siddharta was reported to have been athletic and fit throughout his life, competent in martial arts such as chariot combat, wrestling, and archery, and later easily hiking miles each day and camping in the wilderness.
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