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Encyclopedia > Gaulish language
Gaulish
Spoken in: Gaul
Language extinction: After 6th century AD
Language family: Indo-European
 Celtic
  Continental Celtic
   Gaulish
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: cel
ISO 639-3: variously:
xtg — Transalpine Gaulish
xcg — Cisalpine Gaulish
xlp — Lepontic
xga — Galatian

Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. The language is known from several hundred inscriptions on stone, on ceramic vessels and other artifacts, and on coins, and occasionally on metal (lead, and on one occasion zinc). They are found in the entire area of Roman Gaul, i.e., mostly in the area of the west of France, as well as parts of Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and Belgium (Meid 1994). Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... An extinct language (also called a dead language) is a language which no longer has any native speakers. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (now Turkey). ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the European people. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffiti at Pompeii, was the way that ordinary people of the Roman Empire spoke, which was different from the Classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see Pb. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


Gaulish is paraphyletically grouped with Celtiberian, Lepontic, and Galatian as Continental Celtic. Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken in Galatia in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to the 4th century AD. Of the language only a few glosses and brief comments in classical writers and scattered names on inscriptions survive. ... The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ...

Contents

History

The earliest Continental Celtic inscriptions, dating to as early as the 6th century BC, are in Lepontic (sometimes considered a dialect of Gaulish), found in Gallia Cisalpina and were written in a form of the Old Italic alphabet. Inscriptions in the Greek alphabet from the 3rd century BC have been found in the area near the mouths of the Rhône, while later inscriptions dating to Roman Gaul are mostly in the Latin alphabet. Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Province of the Roman Republic, in modern-day northern Italy. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. // The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in Teotihuacán Early 3rd century BC or later - Theater, Epidauros is built. ... The Rhônes course. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Gregory of Tours wrote in the 6th century that some people in his area could still speak Gaulish. Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ...


Phonology

  • vowels:
    • short: a, e, i, o u
    • long: ā, ē, ī, (ō), ū
    • diphthongs: ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou
  • semivowels: w, y
  • occlusives:
    • voiceless: p, t, k
    • voiced: b, d, g
  • resonants
    • nasals: m, n
    • liquids r, l
  • sibilant: s
  • affricate: ts

[χ] is an allophone of /k/ before /t/.


The diphthongs all transformed over the course of the historical period. Ai and oi collapsed into long ī; eu merged with ou, both becoming long ō. Ei became long ē early on. In general, long diphthongs became short diphthongs and then collapsed into long vowels.


Other transformations include the transformation of unstressed i into e. Ln became ll, a stop + s became ss, and a nasal + velar became /ng/ + velar.


Orthography

RIG G-172 inscription ϹΕΓΟΜΑΡΟϹ ΟΥΙΛΛΟΝΕΟϹ ΤΟΟΥΤΙΟΥϹ ΝΑΜΑΥϹΑΤΙϹ ΕΙωΡΟΥ ΒΗΛΗ ϹΑΜΙ ϹΟϹΙΝ ΝΕΜΗΤΟΝ "Segomaros, son of Uillo, toutious (tribe leader) of Namausos, dedicated this sanctuary to Belesama"

The alphabet of Lugano used in Gallia Cisalpina for Lepontic: Image File history File links moved from commons since there were doubts if an inscription on a stone slab qualifies as 2D or art. http://titus. ... Image File history File links moved from commons since there were doubts if an inscription on a stone slab qualifies as 2D or art. http://titus. ... Lugano is a city in southeast Switzerland, in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, which borders Italy. ... Province of the Roman Republic, in modern-day northern Italy. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ...

AEIKLMNOPRSTΘUVXZ

The alphabet of Lugano does not distinguish voiced and unvoiced occlusives, i.e. P represents /b/ or /p/, T is for /d/ or /t/, K for /g/ or /k/. Z is probably for /ts/. U /u/ and V /w/ are distinguished only in one early inscription. Θ is probably for /t/ and X for /g/ (Lejeune 1971, Solinas 1985). A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ...


The Eastern Greek alphabet used in southern Gallia Transalpina: The History of the Greek alphabet starts with the adoption of Phoenician letterforms and continues to the present day. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Provence in southern France. ...

αβγδεζηθικλμνξοπρστυχω

χ is used for [χ], θ for /ts/, ου for /u/, /ū/, /w/, η and ω for both long and short /e/, /ē/ and /o/, /ō/, while ι is for short /i/ and ει for /ī/. Note that the Sigma in the Eastern Greek alphabet looks like a C (lunate sigma). All Greek letters were used except phi and psi. Sigma (upper case Σ, lower case σ, alternative ς) is the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Psi has multiple meanings: Psi (letter) (Ψ, ψ) of the Greek alphabet Psi (Cyrillic) (Ñ°, ѱ), letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, adopted from Greek Psi (parapsychology) Psi (instant messaging client), a popular Jabber client program J/ψ particle, a subatomic particle Wavefunction in Quantum Mechanics, ψ In mathematics, Ψ is used to denote the angle between...


Latin alphabet (monumental and cursive) in use in Roman Gaul: Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ...

ABCDÐEFGHIKLMNOPQRSTUVXZ
abcdðefghiklmnopqrstuvxz

G and K are sometimes used interchangeably (especially after R). Ð/ð, ds and s may represent /ts/. X, x is for [χ] or /ks/. Q is only used rarely (e.g. Sequanni, Equos) and may represent an archaism (a retained *kw). Ð and ð are used here to represent the letter Tau Gallicum (the Gaulish dental affricate), which has not yet been added to Unicode. In contrast to the glyph for Ð, the central bar extends right across the glyph and also does not protrude outside it. variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ...


Sound laws

  • Gaulish changed PIE voiceless labiovelars kw to p (hence P-Celtic), a development also observed in Brythonic (as well as Greek and some Italic languages), while the other Celtic, 'Q-Celtic', retained the labiovelar. Thus the Gaulish word for "son" was mapos (Delmarre 2003: 216-217), contrasting with Primitive Irish maqi, which became mac in modern Irish. In modern Welsh the word map (mab) (or its contracted form ap(ab)) is used to mean "son of". Similarly one Gaulish word for "horse" was epos while Old Irish has ech; all derived from Indo-European *eqos (Delmarre 2003: 163-164)
  • Voiced labiovelar gw became w, e. g. gwediūmi > uediiumi "I pray" (cf. Old Irish guidiu "I pray", Welsh gweddi "to pray").
  • PIE tst became /ts/, spelled ð, e.g. *nedz-tamo > neððamon (cf. Old Irish nessam "nearest", Welsh nesaf "next").
  • PIE ew became ow, and later ō, e.g. *teutā > touta > tōta "tribe" (cf. Old Irish tuath, Welsh tud "people").

The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A labiovelar consonant is a consonant made with two blockages, one at the lips (labial) and the other at the soft palate (velar). ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Primitive Irish is the oldest known form of the Irish language, known only from fragments, mostly personal names, inscribed on stone in the Ogham alphabet in Ireland and western Britain up to about the 6th century. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be, more or less, fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ...

Morphology

There was some areal (or genetic, see Italo-Celtic) similarity to Latin grammar, and the French historian A. Lot argued that this helped the rapid adoption of Latin in Roman Gaul. Italo-Celtic refers to the hypothesis that the Italic languages and the Celtic languages are descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Italo-Celtic, making them genetically related more closely than to any other language outside that group. ...


Noun Cases

Gaulish has six or seven cases (Lambert 2003 pp.51-67). In common with Latin it has nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, and dative; where Latin has an ablative, Gaulish has an instrumental and may also have a locative. There is more evidence for common cases (nominative and accusative) and for common stems (-o- and -a- stems) than there is for cases less frequently used in inscriptions, or rarer stems such as -i-, -n- and occlusive. The following table summarizes the case endings which are most securely known. A blank means that the form is unattested. In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The vocative case (also called the fifth case) is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Possessive case. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... In linguistics, ablative case (also called the sixth case) (abbreviated ABL) is a name given to cases in various languages whose common thread is that they mark motion away from something, though the details in each language may differ. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ...

Singular
Case ā-stem o-stem i-stem u-stem r-stem
Nominative tōtā mapos vātis dorus brātīr
Vocative tōta mape vāti doru
Accusative tōtan, tōten mapon vātin *dorun brāterem
Genitive tōtas mapī vātes dorous brāteros
Dative tōtai mapūi > mapū vāte dorou brāteri
Instrumental tōtia mapu
Locative mape
Plural
Case ā-stem o-stem i-stem u-stem r-stem
Nominative tōtas mapoi > mapī vātes doroues brāteres
Vocative mapūs
Accusative tōtās mapūs vātīs doruās brāteras
Genitive tōtanom mapon vātion doruon brāteron
Dative tōtabo mapobo *vātibo doruebo brāterebo
Instrumental mapobi brāterebi

In some cases a historical evolution is known, for example the dative singular of -a- stems is -ai in the oldest inscriptions, becoming first -e and finally -i.


Numerals

Ordinal numerals from the La Graufesenque graffiti La Graufesenque is an archaological site 2km from Millau, Aveyron, France at the junction of the Tarn and Dourbie rivers. ... Graffiti (strictly, as singular, graffito, from the Italian — graffiti being the plural) are images or letters applied without permission to publicly viewable surfaces such as walls or bridges. ...

  1. cintus, cintuxos (Welsh cynt "before, in front", Breton kent "in front", Old Irish céta, Modern Irish céad "first")
  2. allos (Welsh ail, Breton eil, OIr aile 'other', Modern Irish eile)
  3. tritios (Welsh trydydd, Breton trede, OIr treide, Modern Irish treas)
  4. petuarios (Welsh pedwerydd, Breton pevare, OIr cethramad)
  5. pinpetos (Welsh pumed, Breton pempet, OIr cóiced)
  6. suexos (maybe mistaken for suextos, Welsh chweched, Breton c'hwec'hved, OIr seissed)
  7. sextametos (Welsh seithfed, Breton seizhved, OIr sechtmad)
  8. oxtumetos (Welsh wythfed, Breton eizhved, OIr ochtmad)
  9. nametos (Welsh nawfed, Breton naved, OIr nómad)
  10. decametos, decometos (Welsh degfed, Breton degvet, OIr dechmad, Celtiberian dekametam)

The ancient Gaulish language was closer to Latin than modern Gaelic languages are to modern Romance languages. The ordinal numerals in Latin are prímus, secundus/alter, tertius, quártus, quíntus, sextus, septimus, octávus, nónus, decimus. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Syntax

Word Order

The majority of Gaulish sentences are SVO (subject-verb-object). However, other surface variations are attested: verb-initial, verb-medial, and verb-final. Verb-initial sentences can nonetheless be evaluated as pro-drop or imperative. Gaulish was certainly not a verb-second language, as evidenced by:

  • ratin briuatiom frontu tarbetisonios ie(i)uru
  • NP.Acc.Sg. NP.Nom.Sg. V.3rd Sg.
    • "F.T. dedicated the board of the bridge."

Whenever a clitic pronominal object is present, it must be syntactically hosted (i.e., adjacent) to the verb, as per Vendryes' Restriction. Since Wackernagel's Law was strongly grammaticalized in Celtic, this had the effect of ensuring that the verb occupied clause-initial position. In such cases, the verb occupies absolute initial position in the clause or is preceded only by a null-position, semantically empty, sentential connective, the original purpose of which was to host the clitic phonologically.

  • sioxt-i albanos panna(s) extra tuð(on) CCC
  • V-Pro.Neut. NP.Nom.Sg. NP.Fem.Acc.Pl. PP Num.
    • "A. added them, vessels beyond the allotment (in the amount of) 300."
  • to-me-declai obalda natina
  • Conn.-Pro.1st Sg.Acc.-V.3rd.Sg. NP.Nom.Sg.
    • O., (their) dear daughter, set me up."

Vendryes' Restriction is believed to have played a large role in the development of Insular Celtic VSO word order.


Considering that Gaulish is not a verb-final language, it is not surprising to find other head-intitial features.

  • Genitives follow their head nouns
    • atom teuoxtonion
      • "The border of gods and men."
  • The unmarked position for adjectives is after their head nouns
    • toutious namausatis
      • "citizen of Nîmes"
  • Prepositional phrases are headed by the preposition
    • in alixie
      • "in Alisia"
  • Passive clauses
    • uatiounui so nemetos commu escengilu
      • "To U. this shrine (was dedicated) by C.E.

Subordination

Subordinate clauses follow their head and are characterized by the presence of an uninflected particle (jo) which is attached to the initial verb of the subordinate clause.

  • godedbi dugijonti-jo ucuetin in alisija
  • NP.Dat/Inst.Pl. V.3rd.Pl.-Pcl. NP.Acc.Sg. PP
    • "to the smiths who serve U. in Alisia"

This particle is used in relative clauses and to construct the equivalent of THAT-clauses

  • scrisu-mi-jo uelor
  • V.1st.Sg.-Pro.1st Sg.-Pcl. V.1st Sg.
    • "I wish that I spit"

Clitics

Gaulish has a number of clitic pronominals, such as the object pronominals:

  • to-so-ko-te
  • Conn.-Pro.3rd Sg.Acc-PerfVZ-V.3rd Sg
    • "he gave it"

Subject pronominals also exist: mi, tu, id, which function like the emphasizing particles known as notae augentes in the Insular Celtic languages.

  • dessu=mii=iis
  • V.1st.Sg.=Emph.-Pcl.1st Sg.Nom.=Pro.3rd Pl.Acc.
    • "I prepare them"
  • buet-id
  • V.3rd Sg.Pres.Subjunc.-Emph.Pcl.3rd Sg.Nom.Neut.
    • "it should be"

Clitic doubling is also found (along with left dislocation), where a neuter pronominal doubles an instrinsically inanimate but grammatically animate nominal, a construction which is also attested in Old Irish.


Corpus

The Gaulish corpus is edited in the Recueil des Inscriptions Gauloises (R.I.G.), in four volumes:

  • Vol. 1: Inscriptions in the Greek alphabet, edited by Michel Lejeune (items G-1 –G-281)
  • Vol. 2.1: Inscriptions in the Etruscan alphabet (Lepontic, items E-1 – E-6), and inscriptions in the Latin alphabet in stone (items l. 1 – l. 16), edited by Michel Lejeune
  • Vol. 2.2: inscriptions in the Latin alphabet on instruments (ceramic, lead, glass etc.), edited by Pierre-Yves Lambert (items l. 18 – l. 139)
  • Vol. 3: The calendars of Coligny (73 fragments) and Villards d'Heria (8 fragments), edited by Paul-Marie Duval and Georges Pinault
  • Vol. 4: inscriptions on coins, edited by Jean-Baptiste Colbert de Beaulieu and Brigitte Fischer (338 items)

The longest known Gaulish text was found in 1983 in L'Hospitalet-du-Larzac ( 43°58′N, 3°12′E) in Aveyron. It is inscribed in Latin cursive script on two small sheets of lead. The content is a magical incantation, probably a curse (defixio), regarding one Severa Tertionicna and a group of women (often thought to be a rival group of witches), but the exact meaning of the text remains unclear. The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... Old Italic refers to a number of related historical alphabets used on the Italian peninsula which were used for some non-Indo-European languages (Etruscan and probably North Picene), various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch (Faliscan and members of the Sabellian group, including Oscan, Umbrian, and South... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... overview of the re-assembled tablet detail of Mid Samonios The Gaulish Coligny Calendar was found in Coligny, Ain, France (46°23′N 5°21′E) near Lyons in 1897, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aveyron (Occitan: Avairon) is a department in southern France named after the Aveyron River. ... A replica of the Old Roman Cursive inspired by the Vindolanda tablets:[1] Hoc gracili currenteque / vix hodie patefactas / Romani tabulas ornarunt calamo (With this slender and running pen the Romans decorated writing tablets, which today scarcely have been brought to light. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see Pb. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... An incantation is the words spoken during a ritual. ... Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A curse tablet (defixio in Latin) is a type of votive deposit found in ancient Athens and other cities of the Greco-Roman world, in which someone would ask the gods or spirits to do harm to others. ...


The Coligny calendar was found in Coligny near Lyon, France with a statue identified as Apollo. The Coligny Calendar is a lunisolar calendar that divides the year into two parts with the months underneath. SAMON "summer" and GIAMON "winter". The date of SAMON- xvii is identified as TRINVX[tion] SAMO[nii] SINDIV. overview of the re-assembled tablet detail of Mid Samonios The Gaulish Coligny Calendar was found in Coligny, Ain, France (46°23′N 5°21′E) near Lyons in 1897, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ...


Another major text is the lead tablet of Chamalières (l. 100), written on lead in Latin cursive script, in twelve lines, apparently a curse or incantation addressed to the god Maponos. It was deposited in a spring, much like defixiones often are. Chamalières is a town and commune in France, in the Puy-de-Dôme département. ... Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Celtic mythology, Maponos or Maponus (divine son) was a god of youth known mainly in northern Britain but also in Gaul. ...


The graffito of La Graufesenque, Millau ([1] 44°05′36″N, 3°05′33″E), inscribed in Latin cursive on a ceramic plate, is our most important source for Gaulish numerals. It was probably written in a ceramic factory, referring to furnaces numbered 1 to 10. Millau is a town and commune of southern France. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ...


A number of short inscriptions are found on spindle whorls. They are among the latest testimonies of Gaulish. These whorls were apparently presented to young girls by their suitors, and bear inscriptions such as moni gnatha gabi / buððutton imon (l. 119) "my girl, take my kiss" and geneta imi / daga uimpi (l. 120) '"I am a young girl, good (and) pretty". Look up whorl in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Inscriptions found in Switzerland are rare, but a lot of modern placenames are derived from Gaulish names as they are in the rest of Gaul. There is a statue of a seated goddess with a bear, Artio, found in Muri near Berne, with a Latin inscription DEAE ARTIONI LIVINIA SABILLINA, suggesting a Gaulish Artiyon- "bear goddess". A number of coins with Gaulish inscriptions in the Greek alphabet have been found in Switzerland, e.g. RIG IV Nrs. 92 (Lingones) and 267 (Leuci). A sword dating to the La Tène period was found in Port near Bienne, its blade inscribed with KORICIOC (Korisos), probably the name of the smith. The most notable inscription found in Helvetic parts is the Berne Zinc tablet, inscribed ΔΟΒΝΟΡΗΔΟ ΓΟΒΑΝΟ ΒΡΕΝΟΔΩΡ ΝΑΝΤΑΡΩΡ, and apparently dedicated to Gobannus, the Celtic god of smithcraft. Caesar relates that census accounts written in the Greek alphabet were found among the Helvetii. Genera Ailuropoda Helarctos Melursus Ursus Tremarctos Arctodus (extinct) A bear is a large mammal in the family Ursidae of the order Carnivora. ... In Celtic mythology, (specifically known from Switzerland), Artio was a goddess of wildlife, specifically the bear, and was worshipped at Berne, which actually means bear. She was often called Artio of Muri. ... Muri bei Bern is a municipality in the Bern administrative district of the canton of Bern, Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland The city of Berne (German   , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna , Bernese German Bärn ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland and the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... Lingones were a Celtic tribe that originally lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers. ... The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ... Port is a municipality of the canton of Bern, Switzerland, situated in the district of Nidau. ... Place du Ring in Biel/Bienne Biel/Bienne is a town in the Canton of Bern in Switzerland. ... A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ... The Berne zinc tablet (also Gobannus tablet) was found in the 1980s in Berne. ... Gobannus in Roman Gaul was the god of smiths. ... This article is about the European people. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ...


References

  • Delamarre, X. (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise (2nd ed.). Paris: Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-237-6
  • Lambert, Pierre-Yves (2003) La langue gauloise (2nd ed.) Paris: Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-224-4
  • Lejeune, Michel (1971). Lepontica (Monographies linguistiques, 1). Paris: Société d’edition “les Belles Lettres”
  • Meid, Wolfgang (1994) Gaulish Inscriptions. Budapest: Archaeolingua. ISBN 963-8046-06-6
  • Recueil des inscriptions gauloises (XLVe supplément à «GALLIA»), ed. Paul-Marie Duval et al. 4 vols. Paris: CNRS, 1985-2002. ISBN 2-271-05844-9
  • Solinas, Patrizia (1995). ‘Il celtico in Italia’. Studi Etruschi 60:311-408

See also

There are a number of languages of France. ...

External links

Celtic languages
Continental Celtic Gaulish †| Lepontic † | Galatian † | Celtiberian † | Noric †
Goidelic Irish | Galwegian † | Manx | Scottish Gaelic (ScotlandCanada)
Brythonic Breton | Cornish | British † | Cumbric † | Ivernic † | Pictish † | Welsh
Mixed languages Shelta | Bungee †
Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gaulish language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1418 words)
Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul.
The language is known from several hundred inscriptions on stone, on ceramic vessels and other artefacts, and on coins, and occasionally on metal (lead, and on one occasion zinc).
Gaulish is paraphyletically grouped with Celtiberian, Lepontic, and Galatian as Continental Celtic.
French language - Simple English Wikipedia (281 words)
French is a Romance language, meaning that it came from Latin.
Their own language, Gaulish, tended to be spoken less often, although Breton is a language still spoken today in the part of France called Brittany, that came from the old Celtic language.
They both mean "language of yes", because oc was the word for "yes" in the south, and oïl meant "yes" in the north.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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