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Encyclopedia > Gauleiter

A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. The German word Leiter means leader, whilst Gau was a region of the Reich, translating most closely to the English shire. The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party ( German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... A Reichsgau was a province within the Greater Germany of 1938 to 1945 (from the start of territorial annexation to the fall of the Third Reich). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Collar insignia for a Nazi Gauleiter
Collar insignia for a Nazi Gauleiter

The title of Gauleiter was first established in 1925 after the Nazi Party reorganized following the failed Beer Hall Putsch. By 1928, Gauleiter had also became a Nazi paramilitary rank, and would eventually become the second highest such position, ranking only below the rank of Reichsleiter. The insignia for the rank of Gauleiter consisted of two oak leaves worn on a brown colored collar patch. Nazi Gauleiter Patch (US National Archives) File links The following pages link to this file: Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party Categories: National Archives and Records Administration images ... Nazi Gauleiter Patch (US National Archives) File links The following pages link to this file: Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party Categories: National Archives and Records Administration images ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Beer Hall Putsch occurred in the evening of Thursday, November 8 to early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923 when the nascent Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund, unsuccessfully tried to gain power in... Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party were paramilitary titles used by the National Socialist German Workers Party between 1925 and 1945. ... Reichsleiter was one of the highest political offices of the NSDAP in the time of the German national socialism. ...


Until 1938, a junior rank to Gauleiter also existed, which was known as Stellvertreter-Gauleiter (Proxy-Gauleiter). A Proxy-Gauleiter wore a single oak leaf, similar to a Gauleiter, however this position was abolished by the start of World War II. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb. ...


In theory, a Gauleiter was merely a representative of the Nazi Party who served to coordinate regional Nazi party events and also served to "advise" the local government. In practice, Gauleiters were unquestioned rulers of their particular areas of responsibility. The local government establishment merely existed as a rubber stamp for the Gauleiter. Rubber stamp, is a political metaphor referring to an institution that has little power and rarely disagrees with more powerful organs, though usually it formally has much greater power. ...


List of Gauleiters

  • Gau Baden, Gauleiter:
    • Robert Wagner (25. Mar. 1925 - May 1945)
  • Gau Bayerische Ostmark (Bavarian Eastern March) [Bayerische Ostmark was founded in 1933 when Oberfranken, Niederbayern & Oberpfalz merged. It was renamed Gau Bayreuth after its capital in 1943.] Gauleiter:
    • Hans Schemm (1933 - 1935)
  • Gau Berlin - Brandenburg [Gau Berlin - Brandenburg was divided into Berlin & Brandenburg 1929.] Gauleiter:
    • Ernst Schlange (1925 - 1926)
    • Joseph Goebbels (1926 - 1929)
  • Gau Brandenburg (the historical nucleus of the Prussian kingdom) [Gau Brandenburg was made a part of part of Kurmark 1933.]Gauleiter:
    • Emil Holz (1929 - 1930)
    • Ernst Schlange (1930 - 1933)
  • Gau Danzig (Dantzig; former free state, lost after the war to Poland, now Gdansk) [Gau Danzig was known as Gau Danzig - Westpreussen after 1939.] Gauleiter:
    • Hans-Albert Hohnfeldt (1926 - 1928)
    • ? Maas (1928 - 1930)
    • Albert Forster (1930 - 1945)
  • Gau Düsseldorf [Gau Dusseldorf was founded in 1929 from the bezirk Bergisches - Land.] Gauleiter:
    • Friedrich Karl Florian (1929 - 1945)
  • Gau Essen, Gauleiter:
    • Josef Terboven (1928 - 1945)
      • Acting Gauleiter: Fritz Schlessmann (Apr. 1940 - May 1945)
  • Gau Franken (Franconia) [Gau Franken was founded in 1929 when Mittelfranken merged with the bezirk Nurnberg - Furth.] Gauleiter:
    • Julius Streicher (1929 - 1940)
    • Hans Zimmermann (1940 - 1941)
    • Karl Holz (1942 - 1945)
      • Acting Gauleiter: Karl Holz (1940 - Apr. 1945)
  • Gau Halle - Merseburg, Gauleiter:
    • ? Ernst (1925 - 1927)
    • Paul Hinkler (1927 - 1930)
    • Rudolf Jordan (1930 - 1937)
    • Joachim Albrecht Eggeling (1938 - 1945)
  • Gau Hamburg, Gauleiter: Joseph
    • Klant (1925 - 1926)
    • Albert Krebs (1927 - 1928)
    • Hinrich Lohse (1928 - 1929)
    • Karl Kaufmann (1929 - 1945)
  • Gau Hannover - Nord [Gau Hannover - Nord became a part of Sudhannover - Braunschweig 1928.], Gauleiter:
  • Gau Hannover - Sud [Gau Hannover - Sud became a part of Südhannover - Braunschweig 1928.] Gauleiter:
    • Ludolf Haase (1927 - 1928)
  • Gau Hessen - Darmstadt [Gau Hessen - Darmstadt became a part of Hessen - Nassau 1933], Gauleiter:
    • Friedrich Ringhausen (1927 - 1931)
    • Peter Gmeinder (1931)
    • Karl Benz (1932 - 1933)
  • Gau Hessen - Nassau [Gau Hessen - Nassau was founded 1933 when Hessen - Darmstadt merged with Hessen - Nassau - Sud.] Gauleiter:
    • Jakob Sprenger (1933 - 1945)
  • Gau Hessen - Nassau-Nord (Hesses- Northern Nassau) [Hessen - Nassau - Nord was known as Gau Kurhessen after 1934.] Gauleiter:
    • Walter Schultz (1926 - 1927)
    • Karl Weinrich (1927 - autumn 1943)
    • Acting Gauleiter: Karl Gerland (1944 - 1945)
  • Gau Hessen - Nassau-Sud (Hesse- Southern Nassau) [Gau Hessen - Nassau - Sud became a part of Hessen - Nassau 1933] Gauleiter:
    • nton Haselmayer (1925 - 1926)
    • Walter Schultz (1926 - 1927)
    • Jakob Sprenger (1927 - 1933)
  • Gau Karnten (Carinthia, in Austria), Gauleiter:
    • Hubert Klausner (1939 - 1940)
    • Franz Kutschera (1940 - 1941)
    • Friedrich Rainer (1942 - 1944)
  • Gau Koblenz - Trier [Koblenz - Trier was re- named Gau Moselland in 1942.], Gauleiter:
    • Gustav Simon (1931 - 1945) (b. 1900 - d. 1945) NSDAP; he was also the Chief of civil administration (from August 30, 1942) of the small, totally annexed neighbouring discontinued grand duchy of Luxemburg (Luxembourg in French, Letzebürg in the local dialect; re-established by its government in exile after the war) 7 August 1940 - 11 September 1944
  • Gau Koln - Aachen (Cologne-Aix la Chapelle)
    • Joseph Grohe (1931 - 1945); must also have been competenent for ethno-culturally German Eupen-Malmédy and Sankt-Vith and once neutral Moresnet, (re-)annexed by the Reich from Belgium, as this was administratively put under the Regierungspräsident of Aachen 1940 - 1944 Franz Vogelsang (b. 1899 - d. ....)
  • Gau Kurmark (Elector's March) [Kurmark was founded in 1933 when Ostmark merged with Brandenburg. It was renamed Gau Mark Brandenburg in 1940.], Gauleiter:
    • Wilhelm Kube (1933 - 1936)
    • Emil Sturtz (1939 - 1945)
  • Gau Luneburg - Stade, Gauleiter:
    • Otto Telschow (1925 - 1928)
  • Gau Magdeburg - Anhalt, Gauleiter:
    • G. Schmischke (1925 - 1928)
    • Wilhelm Friedrich Loeper (1927 - 1933)
    • P. Hofmann (1933)
    • Wilhelm Friedrich Loeper (1934 - 1935)
    • Joachim Albrecht Eggeling (1935 - 1937)
    • Rudolf Jordan (1937 - 1945)
  • Gau Mecklenburg, Gauleiter:
    • Friedrich Hildebrandt (1925 - 1930)
    • ? Albrecht (1930 - 1931)
    • Friedrich Hildebrandt (1931 - 1945)
  • Gau Mittelfranken (Central Franconia) [Gau Mittelfranken became a part of Franken 1929.] Gauleiter:
    • Wilhelm Grimm (1928)
  • Gau Moselland - see Gau
  • Gau München - Oberbayern (Munich - Upper Bavaria) [Gau Munchen - Oberbayern was founded in 1933 when the bezirk Oberbayern & Gross - München (Greater Munich; the Bavarian capital was also the official capital of the Nazi movement) merged.], Gauleiter:
    • Adolf Wagner (1933 - 1944)
    • Paul Giesler (1944 - 1945)
  • Gau Niederbayern (Lower Bavaria) [Gau Niederbayern became a part of Bayerische Ostmark 1933.], Gauleiter:
    • Fritz Reinhardt (October 1928 - ?)
    • Otto Ebersdobler (1930 - 1932)
  • Gau Niederbayern – Oberpfalz (Lower Bavaria - Upper Palatinate) [Gau Niederbayern - Oberpfalz was divided into Niederbayern & Oberpfalz 1929.], Gauleiter:
  • Gau Niederdonau (Lower Danube, i.e. Niederösterreich, in Austria), Gauleiter:
    • Hugo Jury (1939 - 1945)
  • Gau Niederschlesien (Lower Silesia, split-off of Gau Schlesien; after the war lost to Poland), Gauleiter:
    • Karl Hanke (1940 - 1945)
  • ReichsGau Oberdonau (Upper Danube, i.e. Oberösterreich, in Austria) Gauleiter:
    • August Eigruber (1939 - 1945)
  • Gau Oberfranken (Upper Franconia) [Gau Oberfranken became a part of Bayerische Ostmark 1933.] Gauleiter:
    • Hans Schemm (1928 - 1933)
  • Gau Oberpfalz (Upper Palatinate) [Gau Oberpfalz became a part of Bayerische Ostmark 1933.] Gauleiter:
    • Franz Maierhofer (1929 - 1932)
  • Gau Oberschlesien (Upper Silesia, split-off of Gau Schlesien; after the war lost to Poland) Gauleiter:
    • Fritz Bracht (1940 - 1945)
  • Gau Osthannover (East Hannover), Gauleiter:
    • Otto Telschow (1925 - 1945)
  • Gau Ostmark, (Gau Ostmark was made a part of part of Gau Kurmark 1933.) Gauleiter:
    • Wilhelm Kube (1928 - 1933)
  • Gau Ostpreußen (East Prussia), Gauleiter:
    • Bruno Gustav Scherwitz (1925 - 1927)
    • Erich Koch (1928 - 1945)
  • Gau Pfalz – Saar [Gau Pfalz - Saar was founded in 1935 when Saarland & Rheinpfalz merged. It was renamed Saarpfalz in 1937 and finally Westmark 1942.] Gauleiter:
  • Josef Burckel (1935 - 1944)
  • Willi Stohr (1944 - 1945)
  • Gau Pommern (Pomerania; after the war mostly lost to Poland) Gauleiter:
    • Theodor Vahlen (1925 - 1927)
    • Walter von Corswant (1928 - 1931)
    • Wilhelm Karpenstein (1931 - 1934)
    • Franz Schwede - Coburg (1935 - 1945)
  • Gau Rheinland – Nord (Northern Rhenania) [Gau Rheinland - Nord became a part of Ruhr 1926.], Gauleiter:
    • Karl Kaufmann (1925 - 1926)
  • Gau Rheinland – Sud (Southern Rhenania) [Gau Rheinland - Sud was divided into Koln - Aachen & Koblenz - Trier 1931.], Gauleiter:
  • Gau Rheinpfalz [Gau Rheinpfalz became a part of Pfalz - Saar 1935.], Gauleiter:
    • Josef Burckel (1926 - 1935)
  • Gau Ruhr [Gau Ruhr was divided into Westfalen - Nord & Westfalen - Sud 1932.], Gauleiter:
    • Karl Kaufmann (1926 - 1929)
    • Josef Wagner (1929 - 1931)
  • Gau Saarland [Gau Saarland became a part of Pfalz - Saar 1935.], Gauleiter:
    • Josef Burckel (1933 - 1935)
  • Gau Sachsen (Saxony), Gauleiter:
  • Martin Mutschmann (1925 - 1945)
  • ReichsGau Salzburg (in Austria), Gauleiter:
    • Friedrich Rainer (1939 - 1941)
    • Gustav Adolf Scheel (1941 - 1945)
  • Gau Schlesien [Gau Schlesien was divided into Niederschlesien & Oberschlesien, i.e. Lower- & Upper Silezia, 1940.], Gauleiter:
    • Helmut Bruckner (1925 - 12 Dec. 1934)
    • Josef Wagner (12 Dec. 1934 - 1940)
  • Gau Schleswig - Holstein (near the Danish border), Gauleiter:
    • Hinrich Lohse (1925 - 1945)
  • Gau Schwaben (Swabia), Gauleiter:
    • Karl Wahl (1928 - 1945)
  • Gau Stadel (Bayern), Gauleiter:
    • Hans-Arnold Stadler (1944-1945) [See Thule Society.]
  • ReichsGau Steiermark (Styria, in Austria), Gauleiter:
    • Siegfried Uiberreither (1939 - 1945)
  • ReichsGau Sudetengau (the ethnically German border regions of Czechia with Germany and Austria, separated from the puppet-state Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) [Sudetengau was known as Gau Sudetenland after 1939.], Gauleiter:
    • Konrad Henlein (1939 - 1945)
  • Gau Sudhannover - Braunschweig (South Hannover - Brunswick) [Gau Sudhannover - Braunschweig was founded in 1928 when Hannover - Nord & Hannover - Sud merged.], Gauleiter:
    • Bernhard Rust (1928 - 1940)
    • Hartmann Lauterbacher (1940 - 1945)
  • Gau Tirol (in Austria), Gauleiter:
    • Franz Hofer (1932 - 1933)
  • ReichsGau Tirol - Vorarlberg (in Austria), Gauleiter:
    • Franz Hofer (1938 - 1945)
  • Gau Unterfranken (Lower Franconia) [Unterfranken was known as Gau Mainfranken after 1935.], Gauleiter:
    • Otto Hellmuth (1928 - 1945)
  • Warthegau (named after the river; in Poland) [Warthegau was known as Reichsgau Wartheland after 1939.], Gauleiter:
  • Gau Weser - Ems, Gauleiter:
    • Gauleiter: Karl Rover (1929 - 1942)
    • Paul Wegener (1942 - 1945)
  • Gau Westfalen [Gau Westfalen became a part of Ruhr 1926.], Gauleiter:
    • Franz Pfeffer von Salomon (1925 - 1926)
  • Gau Westfalen - Nord, Gauleiter:
    • Alfred Meyer (1932 - 1945)
  • Gau Westfalen - Sud, Gauleiter:
    • Josef Wagner (1932 - 1941)
    • Paul Giesler (1941 - 1943)
    • Albert Hoffmann (19 Jun. 1943 - May 1945)
  • Gau Wurttemberg - Hohenzollern, Gauleiter:
    • Eugen Munder (1925 - 1928)
    • Wilhelm Murr (1928 – 1945)
  • In december 1944, when the allies were already occupying Belgium, its territory was split up into three Gau-type parts as integral ('Germanic') parts of the Reich: the bicultural capital Brussels (Brüssel in German, Brussel in Dutch and Bruxelles in French) remained directly under the German Reichskommissar of Belgien-Nordfrankreich (18 July 1944 - Jan 1945 Joseph Grohé (b. 1902 - d. 1988) NSDAP, but the bulk of the country was divided ethno-linguistically under collaborating party-leaders (though with very little local support) with Führer-imitating (see that article for parallels) titles in their national languages:
    • Head of Reichsgau Flandern (Flanders, Vlaanderen in Dutch; supposedly including Frans-Vlaanderen in northern France) and Landleader of the Flemish People - Head of the Flemish Liberation Committee (in Dutch Landsleider van het Vlaamsche Volk - Hoofd van het Vlaamsche Bevrijdingscomité) 15 Dec 1944 - 1945 Jef Van de Wiele (in Germany in exile) (b. 1902 - d. 1979) Devlag party
    • Head of Reichsgau Wallonien (Wallonia, Wallonie in French) and Leader of the Walloon People (in French Chef du Peuple Wallon) 8 Dec 1944 - 1945 Léon Degrelle (b. 1906 - d. 1994; also remained in Germany in exile, even though German troops reconquered part of Wallonia in dec 1944 - jan 1945) Rex party

The NSDAP/AO was the Foreign Organization of the German Nazi Party (see NSDAP). ... Hans Heinrich Nieland (* October 3, 1900 in Hagen - † August 29, 1976 in Reinbek near Hamburg) was a politician of the German Nazi-Party (NSDAP) and Lord Mayor of Dresden from 1940 until 1945. ... Ernst Wilhelm Bohle (* July 28, 1903 in Bradford - † November 9, 1960 in Düsseldorf) was leader of the Foreign Organization of the Nazi Party (see NSDAP). ... Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Gdańska Mayor Paweł Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 461 400 (2003) Ranked 6th 1 035 000 1761/km² Founded... Albert Forster (German:Albert Förster) (born July 26, 1902) was a German politician. ... Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (May 23, 1898 - May 8, 1945) was a Gauleiter of Essen and later Reichskommissar (Commissary) of Norway from 1940 to 1945, during the German occupation of World War II. He committed suicide at the wars end by blowing himself up with dynamite. ... The Franconian Rake is the symbol and unofficial coat of arms of Franconia, also appearing in emblems of many Franconian cities Franconia (German: Franken), a historic region in Germany, now forms three administrative districts of the state of Bavaria: Lower Franconia (Unterfranken), Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken), and Upper Franconia (Oberfranken). ... Julius Streicher at the Nuremberg Trials Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Bernhard Rust (1883--May 1945) was Minister of Education in Nazi Germany. ... Luxembourg - a small country in west Europe Luxembourg (city) - the capital city of the country Luxembourg (district) - a district in the country Luxembourg, province of Belgium Luxemburg, Iowa - a city in the USA Luxemburg, Wisconsin - a village in the USA Luxembourg Garden, Paris, France Luxemburg Township, Minnesota - a township in... Unofficial flag of Moresnet (1883) Moresnet or Neutral Moresnet was, from 1816 to 1919, a tiny European mini-state of about 3. ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (May 31, 1892 - June 30, 1934) was an early leader of the German National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP) or Nazi Party. ... Erich Koch, born June 19, 1896, died November 12, 1986. ... Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) Pomerania (Polish: , German: , Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pòmòrze and Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on both sides of the Vistula and Oder (Odra) rivers, reaching the Recknitz... Robert Ley (February 15, 1890 - October 25, 1945) was a prominent Nazi figure in the Third Reich. ... With an area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... Swabia (German: Schwaben) is both a historic and linguistic region in Germany. ... Styria (Steiermark in German, Štajerska in Slovenian) can refer to: Styria - a federal state of Austria Styria - an informal province in Slovenia Styria - a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and crownland of Austria-Hungary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (in German: Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren, in Czech: Protektorát ÄŒechy a Morava) was a German protectorate that arose in central parts of Bohemia and Moravia on March 15, 1939 when Germany invaded the western part of former Czechoslovakia, the former Austrian... Sudetenland (-German; Czech: Sudety) was the name used from 1938–45 for the region inhabited mostly by Sudeten Germans (German: Sudetendeutsche, Czech: SudetÅ¡tí NÄ›mci) in the various places of Bohemia, Moravia, and parts of Silesia. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 sq. ... Fritz Sauckel Fritz Sauckel (Ernst Friedrich Christoph Sauckel, October 27, 1894 - October 16, 1946) was a senior government official in Nazi Germany. ... Arthur Greiser (born January 22, 1897, in Schroda, Province of Posen, West Prussia (Środa, Poland); executed July 14, 1946, at Poznan, Poland) was a Nazi German politician . ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya; Serbian: Beč) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine states (Land Wien). ... Odilo Globocnik (April 21, 1904 - May 31, 1945) was a prominent Austrian Nazi and later an SS leader. ... Baldur Benedikt von Schirach (May 9, 1907 – August 8, 1974) was a Nazi war criminal. ... Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, French: Bruxelles, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium, the French community of Belgium, the Flemish community and of the European Union. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... Führer (often written Fuehrer or Fuhrer in English when umlauts are not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... This article is about the Belgian region Flanders and the eponymous historical region of the Low Countries. ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ... Léon Degrelle Léon Joseph Marie Degrelle (June 15, 1906 – April 1, 1994) was a founder of Belgian Rexism who joined the Waffen SS (becoming a leader of its Wallon contingent) and, after the war, became a prominent figure in the neo-fascist and Holocaust revisionist movements. ...

Sources and References

  • Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte
  • WorldStatesmen - here Belgium

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