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Encyclopedia > Gaul
History of France
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic La Tène culture. // France includes Olduwan (Abbevillian) and Acheulean sites from early or non-modern... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) 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Map of Gaul circa 58 BC.
Map of Gaul circa 58 BC.

In English, the word Gaul (French: Gaulois) may also refer to a Celtic inhabitant of that region, although the expression may be used more generally for all ancient speakers of the Gaulish language (a derivative of early Celtic) who were widespread in Europe and extended even into central Anatolia by Roman times. In this way, "Gaul" and "Celt" are sometimes used interchangeably. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x799, 169 KB) Map of Gallia (58 BC) with important Tribes, Towns, Rivers etc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x799, 169 KB) Map of Gallia (58 BC) with important Tribes, Towns, Rivers etc. ... This article is about the European people. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


Gauls under Brennus sacked Rome circa 390 BC. In the Aegean world, a huge migration of Eastern Gauls appeared in Thrace, north of Greece, in 281 BC. Another Gaulish chieftain named Brennus, at the head of a large army, was only turned back from desecrating the Temple of Apollo at Delphi at the last minute — he was alarmed, it was said, by portents of thunder and lightning.[1] At the same time a migrating band of Celts, some 10,000 warriors, with their women and children and slaves, were moving through Thrace. Three tribes of Gauls crossed over from Thrace to Asia Minor at the express invitation of Nicomedes I, king of Bithynia, who required help in a dynastic struggle against his brother. Eventually they settled down in eastern Phrygia and Cappadocia in central Anatolia, a region henceforth known as Galatia. A sculpture, depicting this Brennus that adorned an 18th or 19th century French naval vessel Brennus, a chieftain of the Senones of the Adriatic coast of Italy, who in 387 BC, in the Battle of the Allia, led an army of Cisalpine Gauls in their attack on Rome. ... The Battle of the Allia was a battle of the first Gallic invasion of Italy. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 395 BC 394 BC 393 BC 392 BC 391 BC - 390 BC - 389 BC 388 BC 387... Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278... Brennus, Gaul, leader of the army of Gauls who in 279 BC invaded Macedonia and northern Greece. ... The theatre, seen from above Delphi (Greek Δελφοί — Delphee) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures and throughout human history. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Nicomedes I (in Greek Nικoμηδης; 279–c. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

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Soldiers of Gaul, as imagined by a late nineteenth-century illustrator for the Larousse dictionary, 1898.

The names Gallia and Galatia sometimes are compared to Gael, which is, however, from Goidhel or Gwyddel, and cannot be directly related. It is uncertain whether the Gal- names are from a native name of a tribe, or if they are exonyms. Birkhan (1997) considers a root *g(h)al- "powerful" (PIE *gelh, well-attested in Celtic, and with cognates in Balto-Slavic), but speculates that the name also could be taken from a Gallos River, comparable to the names of the Volcae and the Sequani which are likely derived from hydronyms. There also have been attempts to trace Keltoi and Galatai to a single origin. It is most likely that the terms originated as names of minor tribes *Kel-to and/or Gal(a)-to- which were the earliest to come into contact with the Roman world, but which have disappeared without leaving a historical record.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (827 × 550 pixel, file size: 297 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gaul soldiers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (827 × 550 pixel, file size: 297 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gaul soldiers. ... The Grand Dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle (Great Universal Dictionary of the 19th Century), often called the Larousse du dix-neuvième is an encyclopedic dictionary, a work of Pierre Larousse. ... Gael (Ancient people) : A Gael is a member of a distinct culture existing in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man whose language is one that is Gaelic. ... An exonym is a name for a place that is not used within that place by the local inhabitants (neither in the official language of the state nor in local languages[1]), or a name for a people or language that is not used by the people or language to... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... The Volcae in the 2nd century BC were a large and powerful Celtic nation of Gallia Transalpina, comprised of two branches, the Volcae Arecomici and the Volcae Tectosages. ... A map of Gaul showing the relative position of the Sequani tribe. ... A hydronym (from Greek hudor, water and onuma, name) is a proper name of a body of water. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


In English usage the words Gaul and Gaulish are used synonymously with Latin Gallia, Gallus and Gallicus. However the similarity of the names is probably accidental: the English words are borrowed from French Gaule and Gaulois, which appear to have been borrowed themselves from Germanic walha-, the usual word for the non-Germanic-speaking peoples (Celtic-speaking and Latin-speaking indiscriminately). Germanic w is regularly rendered with French gu / g (cf. guerre = war, garder = ward), and the diphthong au is the regular outcome of al before a following consonant (cf. cheval ~ chevaux). Gaule or Gaulle can hardly be derived from Latin Gallia, since g would become j before a (cf. gamba > jambe), and the diphthong au would be incomprehensible; the regular outcome of Latin Gallia would have been *Jaille in French.[3][4] brass replica of the Tjurkö Bracteate showing the attestation of the name Walha Walha () is an ancient Germanic word, meaning foreigner or stranger (welsh) or roman. It is attested in the Roman Iron Age Tjurkö Bracteate inscription as walhakurne, probably welsh crown for Roman coin, i. ...


Hellenistic aitiology connects the name with Galatia (first attested by Timaeus of Tauromenion in the 4th c. BC), and it was suggested that the association was inspired by the "milk-white" skin (γάλα, gala, "milk") of the Gauls (Greek: Γαλάται, Galatai, Galatae). Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of Greek words aitia = cause and logos = word/speech) is used in philosophy, physics and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Pre-Roman Gaul

Main article: Celt
Gold coins of the Gaul Parisii, 1st century BC, (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris).
Gold coins of the Gaul Parisii, 1st century BC, (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris).

The early history of the Gauls is predominantly a work in archeology — there being little written information (save perhaps what can be gleaned from coins) concerning the peoples that inhabited these regions — and the relationships between their material culture, genetic relationships (the study of which has been aided, in recent years, through the field of archaeogenetics), and linguistic divisions rarely coincide. This article is about the European people. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1028x528, 658 KB) Coin of the Parisii, 5th-1st century BCE. Cabinet des Medailles. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1028x528, 658 KB) Coin of the Parisii, 5th-1st century BCE. Cabinet des Medailles. ... Gold coins of the Parisii, 1st century BC, (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris) Coin of the Parisii: obverse with horse, 1st century BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris) This article is about Celtic-Gallic people called the Parisii. ... Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I (175-150 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... Archaeogenetics, a term coined by Colin Renfrew, refers to the application of the techniques of molecular population genetics to the study of the human past. ...


The major source of materials on the Celts of Gaul was Poseidonios of Apamea, whose writings where quoted by Timagenes, Julius Caesar, the Sicilian Greek Diodorus Siculus, and the Greek geographer Strabo. [5] The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... Timagenes was a Greek writer, historian and teacher of rhetoric. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


Many cultural traits of the early Celts seem to have been carried northwest up the Danube Valley, although this issue is contested. It seems as if they derived many of their skills (like metal-working), as well as certain facets of their culture, from Balkan peoples. Some scholars think that the Bronze Age Urnfield culture represents an origin for the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking peoples (see Proto-Celtic). The Urnfield culture was preeminent in central Europe during the late Bronze Age, from ca. 1200 BC until 700 BC. The spread of iron-working led to the development of the Hallstatt culture (ca. 700 to 500 BC) directly from the Urnfield. Proto-Celtic, the latest common ancestor of all known Celtic languages, is considered by some scholars to have been spoken at the time of the late Urnfield or early Hallstatt cultures. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... This article is about the European people. ... For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ...


The Hallstatt culture was succeeded by the La Tène culture, which developed out of the Hallstatt culture without any definite cultural break, under the impetus of considerable Mediterranean influence from the Greek, and Etruscan civilizations. The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age (from 450 BC to the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC) in France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia, and Hungary. Farther to the north extended the contemporary Pre-Roman Iron Age culture of Northern Germany and Scandinavia. The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ...

A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative positions of the Celtic tribes.
A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative positions of the Celtic tribes.

By the second century BC, Celtic France was called Gaul (Gallia Transalpina) by the Romans. In his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar distinguishes among three ethnic groups in Gaul: the Belgae in the north (in what is present-day Belgium), the Celts in the centre, and the Aquitani in the southwest. While some scholars believe that the Belgae were a mixture of Celtic and Germanic elements, their ethnic affiliations have not been resolved. The Aquitani may have been the ancestors of the Vascons. In addition to the Gauls, there were other peoples living in Gaul, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians who had established outposts such as Massilia (present-day Marseille) along the Mediterranean coast. Also, along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, the Ligures had merged with the Celts to form a Celto-Ligurian culture. Image File history File links Gaul,_1st_century_BC.gif Summary Description  Gaul, 1st century BC Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Permission  In the public domain as original works of the United States federal government and/or military [1] Licensing File links The following pages link to... Image File history File links Gaul,_1st_century_BC.gif Summary Description  Gaul, 1st century BC Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Permission  In the public domain as original works of the United States federal government and/or military [1] Licensing File links The following pages link to... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ... The Vascons (Latin : Vascones) were an ancient people who, before the arrival of the Romans, inhabited the region in what is now Spain, north of the Ebro river (present day Navarre). ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... The Ligures (Ligurians) were an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria, which once stretched from Northern Italy into southern Gaul. ...


In the second century BC, Mediterranean Gaul had an extensive urban fabric and was prosperous, while the heavily forested Northern Gaul had almost no cities outside of fortified compounds (or oppida) used in times of war. The prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. The Romans intervened in Gaul in 125 BC, and by 121 BC they had conquered the Mediterranean region called Provincia (later named Gallia Narbonensis). This conquest upset the ascendancy of the Gaulish Arverni tribe. Oppidum (plural oppida) is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC - 125 BC - 124 BC 123 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC - 121 BC - 120 BC 119 BC... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative position of the Arverni tribe. ...

Coin of the Santones, 1st century BC, Cabinet des Médailles.
Coin of the Santones, 1st century BC, Cabinet des Médailles.

Further Roman expansion into northern Gaul occurred under Julius Caesar, who conquered regions as far north as present-day Belgium and raided Britannia and Germania during the Gallic Wars (58 BC - 51 BC). The war's turning point was the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which the Romans defeated a confederation of Gallic tribes united under the leadership of Vercingetorix of the Arverni. Image File history File linksMetadata SantonCoinage. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SantonCoinage. ... Coin of the Santones, 1st century BCE, Cabinet des Médailles. ... Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I (175-150 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48... Combatants Roman Republic Gallic Tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Vercingetorix Commius Strength ~30,000-60,000, 12 Roman legions and auxiliaries ~330,000 some 80,000 besieged ~250,000 relief forces Casualties 12,800 40,000-250,000 [] The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49... A map of Gaul showing the relative position of the tribes. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia, and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. ... A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative position of the Arverni tribe. ...


As many as 1 million people (probably 1 in 4 of the Gauls) died, another million were enslaved, 300 tribes were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed during the Gallic Wars. The entire population of city of Avaricum (Bourges) (40,000 in all) was slaughtered.[6] During Julius Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii (present-day Switzerland) approximately 60% of the tribe was destroyed, and another 20% was taken into slavery.[7] The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ... Avaricum was a city in ancient Gaul, on the site of what is now the city of Bourges. ... A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Religion

Main article: Celtic polytheism
Roman silver Denarius with the head of captive Gaul 48 BCE, following the campaigns of Caesar.
Roman silver Denarius with the head of captive Gaul 48 BCE, following the campaigns of Caesar.

The Gauls practiced a form of animism, ascribing human characteristics to lakes, streams, mountains, and other natural features and granting them a quasi-divine status. Also, worship of animals was not uncommon; the animal most sacred to the Gauls was the boar, which can be found on many Gallic military standards, much like the Roman eagle. Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 618 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (743 × 721 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 618 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (743 × 721 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... First row : c. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ...


Their system of gods and goddesses was loose, there being certain deities which virtually every Gallic person worshiped, as well as tribal and household gods. Many of the major gods were related to Greek gods; the primary god worshiped at the time of the arrival of Caesar was Teutates, the Gallic equivalent of Mercury. The "father god" in Gallic worship was "Dis Pater," who could be assigned the Roman name "Saturn." However there was no real theology, just a set of related and evolving traditions of worship. Toutatis or Teutates, ancient god of Celts and Gauls, whose name means father of the tribe. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ...


Perhaps the most intriguing facet of Gallic religion is the practice of the Druids. There is no certainty concerning their origin, but it is clear that they vehemently guarded the secrets of their order and held sway over the people of Gaul. Indeed they claimed the right to determine questions of war and peace, and thereby held an "international" status. In addition, the Druids monitored the religion of ordinary Gauls and were in charge of educating the aristocracy. They also practiced a form of excommunication from the assembly of worshippers, which in ancient Gaul meant a separation from secular society as well. Thus the Druids were an important part of Gallic society. Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ...


Social structure and tribes

The Dying Gaul, an ancient Roman marble copy of a lost ancient Greek statue, thought to have been executed in bronze, commissioned some time between 230 BC – 220 BC by Attalos I of Pergamon to honor his victory over the Galatians.
The Dying Gaul, an ancient Roman marble copy of a lost ancient Greek statue, thought to have been executed in bronze, commissioned some time between 230 BC – 220 BC by Attalos I of Pergamon to honor his victory over the Galatians.

The Druids were not the only political force in Gaul, however, and the early political system was complex, if ultimately fatal to the society as a whole. The fundamental unit of Gallic politics was the tribe, which itself consisted of one or more of what Caesar called "pagi." Each tribe had a council of elders, and initially a king. Later, the executive was an annually-elected magistrate. Among the Aedui, a tribe of Gaul, the executive held the title of "Vergobret," a position much like a king, but its powers were held in check by rules laid down by the council. Image:Dying gaul. ... Image:Dying gaul. ... The Dying Gaul The Dying Gaul is an ancient Roman marble copy of a lost ancient Greek statue, thought to have been executed in bronze, that was commissioned some time between 230 BC-220 BC by Attalos I of Pergamon to honor his victory over the Galatians. ...


The tribal groups, or pagi as the Romans called them (singular: pagus; the French word pays, "region", comes from this term) were organized into larger super-tribal groups that the Romans called civitates. These administrative groupings would be taken over by the Romans in their system of local control, and these civitates would also be the basis of France's eventual division into ecclesiastical bishoprics and dioceses, which would remain in place — with slight changes — until the French revolution. In the history of the Roman empire, civitas (pl. ... French Ancien Régime Roman Catholic dioceses and ecclesiastical provinces were heirs of Late Roman civitates (themselves created out of Gaulish tribes) and provinces. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Although the tribes were moderately stable political entities, Gaul as a whole tended to be politically-divided, there being virtually no unity among the various tribes. Only during particularly trying times, such as the invasion of Caesar, could the Gauls unite under a single leader like Vercingetorix. Even then, however, the faction lines were clear. An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia, and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. ...


The Romans divided Gaul broadly into Provincia (the conquered area around the Mediterranean), and the northern Gallia Comata ("free Gaul" or "long haired Gaul"). Caesar divided the people of Gaulia Comata into three broad groups: the Aquitani; Galli (who in their own language were called Celtae); and Belgae. In the modern sense, Gaulish tribes are defined linguistically, as speakers of dialects of the Gaulish language. While the Aquitani were probably Vascons, the Belgae would thus probably be counted among the Gaulish tribes, perhaps with Germanic elements. Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... A map of Gaul showing the relative position of the tribes. ... The Aquitanii (Latin for Aquitanians) were a people of horsemen living in what is now SW France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne. ... The Vascons (Latin : Vascones) were an ancient people who, before the arrival of the Romans, inhabited the region in what is now Spain, north of the Ebro river (present day Navarre). ... The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ...


Julius Caesar's, in his book, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, comments: For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar (in the third person) about his nine years of war in Gaul. ...

All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third.


All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws.


The river Garonne separates the Gauls from the Aquitani; the Marne and the Seine separate them from the Belgae.


Of all these, the Belgae are the bravest, because they are furthest from the civilization and refinement of [our] Province, and merchants least frequently resort to them, and import those things which tend to effeminate the mind; and they are the nearest to the Germani, who dwell beyond the Rhine, with whom they are continually waging war; for which reason the Helvetii also surpass the rest of the Gauls in valor, as they contend with the Germani in almost daily battles, when they either repel them from their own territories, or themselves wage war on their frontiers. One part of these, which it has been said that the Gauls occupy, takes its beginning at the river Rhone; it is bounded by the river Garonne, the ocean, and the territories of the Belgae; it borders, too, on the side of the Sequani and the Helvetii, upon the river Rhine, and stretches toward the north.


The Belgae rises from the extreme frontier of Gaul, extend to the lower part of the river Rhine; and look toward the north and the rising sun.


Aquitania extends from the river Garonne to the Pyrenaean mountains and to that part of the ocean which is near Spain: it looks between the setting of the sun, and the north star.

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... Statue of Ambiorix in Tongeren. ... Gallo-Roman figures, found in Ingelheim. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... A map of Gaul showing the relative position of the tribes. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia, and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... Transalpine Gaul was a Roman province whose name was chosen to distinguish it from Cisalpine Gaul. ... This article is about the comic book series. ... Bog bodies, also known as bog people, are preserved human bodies found in sphagnum bogs in Northern Europe, Britain and Ireland. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Braccae is the Latin term for trousers, and in this context is today used to refer to a style of pants, made from wool and apparently invented by the ancient Celts. ...

References

  • Birkhan, H. (1997). Die Kelten. 

Footnotes

  1. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, Phocis
  2. ^ Birkhan 1997:48.
  3. ^ Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (OUP 1966), p. 391.
  4. ^ Nouveau dictionnaire étymologique et historique (Larousse 1990), p. 336.
  5. ^ Berresford Ellis, Peter (1998). The Celts: A History. Caroll & Graf, pp.49-50. ISBN 0-786-71211-2. 
  6. ^ Julius Caesar The Conquest of Gaul
  7. ^ Helvetti

The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology is a notable etymological dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. ...

External links


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