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Encyclopedia > Gauge boson

Gauge bosons are bosonic particles which act as carriers of the fundamental forces of Nature. More specifically, elementary particles whose interactions are described by gauge theory exert forces on each other by the exchange of gauge bosons. Bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles which form totally-symmetric composite quantum states. ... A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle is a particle of which other, larger particles are composed. ... Interaction is a kind of action which occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... Gauge theories are a class of physical theories based on the idea that symmetry transformations can be performed locally as well as globally. ...


In the Standard Model, there are three kinds of gauge bosons, corresponding to the electromagnetic, strong and weak forces. Photons are gauge bosons of the electromagnetic interaction, the weak interactions are mediated by weak bosons or "vector bosons", and the carriers of the strong interaction are known as gluons. Because of confinement, isolated gluons do not occur, at least at low energies and what we have are massive glueballs instead. The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory which describes the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental forces, as well as the fundamental particles that make up all matter. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of electromagnetic fields: a field, encompassing all of space, comprised of electrical and magnetic fields. ... The strong interaction (or more commonly the strong force) is today understood to represent the interactions between quarks and gluons as detailed by the theory of quantum chromodynamics. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... For the Science Fiction missile, as seen in Star Trek, see Photon torpedo. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... In particle physics, gluons mediate strong interactions of quarks in quantum chromodynamics. ... This article refers to a particle physics phenomenon. ... In particle physics, a glueball is a particle containing no valence quarks. ...


In a quantized gauge theory, gauge bosons are quanta of the gauge fields. Consequently, there are as many gauge bosons as there are generators of the gauge group. For example, the 8 generators of SU(3) correspond to 8 different varieties of gluons in quantum chromodynamics. Gauge bosons are described mathematically, for technical reasons such as gauge invariance, by field equations for massless particles. At a naive theoretical level therefore, all gauge bosons are required to be massless, and the forces that they describe are required to be long-ranged. The conflict between this idea and experimental evidence regarding the short range of weak interactions required further theoretical insight, and is understood today in terms of the Higgs mechanism. This process also results in massive gauge bosons from hitherto massless particles. Photons and gluons are massless gauge bosons, whereas the W and Z bosons of electroweak theory have mass. Generally, quantization is the state of being constrained to a set of discrete values, rather than varying continuously. ... Gauge theories are a class of physical theories based on the idea that symmetry transformations can be performed locally as well as globally. ... In physics quanta is the plural of quantum. ... Gauge theories are a class of physical theories based on the idea that symmetry transformations can be performed locally as well as globally. ... Generator redirects here. ... Gauge theories are a class of physical theories based on the idea that symmetry transformations can be performed locally as well as globally. ... In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree n is the group of n by n unitary matrices with determinant 1 and entries from the field C of complex numbers, with the group operation that of matrix multiplication. ... In particle physics, gluons mediate strong interactions of quarks in quantum chromodynamics. ... Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory describing one of the fundamental forces, the strong interaction. ... Gauge theories are a class of physical theories based on the idea that symmetry transformations can be performed locally as well as globally. ... In physics, a field is an assignment of a quantity to every point in space. ... The Higgs mechanism, originally discovered by the British physicist Peter Higgs (building on a previous suggestion by Philip Anderson in condensed matter physics), is the mechanism that gives masses to all elementary particles in particle physics. ... In physics, the electroweak theory presents a unified description of two of the four fundamental forces of nature: electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force. ...


There is a fourth kind of gauge boson, the graviton, which has been postulated as the carrier of the gravitational force, but in the absence of experimental evidence, and a mathematically coherent theory of quantum gravity, this is a speculative matter at the moment. In physics, the graviton is a hypothetical elementary particle that transmits the force of gravity in most quantum gravity systems. ... It has been suggested that Law of universal gravitation be merged into this article or section. ... Quantum gravity is the field of theoretical physics attempting to unify the theory of quantum mechanics, which describes three of the fundamental forces of nature, with general relativity, the theory of the fourth fundamental force: gravity. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Standard Model (760 words)
Gauge invariance is a powerful symmetry that tames uncontrollable infinities in quantum amplitudes and encodes the rich symmetry structure of conserved charges observed in elementary particle physics.
The massless gauge field of this theory is known as the gluon.
The resulting theory has massive gauge bosons but still retains the nice properties of a fully gauge invariant theory where the gauge bosons would normally be massless.
Gauge boson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (345 words)
Photons are gauge bosons of the electromagnetic interaction, the weak interactions are mediated by weak bosons or "vector bosons", and the carriers of the strong interaction are known as gluons.
In a quantized gauge theory, gauge bosons are quanta of the gauge fields.
Photons and gluons are massless gauge bosons, whereas the W and Z bosons of electroweak theory have mass.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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