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Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. Leningrad Oblast (Russian: Ленингра́дская о́бласть; tr. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... 10-ruble Russian coin of 2003 in the Ancient cities of Russia series - commemorating Pskov Pskov (Псков, ancient spelling Пльсковъ, also Pihkva (Estonian), Pleskau (German) and Psków (Polish)) is an ancient Russian city, located in the north-west of Russia near the present-day border with Estonia, on the river...

Dressing-Room for Count Orlov, 1770s, seen in a 19th-century watercolor: much of the interior was burned by Nazis
Dressing-Room for Count Orlov, 1770s, seen in a 19th-century watercolor: much of the interior was burned by Nazis

Contents

Eduard Gau. ... Eduard Gau. ...


Early history

It was first documented in 1499 as Khotchino, a village in possession of Novgorod the Great. In the 17th century it passed to Livonia, then to Sweden, was returned to Russia in 1721 and given by Peter the Great to his sister Natalia. Catherine the Great granted it in 1765 to her favourite Count Orlov who built there a sombre castle with 600 rooms and laid out, for the first time in Russia, an extensive English landscape park. At the entrance to the park from the Gatchina road was erected a triumphal arch to a design by the architect of Gatchina, Antonio Rinaldi (1771, built 1777-82), forming a monumental entrance, the gift of Catherine to Orlov for his efforts during a recent outbreak of plague at Moscow. Events January 8 - Louis XII of France marries Anne of Brittany due to law set by his predecessor, Louis VIII July 22 - Battle of Dornach - The Swiss decisively defeat the Imperial army of Emperor Maximilian I. July 28 - First Battle of Lepanto - The Turkish navy wins a decisive victory over... For other cities named Novgorod see Novgorod (disambiguation). ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Liflandiya) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day Latvia and... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from June 28, 1762, to her death on November 6, 1796. ... Count Grigory Orlov Orlov is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ... Arc de Triomphe, Paris A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental gate, usually built to celebrate a victory in war. ... Rinaldis cathedral in a provincial Russian town, 1764 Antonio Rinaldi (1710-1794) was an Italian architect, trained by Luigi Vanvitelli, who worked mainly in Russia. ...


The Rococo interiors were designed by Rinaldi and Vincenzo Brenna and executed by Italian stuccoworkers and Russian craftsmen, with parquetry floors, painted ceilings, and distinctly italian furniture (illustration, right). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Imperial residence

Chesma Gallery for Grand-Duke Paul, in the Neoclassical style of the 1790s
Chesma Gallery for Grand-Duke Paul, in the Neoclassical style of the 1790s

The Empress took such a great liking of the manor that at Orlov's death in 1783 she bought it from his heirs and presented it to her son, the future Emperor Paul. During the 1790s, Paul redecorated some palacial interiors in the sumptuous Neoclassical style (illustration, left) and graced the park with numerous bridges, gates, and pavilions. A remarkable monument of Paul's reign is a small Priory Palace on the shore of the Black Lake. Constructed for the Russian Grand Priory of the Order of St John, it was presented to the Order by a decree of Paul I of Russia dated 23 August 1799. Image File history File links Edward Gau. ... Image File history File links Edward Gau. ... Paul I of Russia Paul I of Russia (Russian: Pavel Petrovich, Павел I Петрович) (October 1, 1754 - March 23, 1801) was an Emperor (Tsar) of Russia (1796 - 1801). ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Brother Gerard created the Order of St John of Jerusalem as a distinctive Order from a previous Benedictine Establishment of Hospitallers. ... Paul I of Russia by Vladimir Borovikovsky Paul I of Russia (Russian: Pavel Petrovich, Павел I Петрович) (October 1, 1754 - March 23, 1801) was an Emperor (Tsar) of Russia (1796 - 1801). ...


After Paul's death the grand palace stood deserted until Alexander III of Russia made it his chief residence. Nicholas II, the last Russian tsar, spent his youth there. During World War II the palace was destroyed by the retreating Germans, restoration works being still under way. Painting of Tsar Alexander III (1886), by Ivan Kramskoi (1837-1887), original, 41 x 36 in. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia Nicholas II of Russia ( 18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Jump to: navigation, search World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that...


See also

Pavlovsk, Oranienbaum, Strelna, Peterhof, and Tsarskoe Selo - other imperial residences. Pavlovsk (Russian: Павловск) is a town situated in the Leningrad oblast, Russia, 30 km from St. ... For the town adjacent to Oranienbaum that formerly shared this name, see Lomonosov, Russia. ... The Constantine Palace in 1921 Strelna (Russian: Стрельна) is a historic village situated about halfway between Saint Petersburg and Peterhof and overlooking the shore of the Gulf of Finland. ... Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel Peterhof, (originally Piterhof, Dutch: Peters Court) is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Tsar Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about 20 km west and 6 km south of St... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ...


External links

  • Art monuments & History of former residence of the Russian emperors
  • Views of Gatchina Park
  • 19th-century views of palacial interiors
  • History of Gatchina

  Results from FactBites:
 
Official Portal of the City Governement: GATCHINA (550 words)
In 1783, after Orlov's death, Gatchina became the residence of Catherine II's son and heir to the throne, the future Emperor Paul I. The Gatchina palace and park ensemble is one of the finest specimens of early Russian Neoclassicism.
In the 1790s, the Gatchina palace was partly rebuilt by Brenna and in the 19th century it was again reconstructed by the architect Roman Kuzmin.
Gatchina's famous parks are centered around its picturesque lakes and ponds - the White and Silver Lakes, the Carpiev Pond - and the islands and peninsulas in-between.
Gatchina (536 words)
The picturesque town of Gatchina situated 46 km to the south-west from Saint Petersburg is well-known all over the world.
The first country mansion was established in Gatchina in 1708 and was endowed by Peter the Great to his sister Natalya Alekseevna.
The meadow in front of the palace was turned into a parade-ground where troops of Gatchina dressed and trained in Prussian style marched from morning till late into the night.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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