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Encyclopedia > Gastrula
1 - blastula, 2 - gastrula; orange - ectoderm, red - endoderm.
1 - blastula, 2 - gastrula; orange - ectoderm, red - endoderm.

The gastrula phase of embryonic development is seen in all animals except the sponges. It follows the blastula phase. Download high resolution version (801x486, 94 KB) Author Pidalka44. ... Download high resolution version (801x486, 94 KB) Author Pidalka44. ... It has been suggested that embryology be merged into this article or section. ... Animalia redirects here. ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Blastulation. ...


Development

The purpose of gastrulation is to position the three embryonic germ layers, the endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. These layers later develop into certain bodily systems. Organs derived from each germ layer. ...

  • The ectoderm develops into the brain, skin, nails, and other epidermis associated structures.

During gastrulation, embryonic cells migrate through an opening within the embryo known as a blastocoel. As the gastrula forms, the remnants of the blastocoel shrink to eventually disappear completely. The ectoderm is outermost of the three germ layers of the developing embryo, the other two being the mesoderm and the endoderm. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The endoderm, sometimes refered to as entoderm, is one of the three germ layers of the developing embryo, the other two being the ectoderm and the mesoderm. ... Digestion is the process whereby a biological entity processes a substance, in order to chemically convert the substance into nutrients. ... Respiration can refer to: Cellular respiration, which is the use of oxygen in the metabolism of organic molecules. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system (of vertebrates[2]). It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... The mesoderm is one of the three germ layers in the early developing embryo, the other two layers being the ectoderm and the endoderm. ... In the developing vertebrate embryo, somites are masses of mesoderm distributed along the two sides of the neural tube and that will eventually become dermis, skeletal muscle and vertebrae. ... The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. ... Mesenchyme (also known as embryonic connective tissue) is the mass of tissue that develops mainly from the mesoderm (the middle layer of the trilaminar germ disc) of an embryo. ... A blastocoel(e) or blastocele or cleavage cavity or segmentation cavity is the central region of a blastula (or blastosphere). ...


The opening into the gastrula is known as the blastopore. The inner cavity created by the infolding is known as the archenteron. A blastopore is an opening into the archenteron during the embryonic stages of an organism. ...


Movements

There are five main types of cell movements in gastrulation:

  • ingression - the movement of single cells inwards
  • involution - the inturning of a lower cell layer caused by movement of the upper layer
  • invagination - an infolding, or poking, of cells
  • delamination - when one sheet of cells split into two
  • epiboly - when the embryo is encompassed by the ectoderm.
  • In addition to these movements, convergent extension can also take place. Although it is not real movement it does allow the cells to stretch (shorter, longer, or taller)

Once gastrulation is complete, all germ layers are in the correct location and further growth and organogenesis begins. In mathematics, an involution is a function that is its own inverse, so that f(f(x)) = x for all x in the domain of f. ... Invagination is one of the morphogenetic processes by which an embryo takes form, and is the initial step of gastrulation, the massive reorganization of the embryo from a simple spherical ball of cells, the blastula, into a multi-layered organism, with a differentiated endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. ... Delamination is a mode of failure of laminated composite materials. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into gastrulation. ... Organogenesis is a stage of animal development where the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm are formed. ...


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  Results from FactBites:
 
ZFIN Gastrula Period Description (2151 words)
DEL cells in both layers of the early shield distribute along the entire length of the AP axis, from the pericardial region, ventral to the head, to the end of the tail.
Anteriorwards movement in the axial hypoblast of cells deriving from the shield is similarly remarkable: To form the hatching gland, located on the pericardium (on the yolk sac ventral to the head), prechordal plate cells must first move anteriorwards along the dorsal midline.
This seems to be due to the presence dorsally of axial hypoblast, for sections through the gastrula reveal that the epiblast does not appear regionally distinctive until late in the gastrula period (Schmitz et al., 1993; R. Warga, unpublished observations).
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Gastrula (1259 words)
gastrula The stage of embryonic development of an animal, following the blastula stage, at which distinct germ layers are present, the archenteron opens to the exterior by the blastopore, and gastrulation movements occur.
At the end of the blastula stage, cells of the embryo are arranged in the form of a hollow ball.
A Dictionary of Biology; 1/1/2004; 53 words; germ layers (primary germ layers) The layers of cells in an animal embryo at the gastrula stage, from which are derived the various organs of the animal's body.
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