FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Gastropoda" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gastropoda
Gastropod
Fossil range: Late Cambrian - Recent
Marine gastropod Cypraea chinensis
Marine gastropod Cypraea chinensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Cuvier, 1797
Subclasses

Eogastropoda (True Limpets and relatives)
Orthogastropoda For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1788x1188, 1141 KB) Cypraea chinensis with partially extended mantle. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes Aplacophora † ?Bellerophontida Bivalvia Caudofoveata Cephalopoda Gastropoda † Helcionelloida Monoplacophora Polyplacophora † Rostroconchia Scaphopoda † Tentaculita The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum of invertebrate animals known as Mollusca. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... Orders Docoglossa Eogastropoda is a subclass of the class Gastropoda, which includes the limpets. ... Infraclasses Apogastropoda Cocculiniformia Murchisoniina Neritopsina Vetigastropoda In their work, which has become a standard reference in the field, Ponder and Lindberg (1997) showed that the Orthogastropoda is one of two subclasses of the Gastropoda the class of molluscs, the other subclass being the Eogastropoda. ...

The class Gastropoda or the gastropods, also previously known as gasteropods, or univalves, and more commonly known as snails, are the most diversified class belonging to the phylum of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 known living species. This class of animals is second only to insects in its number of known species. A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan Class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... For other uses, see phyla. ... Classes Aplacophora † ?Bellerophontida Bivalvia Caudofoveata Cephalopoda Gastropoda † Helcionelloida Monoplacophora Polyplacophora † Rostroconchia Scaphopoda † Tentaculita The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum of invertebrate animals known as Mollusca. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets...


The class Gastropoda is striking in its extraordinary diversification of habitats. Representatives live in gardens, in woodland, in deserts, and on mountains; in small ditches, great rivers and lakes; in estuaries, mudflats, the rocky intertidal, the sandy subtidal, in the abyssal depths of the oceans, and numerous other ecological niches, including parasitic ones. Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... Limber Pine woodland, Toiyabe Range, central Nevada Biologically, a woodland is a treed area differentiated from a forest. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Ditches at the Ouse Washes nature reserve. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water mixes with fresh water. ... Mudflats in Brewster, Massachusetts extending hundreds of yards offshore at the low tide. ... It has been suggested that Intertidal ecology, Foreshore and Littoral be merged into this article or section. ... The abyssal zone contains the very deep benthic communities near the bottom of oceans. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ...


This class includes very large numbers of species of marine snails and sea slugs, as well as freshwater snails and freshwater limpets, and the terrestrial (land) snails and slugs. Marine is an umbrella term for things relating to the ocean, as with marine biology, marine geology, and as a term for a navy, etc. ... Sea slug can mean: (in zoology, strict sense): animals of the order Opisthobranchia, or specifically: Nudibranch (often in literature, for example as the what ever translation of the Japanese namako): Holothurian Sea Slug anti-aircraft missile as formerly used by the Royal Navy Category: ... Suborders and families See text. ... Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land, as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e. ... This article is about land slugs. ...


Although the name "snail" can be, and often is, applied to all the members of this class, very commonly the word "snail" is restricted to those species which have an external shell large enough that the soft parts can withdraw completely into it. Those gastropods without a shell, and those which have only a very reduced or internal shell, are often known as slugs. Shell of Zonitoides nitidus has dextral coiling. ...


The marine shelled species of gastropod include edible species such as abalone, conches, periwinkles, whelks, and numerous other sea snails which have coiled seashells. There are also a number of families of species such as all the various limpets, where the shell is coiled only in the larval stage, and is a simple conical structure after that. Species Many, see species section. ... Species Strombus gigas Strombus luhuanus Strombus pugilis Strombus tricornis Strombus canarium Strombus dolomena Strombus gibberulus Strombus conomurex Strombus lentigo Strombus doxander Strombus urceus Strombus fragilis Strombus gallus Strombus dentatus Strombus marginatus Strombus raninus Strombus buvonius A conch (pronounced in the U.S.A. as konk or conch, IPA: or ) [1... Periwinkle is. ... A whelk is a large marine gastropod (snail) found in temperate waters. ... A display of seashells, mostly of marine Mollusca, including an abalone, nautilus, ark shell, scallop, pearl oyster, auger shell, cone shell, two cowries, a hammer oyster, and a fossil clam, but also including the shell or test of a sand dollar (an echinoderm). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Suborders and families See text. ... A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...

Contents

Distribution

The gastropods have a worldwide distribution, in the seas and oceans, in brackish water, in freshwater and on land, from the near Arctic and Antarctic zones to the tropics.


Habitat

The gastropods have become adapted to almost every kind of existence on earth, having colonized every medium available except the air. In habitats where there is not enough calcium carbonate to build a really solid shell, such as on some acidic soils on land, one can find various species of slugs, and also some snails which have a thin translucent shell, mostly or entirely composed of protein. Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ...


Snails such as Sphincterochila boissieri and Trochoidea seetzenii have adapted to desert conditions, others to an existence in ditches, near deepwater hydrothermal vents, the pounding surf of rocky shores, caves, and many other diverse areas.


Description

Drawing of a male prosobranch gastropodlight yellow - bodybrown - shell and operculumgreen - digestive systemlight violet - gillsyellow - osphradiumred - heartpink - dark violet - 1. foot 2. pleural ganglion 3. pneumostome 4. upper commissura 5. osphradium 6. gills 7. ? ganglion 8. atrium of heart 9. visceral ganglion 10. ventricle 11. foot 12. operculum 13. brain 14. mouth 15. tentacle 16. eye 17. tentacle 18. ? 19. pedal ganglion 20. lower commissura 21. ? 22. pallial cavity / mantle cavity / respiratory cavity 23. parietal ganglion 24. anus 25. hepatopancreas 26. vas deferens 27. rectum 28. nephridium
Drawing of a male prosobranch gastropod
light yellow - body
brown - shell and operculum
green - digestive system
light violet - gills
yellow - osphradium
red - heart
pink -
dark violet -
1. foot
2. pleural ganglion
3. pneumostome
4. upper commissura
5. osphradium
6. gills
7. ? ganglion
8. atrium of heart
9. visceral ganglion
10. ventricle
11. foot
12. operculum
13. brain
14. mouth
15. tentacle
16. eye
17. tentacle
18. ?
19. pedal ganglion
20. lower commissura
21. ?
22. pallial cavity / mantle cavity / respiratory cavity
23. parietal ganglion
24. anus
25. hepatopancreas
26. vas deferens
27. rectum
28. nephridium
Anatomy of a common snail
Main article: Gastropod shell

Snails are distinguished by torsion, a process where the visceral mass of the animal rotates 180º to one side during development, such that the anus is situated more or less above the head. (This process is unrelated to the coiling of the shell, which is a separate phenomenon.) Torsion is present in all gastropods, but the opistobranch gastropods are secondarily de-torted. However, this "rotation hypothesis" is being challenged by the "asymmetry hypothesis" in which the gastropod mantle cavity originated from one side only of a bilateral set of mantle cavities [1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (882 × 1338 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/png) Schéma anatomie pÅ™edožábrého plže noha pleurální ganglion dýchací otvor horní komisura osfradium žábra  ??? ganglion srdeční pÅ™edsíň viscer... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (882 × 1338 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/png) Schéma anatomie pÅ™edožábrého plže noha pleurální ganglion dýchací otvor horní komisura osfradium žábra  ??? ganglion srdeční pÅ™edsíň viscer... Shell of Zonitoides nitidus has dextral coiling. ... The operculum (plural : opercula or operculums) of gastropods is a corneous plate at the opening of the shell, attached dorsally to the foot. ... In aquatic organisms, gills are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. ... The Osphradium is the olfactory organ in certain molluscs, linked with the respiration organ. ... Diagram describing the different parts of a slug A black slug, , on a rock, with its pneumostome clearly visible. ... The Osphradium is the olfactory organ in certain molluscs, linked with the respiration organ. ... In aquatic organisms, gills are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. ... In anatomy, a ventricle is a part of the body filled with fluid. ... The operculum (plural : opercula or operculums) of gastropods is a corneous plate at the opening of the shell, attached dorsally to the foot. ... The mantle is an organ found in mollusks. ... Histology section of hepatopancreas of slug Deroceras laeve. ... The vas deferens (plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens, (Latin: carrying-away vessel) is part of the male anatomy of some species, including humans. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Nephridia are invertebrate organs which function similarly to kidneys. ... Shell of Zonitoides nitidus has dextral coiling. ... Torsion is a gastropod synapomorphy which occurs in all gastropods during larval development. ...


Gastropods typically have a well-defined head with two or four sensory tentacles, and a ventral foot, which gives them their name (Greek gaster, stomach, and poda, feet). The eyes that may be present at the tip of the tentacles range from simple ocelli that cannot project an image (simply distinguishing light and dark), to more complex pit and even lens eyes [2]. The larval shell of a gastropod is called a protoconch. For other uses of the word head, see head (disambiguation). ... Tentacles can refer to the elongated flexible organs that are present in some animals, especially invertebrates, and sometimes to the hairs of the leaves of some insectivorous plants. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... Ocelli is one of the types of photoreceptor organs in animals. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ...

The shell of Zonitoides nitidus, a small land snail, has dextral coiling, which is typical of gastropod shells, but which is not universally found. Upper image: dorsal view of the shell, showing the apex Central image: lateral view showing the spire and aperture of the shell Lower image: basal view showing the umbilicus
The shell of Zonitoides nitidus, a small land snail, has dextral coiling, which is typical of gastropod shells, but which is not universally found.
Upper image: dorsal view of the shell, showing the apex
Central image: lateral view showing the spire and aperture of the shell
Lower image: basal view showing the umbilicus

Most members have a shell, which is in one piece and is typically coiled or spiraled. This coiled shell usually opens on the right hand side (as viewed with the shell apex pointing upward). Several species have an operculum which in many species is a sort of a trapdoor to close the shell. This is usually made of a horn-like material, but in some molluscs it is calcareous. In the land slugs, the shell is reduced or absent, and the body is streamlined. Image File history File links Zonitoides_nitidus_drawing. ... Image File history File links Zonitoides_nitidus_drawing. ... Shell of Zonitoides nitidus has dextral coiling. ... Binomial name (Müller, 1774) Zonitoides nitidus is species of terrestrial gastropod from family Gastrodontidae. ... Shell of Zonitoides nitidus has dextral coiling. ... Apex is the, usually pointed, tip of the spire of the shell of a gastropod. ... The operculum (plural : opercula or operculums) of gastropods is a corneous plate at the opening of the shell, attached dorsally to the foot. ...


Some of the more familiar and better-known gastropods are terrestrial (the land snails and slugs), but more than two thirds of all named species live in a marine environment. Marine gastropods include some that are herbivores, detritus feeders, predatory carnivores, scavengers, parasites, and also a few ciliary feeders, in which the radula is reduced or absent. In some species which have evolved into endoparasites, such as Parenteroxenos doglieli, many of the standard gastropod features are strongly reduced or absent. A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Detritus may refer to: In geology, detritus is the name for loose fragments of rock that have been worn away by erosion. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Transverse view of the buccal cavity with the radula Radula types chart. ...


The radula of a gastropod is usually adapted to the food that a species eats. The simplest gastropods are the limpets and abalones, herbivores that use their hard radulas to rasp at seaweeds on rocks. Transverse view of the buccal cavity with the radula Radula types chart. ... Suborders and families See text. ... Species Many, see species section. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ...


Many marine gastropods are burrowers, and have soft siphons or tubes that extend from the mantle. Sometimes the shell has a siphonal canal to accommodate this structure. A siphon enables the animal to draw a small flow of water into their bodies. The siphon is used primarily to "taste" the water, in order to detect prey from a distance. Gastropods with siphons tend to be either predators or scavengers. The mantle is an organ found in mollusks. ... Penion cuvieranus cuvieranus, showing its siphonal canal to the left. ...


Almost all marine gastropods breathe with gills, but many freshwater species, and the majority of terrestrial species, have a pallial lung. The gastropods which have a lung all belong to one group with common descent, the Pulmonata, however, the gastropods with gills are paraphyletic. The respiratory protein in almost all gastropods is hemocyanin, but a pulmonate family Planorbidae have hemoglobin as respiratory protein. For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


Some sea slugs are brightly coloured, either as a warning, if they are poisonous or contain stinging cells, or to camouflage them on the hydroids, sponges and seaweeds on which many of the species are found. Suborders Cephalaspidea Sacoglossa Anaspidea Notaspidea Thecosomata Gymnosomata Nudibranchia   Infraorder Anthobranchia   Infraorder Cladobranchia For information on the anti-aircraft weapons system, see Sea Slug missile In zoology, the Opisthobranchia (Milne Edwards, 1848) (also known as opisthobranchs) used to be a subclass of gastropods, within the phylum Mollusca, but they are now... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ...


In one large group of sea slugs, the gills are arranged as a rosette of feathery plumes on their backs, which gives rise to their other name, nudibranchs. Some nudibranchs have smooth or warty backs and have no visible gill mechanism, such that respiration may likely take place directly through the skin. A nudibranch (pronounced ) common name sea slug, is any member of a suborder of soft-bodied, shell-less marine gastropod mollusks noted for their often extraordinary colors and striking forms. ...


A few sea slugs are herbivores and some are carnivores. Many have distinct dietary preferences and regularly occur in close association with their food species.


Geological history

Fossil gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane in southern Israel.
Fossil gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane in southern Israel.
Helix aspersa: a European pulmonate land snail which has commonly been accidentally introduced in many countries throughout the world.
Helix aspersa: a European pulmonate land snail which has commonly been accidentally introduced in many countries throughout the world.
See also: Evolution of Gastropoda and :fr:Gastropoda (classification phylogénétique)

The first gastropods were exclusively marine, with the earliest representatives of the group appearing in the Late Cambrian (Chippewaella, Strepsodiscus). Early Cambrian forms like Helcionella and Scenella are no longer considered gastropods, and the tiny coiled Aldanella of earliest Cambrian time is probably not even a mollusk. By the Ordovician period the gastropods were a varied group present in a range of aquatic habitats. Commonly, fossil gastropods from the rocks of the early Palaeozoic era are too poorly preserved for accurate identification. Still, the Silurian genus Poleumita contains fifteen identified species. Fossil gastropods are less common during the Palaeozoic era than bivalves. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Helix aspersa (Müller, 1774) The brown garden snail (Helix aspersa) (syn. ... The Furongian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ... Chippewaella patellitheca is a very primitive snail-like mollusc from the Late Cambrian. ... Strepsodiscus is a very primitive snail-like mollusc from the Early Late Cambrian (Dresbachian Age) of North America. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Palaeozoic is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... Species Poleumita is an extinct genus of gastropod. ... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ...


Most of the gastropods of the Palaeozoic era belong to primitive groups, a few of which still survive today. By the Carboniferous period many of the shapes we see in living gastropods can be matched in the fossil record, but despite these similarities in appearance the majority of these older forms are not directly related to living forms. It was during the Mesozoic era that the ancestors of many of the living gastropods evolved. The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ...


One of the earliest known terrestrial (land-dwelling) gastropods is Maturipupa which is found in the Coal Measures of the Carboniferous period in Europe, but relatives of the modern land snails are rare before the Cretaceous period when the familiar Helix first appeared. A coal measure (stratigraphic unit) is the name given to any rock sequence that occurs in the upper part of the Carboniferous System in Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Species See text. ...

Cepaea nemoralis: another European pulmonate land snail which has been introduced to many other countries.
Cepaea nemoralis: another European pulmonate land snail which has been introduced to many other countries.

In rocks of the Mesozoic era gastropods are slightly more common as fossils, their shells are often well preserved. Their fossils occur in beds which were deposited in both freshwater and marine environments. The "Purbeck Marble" of the Jurassic period and the "Sussex Marble" of the early Cretaceous period which both occur in southern England are limestones containing the tightly packed remains of the pond snail Viviparus. Download high resolution version (1675x1337, 383 KB) Stako 19:35, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file: Gastropoda Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1675x1337, 383 KB) Stako 19:35, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file: Gastropoda Categories: GFDL images ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The grove snail or brown-lipped snail (Cepaea nemoralis) is one of the most common species of land snail in Europe. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Viviparus is a genus of freshwater snails of Viviparidae family. ...


Rocks of the Cenozoic era yield very large numbers of gastropod fossils, many of these fossils being closely related to modern living forms. The diversity of the gastropods increased markedly at the beginning of this era, along with that of the bivalves. Mammals are the dominant creatures of Cenozoic. ...


Certain trail-like markings preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks are thought to have been made by gastropods crawling over the soft mud and sand. Although these trails are of debatable origin, some of them do resemble the trails made by living gastropods today.


Gastropod fossils may sometimes be confused with ammonites or other shelled cephalopods. An example of this is Bellerophon from the limestones of the Carboniferous period in Europe, the shell of which is planispirally coiled and can be mistaken for the shell of a cephalopod. For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusc class... Bellerophon is a genus of extinct, mostly Paleozoic snail-like mollusc of the order Bellerophontida. ... The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ...


Gastropods are one of the groups that record the changes in fauna caused by the advance and retreat of the Ice Sheets during the Pleistocene epoch. The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ...


Taxonomy

The taxonomy of the Gastropoda is under constant revision, and more and more of the old taxonomy is being abandoned as the results of DNA studies slowly become clearer. Nevertheless some of the older terms such as "opisthobranch" and "prosobranch" are still being used in a descriptive way. For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


The taxonomy of the Gastropoda as shown in various texts can differ in major ways, and on-going revisions of the higher taxonomic levels are to be expected in the near future.


In the older classification there were four subclasses:

According to newer insights based on DNA sequencing, (Ponder & Lindberg, 1997), the taxonomy of the Gastropoda must be rewritten in terms of strictly monophyletic groups. Integrating these findings into a working taxonomy will continue to be a challenge in the coming years. At present, it is impossible to give a classification of the Gastropoda that has consistent ranks and also reflects current usage. Prosobranch signifies gills in front of the heart, this in contrast with opisthobranch: gills to the right and behind the heart The majority of the gastropods (marine snails, land snails) are prosobranch. ... Suborders Cephalaspidea Sacoglossa Anaspidea Notaspidea Thecosomata Gymnosomata Nudibranchia   Infraorder Anthobranchia   Infraorder Cladobranchia For information on the anti-aircraft weapons system, see Sea Slug missile In zoology, the Opisthobranchia (Milne Edwards, 1848) (also known as opisthobranchs) used to be a subclass of gastropods, within the phylum Mollusca, but they are now... Suborders Systellommatophora Basommatophora Eupulmonata Stylommatophora The Pulmonata are an order (sometimes subclass) of snails and slugs that have developed lungs. ... David R. Lindberg is an American malacologist and professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...


Convergent evolution, which appears to exist at especially high frequency within the class Gastropoda, may account for the observed differences between the phylogenies which are obtained from morphological data and the more recent studies based on gene sequences.


New changes in systematics have been made by (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005).[3][4], resulting in a new taxonomy that is a step closer to the evolutionary history of phyla.


Malacologists currently make do with classifications that are hybrids of the latest existing taxonomy and later revisions published in scientific journals. In the past, the taxonomy of gastropods was largely based on morphological characters of the taxa. The recent advances are more based on molecular characters through research of DNA and RNA. This has made the taxonomical ranks and their hierarchy controversial. The debate about these issues is not likely to end soon.


Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005)


This new taxonomy has tried to reconcile these recent advances by using unranked clades for taxa above the rank of superfamily (replacing the ranks suborder, order, superorder and subclass), while using the traditional Linnaean approach for all taxa below the rank of superfamily. Whenever monophyly has not been tested or is known to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic, the term "group" or "informal group" has been used. The classification of families into subfamilies is often not well resolved and should be regarded as the best possible hypothesis. A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...


Proposed classification

For an even more recent taxonomic scheme please see Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005)


Class Gastropoda Cuvier, 1797 Incertæ sedis Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ...

  • Order Bellerophontinaka (fossil)
  • Order Mimospirina (fossil)

Subclass Eogastropoda Ponder & Lindberg, 1996 (earlier: Prosobranchia) Orders Docoglossa Eogastropoda is a subclass of the class Gastropoda, which includes the limpets. ... Prosobranch signifies gills in front of the heart, this in contrast with opisthobranch: gills to the right and behind the heart The majority of the gastropods (marine snails, land snails) are prosobranch. ...

  • Order Euomphalida de Koninck 1881 (fossil)
      • Superfamily Macluritoidea
      • Superfamily Euomphaloidea
      • Superfamily Platyceratoidea
  • Order Patellogastropoda Lindberg, 1986 (true limpets)
Limpets in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England.
Limpets in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England.
    • Suborder Patellina Van Ihering, 1876
    • Suborder Nacellina Lindberg, 1988
      • Superfamily Acmaeoidea Carpenter, 1857
      • Superfamily Nacelloidea Thiele, 1891
    • Suborder Lepetopsina McLean, 1990
      • Superfamily Lepetopsoidea McLean, 1990

Subclass Orthogastropoda Ponder & Lindberg, 1996 (earlier Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia)
Incertæ sedis Suborders Lepetopsina Nacellina Patellina Docoglossa, also known as Patellogastropoda, is an order of the class Gastropoda, and includes the true limpets. Categories: | ... David R. Lindberg is an American malacologist and professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1875 pixel, file size: 820 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1875 pixel, file size: 820 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Johannes Thiele (1860 - 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology. ... Infraclasses Apogastropoda Cocculiniformia Murchisoniina Neritopsina Vetigastropoda In their work, which has become a standard reference in the field, Ponder and Lindberg (1997) showed that the Orthogastropoda is one of two subclasses of the Gastropoda the class of molluscs, the other subclass being the Eogastropoda. ... Prosobranch signifies gills in front of the heart, this in contrast with opisthobranch: gills to the right and behind the heart The majority of the gastropods (marine snails, land snails) are prosobranch. ... Suborders Cephalaspidea Sacoglossa Anaspidea Notaspidea Thecosomata Gymnosomata Nudibranchia   Infraorder Anthobranchia   Infraorder Cladobranchia For information on the anti-aircraft weapons system, see Sea Slug missile In zoology, the Opisthobranchia (Milne Edwards, 1848) (also known as opisthobranchs) used to be a subclass of gastropods, within the phylum Mollusca, but they are now...

  • Order Murchisoniina Cox & Knight, 1960 (fossil)
      • Superfamily Murchisonioidea Koken, 1889
      • Superfamily Loxonematoidea Koken, 1889
      • Superfamily Lophospiroidea Wenz, 1938
      • Superfamily Straparollinoidea
    • Grade Subulitoidea Lindström, 1884

Superorder Cocculiniformia Haszprunar, 1987 Superfamily Cocculinoidea Cocculiniformia is a gastropod infraclass in the subclass Orthogastropoda and containing the superfamily Cocculinoidea. ...

      • Superfamily Cocculinoidea Dall, 1882
      • Superfamily Lepetelloidea Dall, 1882 (deep sea limpets)

Superorder ‘Hot Vent Taxa' Ponder & Lindberg, 1997 William Healey Dall, (August 21, 1845 - March 27, 1927), was a great American naturalist and a prominent malacologist. ... William Healey Dall, (August 21, 1845 - March 27, 1927), was a great American naturalist and a prominent malacologist. ...

  • Order Neomphaloida Sitnikova & Starobogatov, 1983
      • Superfamily Neomphaloidea McLean, 1981 (hydrothermal vents limpets)
      • Superfamily Peltospiroidea McLean, 1989

Superorder Vetigastropoda Salvini-Plawen, 1989 (limpets)

Archaeogastropod from the Pliocene of Cyprus. A serpulid worm is attached.
Archaeogastropod from the Pliocene of Cyprus. A serpulid worm is attached.
      • Superfamily Fissurelloidea Fleming, 1822 (keyhole limpets)
      • Superfamily Haliotoidea Rafinesque, 1815 (abalones)
      • Superfamily Lepetodriloidea McLean, 1988 (hydrothermal vent limpets)
      • Superfamily Pleurotomarioidea Swainson, 1840 (slit shells)
      • Superfamily Seguenzioidea Verrill, 1884
      • Superfamily Trochoidea Rafinesque, 1815 (top shells)

Superorder Neritaemorphi Koken, 1896 Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ...

  • Order Cyrtoneritomorpha (fossil)
  • Order Neritopsina Cox & Knight, 1960
      • Superfamily Neritoidea Lamarck, 1809

Superorder Caenogastropoda Cox, 1960 Families Ceresidae Chilodontidae †Cortinellidae Dawsonellidae Deianiridae Neritidae Neritiliidae Payettiidae Phenacolepadidae Plagiothyridae Proserpinidae †Pseudorthonychiidae Titiscaniidae Neritoidea is a gastropod Superfamily in the order Neritoida and containing the families Ceresidae, Chilodontidae, †Cortinellidae, Dawsonellidae, Deianiridae, Deianiridae, Neritidae, Payettiidae, Phenacolepadidae, Plagiothyridae, Proserpinidae, †Pseudorthonychiidae, and Titiscaniidae. ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... Caenogastropoda Categories: Animal stubs ...

  • Order Architaenioglossa Haller, 1890
      • Superfamily Ampullarioidea J.E. Gray, 1824
      • Superfamily Cyclophoroidea J.E. Gray, 1847 (terrestrials)
  • Order Sorbeoconcha Ponder & Lindberg, 1997
    • Suborder Discopoda P. Fischer, 1884
      • Superfamily Campaniloidea Douvillé, 1904
      • Superfamily Cerithioidea Férussac, 1822
    • Suborder Hypsogastropoda Ponder & Lindberg, 1997
    • Infraorder Littorinimorpha Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975
      • Superfamily Calyptraeoidea Lamarck, 1809
      • Superfamily Capuloidea J. Fleming, 1822
      • Superfamily Carinarioidea Blainville, 1818 (formerly called Heteropoda)
      • Superfamily Cingulopsoidea Fretter & Patil, 1958
      • Superfamily Cypraeoidea Rafinesque, 1815 (cowries)
      • Superfamily Ficoidea Meek, 1864
      • Superfamily Laubierinoidea Warén & Bouchet, 1990
      • Superfamily Littorinoidea (Children), 1834 (periwinkles)
      • Superfamily Naticoidea Forbes, 1838 (moon shells)
      • Superfamily Rissooidea J.E. Gray, 1847 (Risso shells) (includes genus Oncomelania, schistosomiasis transmission vector)
      • Superfamily Stromboidea Rafinesque, 1815 (true conchs)
      • Superfamily Tonnoidea Suter, 1913
      • Superfamily Trivioidea Troschel, 1863
      • Superfamily Vanikoroidea J.E. Gray, 1840
      • Superfamily Velutinoidea J.E. Gray, 1840
      • Superfamily Vermetoidea Rafinesque, 1815 (worm shells)
      • Superfamily Xenophoroidea Troschel, 1852 (carrier shells)
    • Infraorder Ptenoglossa J.E. Gray, 1853
    • Infraorder Neogastropoda Thiele, 1929

Superorder Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840 John Edward Gray. ... John Edward Gray. ... Suborders Discopoda Murchisoniina Hypsogastropoda Sorbeoconcha is an order within the gastropod superorder Caenogastropoda. ... Hypsogastropoda is a suborder within the gastropod order Sorbeoconcha. ... Superfamilies Calyptraeoidea Calyptraeidae Capuloidea Cypraeoidea Littorinoidea Naticoidea Rissooidea Stromboidea Tonnoidea Vanikoroidea Vermetoidea Xenophoroidea Littorinimorpha is an important taxonomic infraorder of snails that includes the genus Oncomelania. ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... There are commune or community names that have the name Blainville: (pro. ... Families Cypraeidae Inviidae Ovulidae Cypraeoidea is a gastropod superfamily in the suborder Hypsogastropoda containing the families Cypraeidae, Inviidae, and Ovulidae Category: ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families Family Rissooidea is an important superfamily of gastropods. ... John Edward Gray. ... Genera Genus Oncomelania Oncomelania is a genus of snail. ... Familiae Aporrhaidae Colombellinidae Pugnellidae Seraphidae Strombidae Struthiolariidae Thersiteidae Zitteliidae Stromboidea is a Gastropod Superfamily in the Infraorder Littorinimorpha. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... John Edward Gray. ... John Edward Gray. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Rodolfo Amando (or Rudolph Amandus) Philippi (14 September 1808–23 July 1904) was a German-Chilean paleontologist and zoologist. ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... John Edward Gray. ... Superfamilies Buccinoidea Cancellarioidea Conoidea Muricoidea The Neogastropoda used to be an order of prosobranch gastropods in the taxonomy of Thiele (1921). ... Johannes Thiele (1860 - 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology. ... Families Buccinidae Columbellidae Fasciolariidae Melongenidae Nassariidae Turbinellidae Buccinoidea is a gastropod superfamily in the infraorder Neogastropoda. ... Families Cancellariidae Paladmetidae Cancellarioidea is a superfamily in the infraorder Neogastropoda and containing the families Cancellariidae and Paladmetidae Category: ... Families Conidae Terebridae Turridae Conoidea is a superfamily within the gastropod suborder Hypsogastropoda. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Muricoidea is a superfamily within the gastropod infraorder Sorbeoconcha. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Orders Heterostropha Opisthobranchia Pulmonata This article does not cite its references or sources. ... John Edward Gray. ...

Cochlodina laminata from the family Clausiliidae or door snails, a small land pulmonate which has a sinistral or left-handed shell, on the trunk of a tree, in woodland, England
Cochlodina laminata from the family Clausiliidae or door snails, a small land pulmonate which has a sinistral or left-handed shell, on the trunk of a tree, in woodland, England
  • Order Pulmonata Cuvier in Blainville, 1814 (pulmonates)
    • Suborder Systellommatophora Pilsbry, 1948
      • Superfamily Onchidioidea Rafinesque, 1815
      • Superfamily Otinoidea H. & A. Adams, 1855
      • Superfamily Rathouisioidea Sarasin, 1889
    • Suborder Basommatophora Keferstein in Bronn, 1864 (freshwater pulmonates, pond snails)
      • Superfamily Acroloxoidea Thiele, 1931
      • Superfamily Amphiboloidea J.E. Gray, 1840
      • Superfamily Chilinoidea H. & A. Adams, 1855
      • Superfamily Glacidorboidea Ponder, 1986
      • Superfamily Lymnaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815
      • Superfamily Planorboidea Rafinesque, 1815
      • Superfamily Siphonarioidea J.E. Gray, 1840
    • Suborder Eupulmonata Haszprunar & Huber, 1990
    • Infraorder Acteophila Dall, 1885 (= formerly Archaeopulmonata)
      • Superfamily Melampoidea Stimpson, 1851
    • Infraorder Trimusculiformes Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975
      • Superfamily Trimusculoidea Zilch, 1959
    • Infraorder Stylommatophora A. Schmidt, 1856 (land snails)
    • Subinfraorder Orthurethra
      • Superfamily Achatinelloidea Gulick, 1873
      • Superfamily Cochlicopoidea Pilsbry, 1900
      • Superfamily Partuloidea Pilsbry, 1900
      • Superfamily Pupilloidea Turton, 1831
    • Subinfraorder Sigmurethra
      • Superfamily Acavoidea Pilsbry, 1895
      • Superfamily Achatinoidea Swainson, 1840
      • Superfamily Aillyoidea Baker, 1960
      • Superfamily Arionoidea J.E. Gray in Turnton, 1840
      • Superfamily Buliminoidea Clessin, 1879
      • Superfamily Camaenoidea Pilsbry, 1895
      • Superfamily Clausilioidea Mörch, 1864
      • Superfamily Dyakioidea Gude & Woodward, 1921
      • Superfamily Gastrodontoidea Tryon, 1866
      • Superfamily Helicoidea Rafinesque, 1815
      • Superfamily Helixarionoidea Bourguignat, 1877
      • Superfamily Limacoidea Rafinesque, 1815
      • Superfamily Oleacinoidea H. & A. Adams, 1855
      • Superfamily Orthalicoidea Albers-Martens, 1860
      • Superfamily Plectopylidoidea Moellendorf, 1900
      • Superfamily Polygyroidea Pilsbry, 1894
      • Superfamily Punctoidea Morse, 1864
      • Superfamily Rhytidoidea Pilsbry, 1893
      • Superfamily Sagdidoidea Pilsbry, 1895
      • Superfamily Staffordioidea Thiele, 1931
      • Superfamily Streptaxoidea J.E. Gray, 1806
      • Superfamily Strophocheiloidea Thiele, 1926
      • Superfamily Trigonochlamydoidea Hese, 1882
      • Superfamily Zonitoidea Mörch, 1864
      • ? Superfamily Athoracophoroidea P. Fischer, 1883 (= Tracheopulmonata)
      • ? Superfamily Succineoidea Beck, 1837 (= Heterurethra)

Other extant classes of the Mollusca are Bivalvia, Scaphopoda, Aplacophora, Polyplacophora, Monoplacophora and Cephalopoda. John Edward Gray. ... Dylan Byrne(September 25, 1839 - January 5, 1904), German palaeontologist, was born at Bahlingen in Baden. ... Georg Ossian Sars (April 20, 1837 - April 9, 1927) was a Norwegian marine biologist. ... John Edward Gray. ... John Edward Gray. ... John Edward Gray. ... Suborders Cephalaspidea Sacoglossa Anaspidea Notaspidea Thecosomata Gymnosomata Nudibranchia   Infraorder Anthobranchia   Infraorder Cladobranchia For information on the anti-aircraft weapons system, see Sea Slug missile In zoology, the Opisthobranchia (Milne Edwards, 1848) (also known as opisthobranchs) used to be a subclass of gastropods, within the phylum Mollusca, but they are now... Alphonse Milne-Edwards (October 13, 1835 _ April 21, 1900) was a French ornithologist. ... Superfamilies Acteonoidea Bulloidea Cylindrobulloidea Diaphanoidea Haminoeoidea Philinoidea Ringiculoidea The suborder Cephalaspidea or the headshield slugs is a suborder of mollusks from the order Opisthobranchia. ... Families Acteonidae Bullinidae Hydatinidae The superfamily of headshield slugs of the Acteonoidea (dOrbigny, 1835) belongs to the suborder Cephalaspidea and the Opisthobranchia. ... Alcide Charles Victor Marie Dessalines dOrbigny (September 6, 1802 - June 30, 1857) was a great French naturalist. ... Family Bullidae The superfamily Bulloidea (Lamarck, 1801) consists of herbivorous marine snails belonging to the headshield slugs of the suborder Cephalaspidea and the order Opisthobranchia. ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... The opisthobranch suborder Cylindrobulloidea used to be recognized as monogeneric suborder : one family Cylindrobullidae, one genus Cylindrobulla. ... Johannes Thiele (1860 - 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology. ... family Diaphanidae Notodiaphanidae The superfamily Diaphanoidea Odhner, 1914, consists of two families of opisthobranchian marine snails with paper bubble shells from the suborder Cephalaspidea. ... family Haminoeidae Bullactidae Smaragdinellidae The superfamily Haminoeoidea Pilsbry, 1895 consists of a group of cephalaspideans with distinct anatomical and morphological characteristics. ... Families See text. ... John Edward Gray. ... Families See text. ... Rodolfo Amando (or Rudolph Amandus) Philippi (14 September 1808–23 July 1904) was a German-Chilean paleontologist and zoologist. ... Families Boselliidae Caliphyllidae Costasiellidae Cylindrobullidae Elysiidae Juliidae Limapontidae Oleidae Oxynoidae Stiligeridae Volvatellidae The suborder Sacoglossa, or the sap-sucking slugs Categories: Animal stubs ... Families Superfamily Akeroidea Akeridae Superfamily Aplysioidea Aplysiidae Sea hares (also called sea slugs) are small marine gastropod molluscs of the suborder Anaspidea (P. Fisher, 1883) in the subclass Orthogastropoda, class Gastropoda, phylum Mollusca. ... Species Genus Anderssonia Anderssonia sphinx Genus Akera Akera bayeri Akera bullata Akera soluta Akeroidea, or bubble shells, is a small superfamily belonging to the order Anaspidea or Sea Hares. ... Genera Aplysia Bursatella Dolabella Dolabrifera Notarchus Petalifera Phyllaplysia Syphonota Stylocheilus The superfamily Aplysioidea contains only one family, the Aplysiidae, or Sea Hares. ... Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829) was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... John Edward Gray. ... Families Limacinidae Cavoliniidae Clioidae Creseidae Cuvierinidae Praecuvierinidae Peraclididae Cymbuliidae Desmopteridae Sea butterflies, or flapping snails, are holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca, Gastropoda), belonging to the suborder Thecosomata (Blainville, 1824). ... There are commune or community names that have the name Blainville: (pro. ... Species Limacina bulimoides Limacina helicina Limacina helicoides Limacina lesueurii Limacina retroversa Limacina trochiformis The sea butterflies from the family Limacinidae (Blainville, 1823) have evolved from fossils from the Middle Miocene. ... Families Cavoliniidae Clioidae Creseidae Cuvierinidae Praecuvierinidae The superfamily Cavolinioidea (Gray, 1850) belongs to the sea butterflies. ... Families Peraclididae Cymbuliidae Desmopteridae In this suborder Pseudothecosomata of sea butterflies some groups possess a shell, some are without, and others have developed a relatively tough gelatinous, cartilaginous internal structure so-called pseudo-conchs. The lateral and posterior foot lobes are joined as a ciliated proboscis that leads to the... Families Clionidae Cliopsidae Hermaeidae Hydromylidae Laginiopsidae Notobranchaeidae Pneumodermatidae Thliptodontidae Sea angels are small pteropod mollusks of the suborder Gymnosomata. ... There are commune or community names that have the name Blainville: (pro. ... Genera Clione Clionina Fowlerina Paedoclione Paraclione Thalassopterus The sea angels of the family Clionidae (Rafinesque, 1815) are gelatinous, mostly transparent pteropods. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Genera Cliopsis Pruvotella As all gymnosome pteropods, the sea angels of the family Cliopsidae (Costa, 1873) lack a shell (unless in early embryonic stage). ... Genus Hydromyles The small pelagic snails of the family Hydromylidae (Pruvot-Fol, 1942) lack a shell (except in their early embryonic stage). ... Alice Pruvot-Fol (1873-1972) was a French opisthobranch malacologist. ... Genus Laginiopsis The small pelagic snails of the family Laginiopsidae (Pruvot-Fol, 1922) lack a shell (except in their early embryonic stage). ... Alice Pruvot-Fol (1873-1972) was a French opisthobranch malacologist. ... Genera Notobranchaea The small pelagic snails of the family Notobranchaeidae (Pelseneer, 1886) lack a shell (except in early embryonic stage). ... Genera Pneumoderma Pneumodermopsis Schizobrachium Spongiobranchaea Abranchaea Platybrachium The small pelagic snails of the family Pneumodermatidae (Latreille, 1825) lack a shell (except in their early embryonic stage). ... Genera Thliptodon Cephalobrachia Massya The small planktonic pelagic snails of the family Thliptodontidae (Kwietniewski, 1910) lack a shell (except in their early embryonic stage). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (828x988, 120 KB) A Door Snail (Clausiliidae) on a tree trunk in Gamlingay Wood, Cambridgeshire, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (828x988, 120 KB) A Door Snail (Clausiliidae) on a tree trunk in Gamlingay Wood, Cambridgeshire, England. ... Infraorders See text Nudibranchs (Nudibranchia), form the largest suborder of the order Opisthobranchia, subclass Orthogastropoda, class Gastropoda in the phylum Mollusca. ... There are commune or community names that have the name Blainville: (pro. ... Families See text. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families See text. ... Families See text. ... Families and genera See text. ... Families See text. ... Families See text. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families See text. ... Families See text. ... John Edward Gray. ... Suborders Systellommatophora Basommatophora Eupulmonata Stylommatophora The Pulmonata are an order (sometimes subclass) of snails and slugs that have developed lungs. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... There are commune or community names that have the name Blainville: (pro. ... Families See text. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families See text. ... Johannes Thiele (1860 - 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology. ... John Edward Gray. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... John Edward Gray. ... Suborder Eupulmonata Haszprunar & Huber, 1990 Infraorder Acteophila Dall, 1885 (= formerly Archaeopulmonata) Superfamily Melampoidea Stimpson, 1851 Infraorder Trimusculiformes Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 Superfamily Trimusculoidea Zilch, 1959 Infraorder Stylommatophora A. Schmidt, 1856 (land snails) Subinfraorder Orthurethra Superfamily Achatinelloidea Gulick, 1873 Superfamily Cochlicopoidea Pilsbry, 1900 Superfamily Partuloidea Pilsbry, 1900 Superfamily Pupilloidea Turton, 1831 Subinfraorder... William Healey Dall, (August 21, 1845 - March 27, 1927), was a great American naturalist and a prominent malacologist. ... Anatomy of a slug A slug from North Bend, WA Slugs are gastropod molluscs without shells or with very small internal shells, in contrast to snails, which have a prominent coiled shell. ... Arionoidea is a superfamily of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... John Edward Gray. ... Dyakioidea is a superfamily of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... Gastrodontoidea is a superfamily of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... Helicoidea is a superfamilia of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families Ariophantidae Cystopeltidae Dyakiidae Euconulidae Helixarionidae Sesaridae[] Trochomorphidae Urocyclidae Synonyms Helicarionoidea The Helixarionoidea are a superfamily of stalk-eyed snails and slugs. ... Limacoidea is a superfamily of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families Charopidae Discidae Endodontidae Helicodiscidae Oopeltidae Oreohelicidae Otoconchidae Philiomycidae Punctidae Synonyms Endodontoidea The Punctoidea are a superfamily of stalk-eyed snails and slugs. ... Johannes Thiele (1860 - 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology. ... John Edward Gray. ... Johannes Thiele (1860 - 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology. ... Zonitidae is the only family of gastropods in superfamily Zonitoidea from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... Subclasses Anomalosdesmata Cryptodonta Heterodonta Paleoheterodonta Palaeotaxodonta Pteriomorphia and see text Mussels in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England. ... Orders Dentaliida Gadilida The tusk shells are a class Scaphopoda of marine mollusks distinguished by curved tubular shells open at both ends, resembling a elephants tusk (thus the name). ... Subclasses and families Subclass Chaetodermomorpha (Caudofoveata) Family Chaetodermidae Family Falcidentidae Family Limifossoridae Family Metachaetodermatidae Family Prochaetodermatidae Family Scutopidae Subclass Neomeniomorpha (Solenogastres) Family Acanthomeniidae Family Amphimeniidae Family Dondersiidae Family Drepanomeniidae Family Epimeniidae Family Gymnomeniidae Family Hemimeniidae Family Heteroherpiidae Family Imeroherpiidae Family Lepidomeniidae Family Macellomeniidae Family Meiomeniidae Family Neomeniidae Family Perimeniidae Family... Lined Chiton (Tonicella lineata) Chitons, also called polyplacophorans and rarely polyplacophores, are 860 species of molluscs of the Class Polyplacophora. ... Orders Cyrtonellida Tryblidiida Pelagiellida Monoplacophora is a class of mollusks thought to be extinct until April 1952, when a living animal was dredged up from deep marine sediments in the Middle America Trench off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, and named Neopilina by its discoverer, Danish biologist Dr. Henning... Orders Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Nautilida The Cephalopods (head-foot) are the mollusc class Cephalopoda characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a modification of the mollusc foot into the form of arms or tentacles. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Louise R. Page (2006). "Modern insights on gastropod development: Reevaluation of the evolution of a novel body plan". Integrative and Comparative Biology 46 (2). 
  2. ^ Götting, Klaus-Jürgen (1994). "Schnecken", in Becker, U., Ganter, S., Just, C. & Sauermost, R.: Lexikon der Biologie. Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag. ISBN 3-86025-156-2. 
  3. ^ Bouchet, P.; Rocroi, J.-P. (Ed.); Frýda,J.; Hausdorf,B.; Ponder, W.; Valdes, A.; Warén, A. (2005). Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology, 47(1-2). ConchBooks: Hackenheim, Germany. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. 397 pp. http://www.vliz.be/Vmdcdata/imis2/ref.php?refid=78278
  4. ^ Poppe G.T. & Tagaro S.P. 2006. The new classification of Gastropods according to Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005. Visaya, février 2006: 10 pp. http://www.journal-malaco.fr/bouchet&rocroi_2005_Visaya.pdf

Bibliographic References

  • Shelagh M. Smith - Key to the British Marine Gastropoda, Contains 44 pages plus line drawings about A4 in size. [1]
  • Paul Jeffery. Suprageneric classification of class GASTROPODA. The Natural History Museum, London, 2001
  • Ponder & Lindberg, Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs; an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119 83-2651; 1997
  • Elpidio A. Remigio and Paul D.N. Hebert (2003). "Testing the utility of partial COI sequences for phylogenetic (full text on line)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Conchology.be consult over 2,100,000 figured gastropods and other shells
  • Gastropod Neuroscience
  • Taxonomy
  • Gastropod Classification compiled by Paul Jeffery
  • International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 4th edition, 2000
  • Gastropods in captivity
  • Reconstructions of fossil gastropods at www.emilydamstra.com


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gastropoda - LoveToKnow 1911 (14569 words)
GASTROPODA, the second of the five classes of animals constituting the phylum Mollusca.
The Gastropoda are mainly characterized by a loss of symmetry, produced by torsion of the visceral sac.
The essential feature of the asymmetry of Gastropoda is the atrophy or disappearance of the primitively left half of the circumanal complex (the right half in sinistral forms), including the gill, the auricle, the osphradium, the hypobranchial gland and the kidney.
Malacological publications (520 words)
Observations on the formation of spermatophores in a Bulimulid land snail, Drymaeus canaliculatus (Pfeiffer, 1845) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata).
Notes on the genus Naesiotus Albers, 1850 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae).
Drymaeus zingarensis, a new land snail from Colombia (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Bulimulidae).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m