FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gastrointestinal tract

Salivary glands Parotid gland Submandibular gland Sublingual gland Pharynx Tongue Esophagus Pancreas Pancreatic duct Stomach Ileum Anus Rectum Vermiform appendix Cecum Descending colon Ascending colon Transverse colon Bile duct Duodenum Gallbladder Liver Oral cavity Extispicy (from Latin extispicium) is the practice of using anomalies in animals entrails to divine future events. ...

Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract
Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract

The digestive tract is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The major functions of the GI tract are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and defecation. Image File history File links Digestive_system_diagram_en. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming something edible, i. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Anatomy of the anus and rectum For the death metal band Defecation, see Defecation (band). ...


The GI tract differs substantially from animal to animal. Some animals have multi-chambered stomachs, while some animals' stomachs contain a single chamber. In a normal human adult male, the GI tract is approximately 6.5 meters (20 feet) long and consists of the upper and lower GI tracts. The tract may also be divided into foregut, midgut, and hindgut, reflecting the embryological origin of each segment of the tract. This article is about modern humans. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the intestine, or to the entrance of the bile duct. ... The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines are derived. ... Hindgut is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Upper gastrointestinal tract

The upper GI tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach. Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...

  • The mouth contains the buccal mucosa, which contains the openings of the salivary glands; the tongue; and the teeth.
  • Behind the mouth lies the pharynx, which leads to a hollow muscular tube, the esophagus.
  • Peristalsis takes place, which is the contraction of muscles to propel the food down the esophagus which extends through the chest and pierces the diaphragm to reach the stomach.

Buccal mucosa is mucous membrane of the inside of the cheek. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles to propel contents through the digestive tract. ... Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Lower gastrointestinal tract

The lower GI tract comprises the intestines and anus.

In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... Grays Fig. ... The large intestine, an organ which is now more commonly referred to by its Greek name, the colon, is the last part of the digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon or large intestine or large bowel is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... The Descending Colon passes downward through the left hypochondriac and lumbar regions along the lateral border of the left kidney. ... The sigmoid colon (pelvic colon; sigmoid flexure) forms a loop which averages about 40 cm. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ...

Accessory organs

Accessory organs to the alimentary canal include the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The liver secretes bile into the small intestine via the biliary system, employing the gallbladder as a reservoir. Apart from storing and concentrating bile, the gallbladder has no other specific function. The pancreas secretes an isosmotic fluid containing bicarbonate and several enzymes, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, and pancreatic amylase, as well as nucleolytic enzymes (deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease), into the small intestine. Both of these secretory organs aid in digestion. For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... Trypsin (EC 3. ... Chymotrypsin (bovine γ chymotrypsin: PDB 1AB9, EC 3. ... A computer-generated image of a type of pancreatic lipase (PLRP2) from the guinea pig. ... Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... A deoxyribonuclease (DNase, for short) is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA backbone. ... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ...


Embryology

The gut is an endoderm-derived structure. At approximately the 16th day of human development, the embryo begins to fold ventrally (with the embryo's ventral surface becoming concave) in two directions: the sides of the embryo fold in on each other and the head and tail fold towards one another. The result is that a piece of the yolk sac, an endoderm-lined structure in contact with the ventral aspect of the embryo, begins to be pinched off to become the primitive gut. The yolk sac remains connected to the gut tube via the vitelline duct. Usually this structure regresses during development; in cases where it does not, it is known as Meckel's diverticulum. Endoderm is one of the germ layers formed during animal embryogenesis. ... The yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 5 weeks gestation. ... Endoderm is one of the germ layers formed during animal embryogenesis. ... At the end of the fourth week the yolk-sac presents the appearance of a small pear-shaped vesicle (umbilical vesicle) opening into the digestive tube by a long narrow tube, the vitelline duct. ... A Meckels diverticulum is a true congenital diverticulum. ...


During fetal life, the primitive gut can be divided into three segments: foregut, midgut, and hindgut. Although these terms are often used in reference to segments of the primitive gut, they are nevertheless used regularly to describe components of the definitive gut as well. The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the intestine, or to the entrance of the bile duct. ... The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines are derived. ... Hindgut is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. ...


Each segment of the primitive gut gives rise to specific gut and gut-related structures in the adult. Components derived from the gut proper, including the stomach and colon, develop as swellings or dilatations of the primitive gut. In contrast, gut-related derivatives—that is, those structures that derive from the primitive gut but are not part of the gut proper—in general develop as outpouchings of the primitive gut. The blood vessels supplying these structures remain constant throughout development.[1] In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ...

Part Range in adult Gives rise to Arterial supply
foregut the pharynx, to the upper duodenum pharynx, esophagus, stomach, upper duodenum, respiratory tract (including the lungs), liver, gallbladder, and pancreas branches of the celiac artery
midgut lower duodenum, to the first half of the transverse colon lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, and first half of the transverse colon branches of the superior mesenteric artery
hindgut second half of the transverse colon, to the upper part of the anal canal remaining half of the transverse colon, descending colon, rectum, and upper part of the anal canal branches of the inferior mesenteric artery

The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the intestine, or to the entrance of the bile duct. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... The celiac artery, also known as the celiac trunk, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta and branches from the aorta around the level of the T12 vertebra in humans. ... The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines are derived. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... Grays Fig. ... The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum. ... Look up appendix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon or large intestine or large bowel is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum to the left colic flexure and the pancreas. ... Hindgut is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. ... The Descending Colon passes downward through the left hypochondriac and lumbar regions along the lateral border of the left kidney. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine. ... In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum. ...

Physiology

Specialization of organs

Four organs are subject to specialization in the kingdom Animalia. Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented...

  • The first organ is the tongue which is only present in the phylum Chordata.
  • The second organ is the oesophagus. The crop is an enlargement of the oesophagus in birds, insects and other invertebrates that is used to store food temporarily.
  • The third organ is the stomach. In addition to a glandular stomach (proventriculus), birds have a muscular "stomach" called the ventriculus or "gizzard." The gizzard is used to mechanically grind up food.
  • The fourth organ is the large intestine. An outpouching of the large intestine called the cecum is present in non-ruminant herbivores such as rabbits. It aids in digestion of plant material such as cellulose

For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... The esophagus, oe/œsophagus*, or gullet is the muscular tube in vertebrates through which ingested food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... A crop is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion that is found in many animals, including gastropods, earthworms[1], leeches[2], insects, birds and clowns. ... The esophagus, oe/œsophagus*, or gullet is the muscular tube in vertebrates through which ingested food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The large intestine, an organ which is now more commonly referred to by its Greek name, the colon, is the last part of the digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ...

The "Brain-Gut Connection

Several studies have linked the human brain and the gastrointestinal system. Emotional state is strongly linked to gastrointestinal symptoms; many people experience altered bowel habits as a result of stress, anxiety, and depression. Many researchers consider the gastrointestinal system to be a "second brain". For example, Irritable Bowel Syndrome is strongly linked to emotional state, and many patients' symptoms are exacerbated by anxiety and depression.


Pathology

There are a number of diseases and conditions affecting the gastrointestinal system, including:

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn's Diseae and ulcerative colitis)
  • Giardiasis
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Gastroenteritis, also known as "stomach flu";an inflammation of the stomach and intestines
  • Diverticulitis
  • Pancreatitis

Immune function

The gastrointestinal tract is also a prominent part of the immune system.[2] The low pH (ranging from 1 to 4) of the stomach is fatal for many microorganisms that enter it. Similarly, mucus (containing IgA antibodies) neutralizes many of these microorganisms. Other factors in the GI tract help with immune function as well, including enzymes in the saliva and bile. Enzymes such as Cyp3A4, along with the antiporter activities, are also instrumental in the intestine's role of detoxification of antigens and xenobiotics, such as drugs, involved in first pass metabolism. Health-enhancing intestinal bacteria serve to prevent the overgrowth of potentially harmful bacteria in the gut. Microorganisms are also kept at bay by an extensive immune system comprising the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Mucus cells. ... IGA may stand for: Koji Igarashi, a video game producer Interactive genetic algorithm International Geothermal Association Independent Glass Association International Gothic Association International Gamers Award International Goat Association Irish Games Association Irish Geological Association ImmunoGlobulin A - see IgA nephritis which is a renal disease IGA (supermarkets) Independent Grocers Association or... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... A xenobiotic is a chemical which is found in an organism but which is not normally produced or expected to be present in it. ... The first pass effect (or first pass metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism. ... Gut flora, or intestinal bacteria, are the bacteria that normally live in the digestive tract and perform a number of useful functions involving digestion for their hosts. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Overview About 70% of the bodys immune system is found in the digestive tract. ...


Histology

General structure of the gut wall.
General structure of the gut wall.

The gastrointestinal tract has a uniform general histology with some differences which reflect the specialization in functional anatomy.[3] The GI tract can be divided into 4 concentric layers:

The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... In the gastrointestinal tract. ... The muscular coat (or muscular layer, or muscular fibers, or muscularis externa) is a region of smooth muscle in many organs in the vertebrate body, adjacent to the mucous membrane. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A serosa is a serous membrane, Serous membranes line the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities, enclosing their contents. ...

Mucosa

The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract, surrounding the lumen, or space within the tube. This layer comes in direct contact with the food (or bolus), and is responsible for absorption and secretion, important processes in digestion. Lumen can mean: Lumen (unit), the SI unit of luminous flux Lumen (anatomy), the cavity or channel within a tubular structure Thylakoid lumen, the inner membrane space of the chloroplast 141 Lumen, an asteroid discovered by the French astronomer Paul Henry in 1875 Lumen (band), an American post-rock band... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ...


The mucosa can be divided into:

The mucosae are highly specialized in each organ of the gastrointestinal tract, facing a low pH in the stomach, absorbing a multitude of different substances in the small intestine, and also absorbing specific quantities of water in the large intestine. Reflecting the varying needs of these organs, the structure of the mucosa can consist of invaginations of secretory glands (e.g., gastric pits), or it can be folded in order to increase surface area (examples include villi and plicae circulares). This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... The lamina propria is a thin vascular layer of connective tissue beneath the epithelium of an organ. ... Section of mucous membrane of human rectum. ... Gastric pits are indentations in the stomach which denote entrances to the glands. ... Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine and have additional extensions called microvilli (singular: microvillus) which protrude from epithelial cells lining villi. ... The circular folds (valves of Kerkring) are large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the bowel. ...


Submucosa

The submucosa consists of a dense irregular layer of connective tissue with large blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves branching into the mucosa and muscularis. It contains Meissner's plexus, an enteric nervous plexus, situated on the inner surface of the muscularis externa. The nerves of the small intestines are derived from the plexuses of sympathetic nerves around the superior mesenteric artery. ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an interdependent part of the autonomic nervous system. ...


Muscularis externa

The muscularis externa consists of a circular inner muscular layer and a longitudinal outer muscular layer. The circular muscle layer prevents the food from going backwards and the longitudinal layer shortens the tract. The coordinated contractions of these layers is called peristalsis and propels the bolus, or balled-up food, through the GI tract. Between the two muscle layers are the myenteric or Auerbach's plexus. The term, longitudinal means front-to-back or top-to-bottom as opposed to transverse which means side-to-side. In automotive engineering, the term, longitudinal refers to an engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle, front to back. ... Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles to propel contents through the digestive tract. ... Part of the enteric nervous system, Auerbachs plexus exists between the longitudinal and circular layers of muscle in the gastrointestinal tract and provides motor innervation to both layers and secretomotor innervation to the mucosa. ...


Adventitia

The adventitia consists of several layers of epithelia. When the adventitia is facing the mesentery or peritoneal fold, the adventitia is covered by a mesothelium supported by a thin connective tissue layer, together forming a serosa, or serous membrane. This article needs to be wikified. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... In anatomy, a mesentery is a part of the peritoneum that connects an internal organ, such as the small intestine, to the abdominal wall. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... A serosa is a serous membrane, Serous membranes line the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities, enclosing their contents. ...


Uses of animal gut by humans

  • The stomachs of calves have commonly been used as a source of rennet for making cheese.
  • The use of animal gut strings by musicians can be traced back to the third dynasty of Egypt. In the recent past, strings were made out of lamb gut. With the advent of the modern era, musicians have tended to use strings made of silk, or synthetic materials such as nylon or steel. Some instrumentalists, however, still use gut strings in order to evoke the older tone quality. Although such strings were commonly referred to as "catgut" strings, cats were never used as a source for gut strings.
  • Sheep gut was the original source for natural gut string used in racquets, such as for tennis. Today, synthetic strings are much more common, but the best strings are now made out of cow gut.
  • Gut cord has also been used to produce strings for the snares which provide the snare drum's characteristic buzzing timbre. While the snare drum currently almost always uses metal wire rather than gut cord, the North African bendir frame drum still uses gut for this purpose.
  • "Natural" sausage hulls (or casings) are made of animal gut, especially hog, beef, and lamb.
  • Animal gut was used to make the cord lines in longcase clocks and for fusee movements in bracket clocks, but may be replaced by metal wire.
  • The oldest known condoms, from 1640, were made from animal intestine.

Rennet (IPA pronunciation: ) is a natural complex of enzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mothers milk. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Squash racquet and ball Racquetball racquet and ball A racquet (or racket) is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of cord is stretched. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Moroccan bendir with snares The bendir (erbeni or arbani) is a frame drum used as a traditional instrument throughout North Africa, more specifically in Tunisia. ... This article is about sausage casings. ... A longcase clock with a pine case, c. ... This article is about the clock component. ... Bracket clocks were developed in last quarter of the 17th century. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Digestive system

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Gastrointestinal hormone is one of a group of hormones secreted by various specialized cells in the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine that control various functions of the digestive organs. ... Dorlands Medical Dictionary was first published in 1890 as the American Illustrated Medical Dictionary including 770 pages. ... The major systems of the human body consist of: Circulatory system Digestive system Endocrine system Immune system Integumentary system Lymphatic system Muscular system Nervous system Reproductive system Respiratory system Skeletal system Urinary system Category: ...

Notes

  1. ^ Bruce M. Carlson (2004). Human Embryology and Developmental Biology, 3rd edition, Saint Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0-323-03649-X. 
  2. ^ Richard Coico, Geoffrey Sunshine, Eli Benjamini (2003). Immunology: a short course. New York: Wiley-Liss. ISBN 0-471-22689-0. 
  3. ^ Abraham L. Kierszenbaum (2002). Histology and cell biology: an introduction to pathology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0-323-01639-1. 

References

National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ...

External links

The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Pancreatectomy is a medical term referring to removal by surgery of part or all of the pancreas. ... A pancreaticoduodenectomy, Whipple procedure, or Kausch-Whipple procedure, is a major surgical operation involving the pancreas, duodenum, and other organs. ... The Puestow procedure (also known as a Puestow-Gillesby procedure, or a pancreaticojejunostomy) is a surgical technique used in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. ... Freys procedure is a surgical technique used in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis in which the diseased portions of the pancreas head are cored out. ... Herniorrhaphy (Hernioplasty, Hernia repair) is a surgical procedure for correcting hernia. ... A laparotomy is a surgical maneuver involving an incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity. ... Paracentesis is a medical procedure used for a number of reasons: to relieve abdominal pressure from ascites to diagnose spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and other infections (e. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... In zootomy, the integumentary system is the external covering of the body, comprising the skin, hair, scales, nails, sweat glands and their products (sweat and mucus). ... The human lymphatic system The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... The muscular system is the biological system of an organism that allows it to move. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... A pictorial illustration of the human female reproductive system. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fluoride & the Gastrointestinal Tract (3898 words)
Fluoride ingestion and its correlation with gastrointestinal discomfort.
Gastrointestinal symptoms consist of epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and occasionally, blood-loss anemia; these presumably result from the irritant effect of fluoride ion on gastric mucosa.
It is concluded that in an endemic (fluorosis) zone, where the inhabitants are consuming water of high fluoride content, the occurrence of gastrointestinal complaints - viz., loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, constipation and intermittent diarrhoea - is one of the early warning signs of fluoride toxicity and fluorosis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m