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Encyclopedia > Gastrointestinal physiology

Gastrointestinal physiology is a branch of human physiology addressing the physical function of the gastrointestinal system. Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of normal humans or human tissues or organs. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...

Contents

peristalsis

Section of mucous membrane of human rectum. ... The muscular coat (or muscular layer, or muscular fibers, or muscularis externa) is a region of smooth muscle in many organs in the vertebrate body, adjacent to the mucous membrane. ...

gastric hormones

Hormone Source Description
cholecystokinin duodenum, jejunum -
enteroglucagon stomach, small intestine -
gastric inhibitory peptide duodenum, jejunum -
gastrin stomach increases production of HCl
motilin small intestine stimulates peristalsis
secretin duodenum -
vasoactive intestinal peptide stomach, large intestine, small intestine stimulates peristalsis

Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by the duodenum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl). ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... In much of the digestive tract, muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces food (called bolus while in the esophagus and chyme below the esophagus) along the alimentary canal. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The large intestine is the last part of digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... In much of the digestive tract, muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces food (called bolus while in the esophagus and chyme below the esophagus) along the alimentary canal. ...

other secretions

Saliva is the watery and usually somewhat frothy substance produced in the mouths of some animals, including humans. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ...

enteric nervous system

the biliary tree

X-Ray of the bile duct during a laprascopic cholecystectomy A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... Bile canaliculus (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by hepatocytes. ... The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the junction of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver) and the left hepatic duct (which drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver). ... The cystic duct is the short (usually around a centimetre or so) duct that joins the gall bladder to the common bile duct. ... Bile, which is synthesized in the liver, is carried to the right and left hepatic ducts, which converge to form the common hepatic duct. ... A duct joining the pancreas to the bile duct to supply pancreatic juice which aid in digestion provided by the exocrine pancreas. ... The hepatopancreatic ampulla, also commonly called the Ampulla of Vater, is formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and the bile duct. ...

digestion

Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ...

splanchnic circulation

The superior mesenteric artery arises from the anterior surface of the aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the duodenum and pancreas to the left colic flexure. ... In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum. ...

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