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Encyclopedia > Gastroenterology

Gastroenterology (MeSH heading[2] ) is the branch of medicine where the digestive system and its disorders are studied. Etymologically it is the combination of Ancient Greek words gastros (stomach), enteron (intestine) and logos (reason). A mesh is similar to fabric or a web in that it has many connected or weaved pieces. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... The digestive system is the organ system that breaks down and absorbs nutrients that are essential for growth and maintenance. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine (or colon). ... Look up logos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ...


Diseases affecting gastrointestinal tract (i.e. organs from mouth to anus) are the focus of this speciality. Doctors specialising in the field are called gastroenterologists. Important advances are made in the last 50 years, contributing to rapid expansion of its scope. A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Åž:For other uses, see Organ (disambiguation) In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... male human mouth The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the orifice through which an organism takes in food and water. ... Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy This article is about the bodily orifice. ...


Hepatology or hepatobiliary medicine encompasses the study of the liver, pancreas and biliary tree and is traditionally considered a subspeciality. Hepatology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with disorders of the liver, gall bladder and biliary ducts. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates[2]. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ...

Contents

History

Galen
Galen
Drawings of Bozzini's "Lichtleiter"
Drawings of Bozzini's "Lichtleiter"

Citing from Egyptian papyri, Nunn identified significant knowledge of gastrointestinal diseases among practising doctors in Pharaoh periods. Irynakhty, of the tenth dynasty c. 2125 BC was a court physician specialising in gastroenterology and proctology.[1] Drawing of Galen. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Proctology is a field in medicine dealing with diseases and disorders of the rectum, anus, colon and pelvic floor. ...


Among ancient Greeks, Hippocrates attributed digestion to concoction. Galen's concept of the stomach having four faculties was widely accepted up to modernity. For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Galen. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...


18th century:

19th century: Lazzaro Spallanzani. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στομάχι) is an organ in the alimentary canal used to digest food. ... Johann Georg Ritter von Zimmermann (December 8, 1728 - October 7, 1795), Swiss philosophical writer and physician, was born at Brugg, in the canton of Aargau. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is the term for tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool), cramping, and frequent, small-volume severe diarrhea associated with blood in the feces. ... Maximilian Stoll (October 12, 1742 - May 25, 1787) was an Austrian physician who was a native of Erzingen, Baden-Württemberg. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ...

  • In 1805 Philip Bozzini made first attempt to observe living human body through a tube he named Lichtleiter (light guiding instrument) to examine the urinary tract, the rectum and the pharynx. This is the earliest description of endoscopy.[4][5]
  • Charles Emile Troisier described enlargement of lymph node in abdominal cancer.[6]
  • In 1868 Adolf Kussmaul, a well known German physician, developed the gastroscope. He perfected the technique on sword swallower.
  • In 1871, at the society of physicians in Vienna, Carl Stoerk demonstrated an esophagoscope made of two telescopic metal tubes, initially devised by Waldenburg in 1870.
  • In 1876 Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer described the properties of some liver cells now called Kupffer cell.
  • In 1884 Kronecker and Meltzern studied oesophageal manometry in man.

20th century: The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer A flexible endoscope. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Adolph Kussmaul (1822 - 1902) was a German physician. ... In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or upper endoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualises the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Sword swallowing is a dangerous performance art, in which the performer inserts a sword into his mouth and down his esophagus towards his stomach. ... Karl Stoerk (German: Störk); (September 17, 1832 - September 13, 1899) was an Austrian laryngologist who was a native of Ofen. ... Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer (born 14 November 1829, Lesten, near Mitau in Kurland, now part of Latvia, died 16 December 1902, Munich) was a German anatomist who discovered stellate macrophage cells that bear his name. ... Kupffer cells or Browicz-Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages located in the liver that form part of the reticuloendothelial system. ... In medicine, manometry is a study performed to examine the pression of one part of the body, generally the muscle function of the esophagus. ...

Lovell Beach House, Los Angeles California Rudolf Michael Schindler (1887–1953) was an Austrian-American architect who worked in Los Angeles during the mid-20th century. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Burrill Bernard Crohn (born June 13, 1884 in New York; died 1983 in Connecticut) was an American gastroenterologist and one of the first to describe the disease of which he is the namesake, Crohns disease. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining between). ... Basil Hirschowitz is an academic Gastroenterologist best known in the field for having invented an improved optical glass fiber which allowed the creation of a useful flexible endoscope. ... Barry James Marshall, FRS FAA (born 30 September 1951 in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia) is an Australian physician and Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Western Australia. ... J. Robin Warren (born June 11, 1937 in Adelaide) is an Australian pathologist and researcher who is credited with the 1979 discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Binomial name Helicobacter pylori ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) Helicobacter pylori is a helical shaped Gram-negative bacterium that colonises the mucus layer of gastric epithelium in the stomach, and also the duodenum when it has undergone gastric metaplasia. ... Peptic ulcer is a non-malignant ulcer of the stomach (called gastric ulcer) or duodenum (called duodenal ulcer). ...

Disease classification

1. International Classification of Disease(ICD 2007)/WHO classification:
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ...

  • Chapter XI,Diseases of the digestive system,(K00-K93)[3]

2. MeSH subject Heading:
A mesh is similar to fabric or a web in that it has many connected or weaved pieces. ...

  • Gastroenterology (G02.403.776.409.405)[4]
  • Gastroenterological diseases(C06.405)[5]

3.National Library of Medicine Catalogue(NLM classification 2006):
The U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the U.S. federal government, is the worlds largest medical research library. ...

  • Digestive system(W1)[6]

Gastroenterological societies

Sworn enemy of the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), The American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), founded in 1932, serves to advance the scientific study and medical practice of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Founded in 1897, the American Gastroenterological Association is the oldest medical-specialty society in the United States. ... The core purpose of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy is to be the leader in advancing and promoting excellence in gastrointestinal endoscopy Goals: ASGE will be recognized by its members for helping them to improve their endoscopic practice. ... Founded in 1937. ...

References

  1. ^ Nunn JF. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. 2002. ISBN 0-80613-504-2.
  2. ^ Edgardo Rivera, MD James L. Abbruzzese, MD; Pancreatic, Hepatic, and Biliary Carcinomas, MEDICAL ONCOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW[1]
  3. ^ DeStoll M: Rationis Mendendi, in Nosocomio Practico vendobonensi. Part 1 LugduniBatavarum, Haak et Socios et A et J Honkoop 1788, OCLC: 23625746
  4. ^ Gilger, Mark A. MD,Gastroenterologic endoscopy in children: past, present, and future. Gastroenterology and nutrition Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 13(5):429-434, October 2001.
  5. ^ The Origin of Endoscopes, Olympus history
  6. ^ Anton Sebastian,A Dictionary of the History of Medicine, ISBN 1850700214

Publications

Open access to full text Open access to abstract and some full text
Information for patients Practice guidelines
  • Medscape practice guidelines
  • British society of gastroenterology
  • Washington university guideline for primary care provider
  • PRODIGY Guideline
  • World Gastroenterology Organisation guideline
  • Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

Related links

  • Virtual Gastro Centre
  • On-Line Gastroenterology Journal Club (via JournalReview.org)
  • GastroHep.com - Gastrohep
  • The Digital Atlas of Video Education - Gastroenterology

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gastroenterology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (121 words)
Gastroenterology or gastrology is the medical specialty concerned with the field of digestive diseases.
Traditionally, these are separated by anatomic or functional category.
For example, disorders of the esophagus might be listed under "esophagus" and also included in a description of motility disorders (disorders of motor function.) Diseases of the liver fall under the branch of hepatology, which is traditionally classified under the umbrella of gastroenterology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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