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Encyclopedia > Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
Identifiers
Symbol(s) GIP
Entrez 2695
OMIM 137240
RefSeq NM_004123
UniProt P09681
Other data
Locus Chr. 17 q21.3-q22

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the secretin family of hormones. GIP is derived from a 153-amino acid proprotein encoded by the GIP gene and circulates as a biologically active 42-amino acid peptide. It is synthesized by K cells, which are found in the mucosa of the duodenum and the jejunum of the gastrointestinal tract. Like all hormones, it is transported by blood. GIP receptors are seven-transmembrane proteins found on beta-cells in the pancreas. Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 17 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, alimentary canal, or gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Beta cells are a type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the islets of Langerhans. ... The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system that serves two major functions: exocrine (producing pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin). ...


GIP, along with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), belong to a class of molecules referred to as incretins. GLP-1 and DPP-4 inhibitors Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is derived from the transcription product of the proglucagon gene. ... Incretins are a type of gastrointestinal hormone that cause an increase in the amount of insulin released from the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans after eating, even before blood glucose levels become elevated. ...


Function

It has traditionally been called called gastrointestinal inhibitory peptide or gastric inhibitory peptide and was believed to neutralize stomach acid to protect the small intestine from acid damage, reduce the rate at which food is transferred through the stomach, and inhibit the GI motility and secretion of acid. However, it was discovered that these effects are only achieved with higher-than-normal physiological level, and that these results naturally occur in the body through a similar hormone, secretin. Gastric acid is the main secretion of the stomach, characterised by H2O, hydrochloric acid and several enzymes (mainly pepsinogen). ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ...


It is now believed that the function of GIP is to induce insulin secretion, which is primarily stimulated by hyperosmolarity of glucose in the duodenum. After this discovery, some researchers prefer the new name of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, while retaining the acronym "GIP." The amount of insulin secreted is greater when glucose is administered orally than intravenously. Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Osmolality, in biology and chemistry, is a measure of moles of solute per kg of water. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ...


GIP is also thought to have significant effects on fatty acid metabolism through stimulation of lipoprotein lipase activity in adipocytes. Fatty acids are an important source of energy for many organisms. ... Lipoprotein lipase (EC 3. ... Adipocytes are cells present in adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ...


Pathology

It has been found that Type 2 diabetics are not responsive to GIP. In a research involving knockout mice, it was found that absence of the GIP receptors correlates with resistance to obesity. See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ... A knockout mouse is a genetically engineered mouse one or more of whose genes have been made inoperable. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
GIP (1473 words)
Degradation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and truncated glucagon-like peptide 1 in vitro and in vivo by dipeptidyl peptidase IV.
GIP stimulation of pancreatic beta-cell survival is dependent upon phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/ protein kinase B (PKB) signaling, inactivation of the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 and downregulation of bax expression.
Activation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in adipocytes: A role for a protein kinase B (PKB), LKB1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade.
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor precursor signature (724 words)
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor precursor motif VI - 1
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor precursor motif VII - 1
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor precursor motif VIII - 1
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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