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Encyclopedia > Gasparo Contarini

Gasparo Contarini was an Italian diplomat and cardinal; born at Venice on October 16, 1483, died at Bologna on August 24, 1542. This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Bologna (from Latin Bononia, Bulaggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, between the Po River and the Apennines. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ...


After a thorough scientific and philosophical training, he began his career in the service of his native city. In 1521 he was the Republic's ambassador to Charles V. He accompanied Charles to Spain; later, after the Sack of Rome, he assisted in reconciling the emperor and Clement VII, also the emperor and the Republic of Bologna. His accomplishments, but still more his mild resoluteness and blameless character, made him respected everywhere. Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I, Dutch: Karel V, German: Karl V.) (24 February 1500–21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian... The city of Rome has been sacked on several occasions. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ...


One of the fruits of his diplomatic activity is his De magistratibus et republica Venetorum. In 1535, Paul III unexpectedly made the secular diplomat a cardinal in order to bind an able man of evangelical disposition to the Roman interests. Contarini accepted, but in his new position did not exhibit his former independence. The disposition which Ranke (Popes, i. 118) calls "the collected product of all his higher faculties" governed his action also in the new field. Pope Paul III, (1543) portrait by Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ... Leopold Von Ranke in 1877 Leopold von Ranke (December 21, 1795- May 23, 1886) was one of the greatest German historians of the 19th century, and is frequently considered the founder of scientific history. ...


At first everything seemed to work well. In 1536 Paul III appointed a commission to devise ways for a reformation. The Protestant evangelical movement had made such progress in Italy that something had to be done, and it seemed best that the most influential be the agents. The decision was a bold one; Paul III, however, received favorably Contarini's Consilium de Emendanda Ecclesia, but it remained a dead letter, and his successor Paul IV, once a member on the commission, in 1539 put it on the Index, a deed which still embarrasses Catholic historians. What Contarini had to do with it is shown by his letters to the pope in which he complained of the schism in the church, of simony and flattery in the papal court, but above all of papal tyranny. But he came a century too late. Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid to late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... Evangelicalism usually refers to a conservative tendency in diverse branches of Protestantism, typified by an emphasis on evangelism, a personal experience of conversion and biblically-oriented faith, and a belief in the relevance of Christian faith to cultural issues. ... The Consilium de Emendanda Ecclesia was a report commissioned by Pope Paul III on the abuses in the Catholic Church in 1536. ... Paul IV, né Giovanni Pietro Carafa (June 28, 1476 - August 18, 1559) was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death. ... Simony is the ecclesiastical crime and personal sin of paying for offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church, named after Simon Magus, who appears in the Acts of the Apostles 8:18-24. ...


Contarini in a letter to his friend Cardinal Pole (dated November 11, 1538) says that his hopes had been wakened anew by the pope's attitude. He and his friends, who formed the Catholic evangelical movement of the Spirituali, thought that all would have been done when the abuses in church life had been put away. This was the judgment of a diplomat of noble and virtuous nature, reared on the best fruits of antiquity and refined through the Gospel, urged on by a desire for peace, and unfettered by dogmatic formulas. Reginald Pole, cardinal Reginald Pole (1500 – November 17, 1558) Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, was the son of Margaret Pole who was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... The Spirituali were a Catholic reform movement from about 1510 to the 1560s. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion or any kind of organization to be authoritative. ...


But he was soon to see the other side. In the year 1541 he was papal delegate at the diet and religious debate at Ratisbon. There everything was unfavorable; the Catholic states were bitter, the Evangelicals were distant. Contarini's instructions though apparently free were full of papal reservations. But the papal party had gladly sent him, thinking that through him a union in doctrine could be brought about, while the interest of Rome could be attended to later. Though the princes stood aloof, the theologians and the emperor were for peace, so the main articles were put forth in a formula, Evangelical in thought and Catholic in expression. The papal legate had revised the Catholic proposal and assented to the formula agreed upon. All gave their approval, even Eck, though he later regretted it. This did little good, for the Protestants could see in it only Roman cunning; at home the cardinal fared still worse. This article or section should be merged with Johann Maier Eck Johann Eck (November 13, 1486 – February 13, 1543) was a 16th century theologian and defender of Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation. ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid to late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ...


His own position is shown in a treatise on justification, composed at Ratisbon, which in essential points is Evangelical, differing only in the omission of the negative side and in being interwoven with the teaching of Aquinas. Meanwhile the papal policy had changed, and Contarini was compelled to follow his leader. He advised the emperor, after the conference had broken up, not to renew it, but to submit everything to the pope. Regensburg (English formerly Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona, Czech Řezno) is a city (population 146,824 in 2002) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... St Thomas Aquinas Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – March 7, 1274) was an Italian Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition. ...


In a second decision he is even more ultramontane. It is not difficult to reconcile this course of action with his character, for from the beginning Luther repelled him as did the popular movement in Germany. He lived in the belief that a reformation should begin at the head, and his birth, education, and diplomatic career made him view the question rather from the point of polity than of doctrine, and consequently he was willing to mediate here. But the negative side, which had produced the schism, remained unintelligible to him, he could concede only the marriage of the clergy and communion in both elements. The word schism, from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ...


Meanwhile Rome had drifted further into reaction, and he died while legate at Bologna, at a time when the Inquisition had driven many of his friends and fellows in conviction into exile. He was happily spared a decision which perhaps would have been too hard for him, and so he could leave behind him the character of a man who knew the truth and willed the good. Pedro Berruguete. ...


Initial text from Schaff-Herzog Encyc of Religion


See Also

Paul III Pope Paul III, (1543) portrait by Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ...


External Links

Gasparo Contarini article on Catholic Encyclopedia


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Gasparo Contarini (929 words)
Contarini was the president of a commission appointed by the pope in 1536 to submit plans for a reform of
Ignatius acknowledged that Contarini was largely responsible for the papal approbation of his society (1540).
At the desire of Charles V, Contarini was sent as papal legate to Germany in 1541, and took part in the conference held at Ratisbon between Catholics and Protestants in
Gasparo Contarini (982 words)
In 1528 he was sent as ambassador to the court of Clement VII (1523-34), with instructions to retain the pope in the above-mentioned league, and to defend the action of the republic in withholding from the pope the cities of Ravenna and Cervia, seized during the late invasion of the Constable Bourbon.
Contarini was the president of a commission appointed by the pope in 1536 to submit plans for a reform of evils in the Roman Curia or in other parts of the Church.
At the desire of Charles V, Contarini was sent as papal legate to Germany in 1541, and took part in the conference held at Ratisbon between Catholics and Protestants in hope of conciliating the latter.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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