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Encyclopedia > Gaspar de Portolà

Gaspar de Portolà (ca. 1717 – aft. 1784) was a Spanish soldier, first governor of the Californias (Baja and Alta) (17671770), explorer and founder of San Diego and Monterey. (fl. 17341784) Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance March 2 — Dancer John Weaver performs in the first ballet in Britain shown in Drury Lane The Loves of Mars and Venus March 31 - Bishop Benjamin Hoadly, acting on the advice of King George begins the Bangorian Controversy by saying... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A governor is also a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of Dominican missions in the south. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... City nickname Americas Finest City City flower Carnation City urban tree Jacaranda City native tree Torrey Pine Mayor Dick Murphy* City Attorney Michael Aguirre City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Scott Peters Michael Zucchet Toni Atkins Tony... The Customs House at Monterey View of Monterey Bay and its kelp A sea lion rookery at the marina Museum interior with ship models and equipment Kelp Forest display at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Monterey is a city near the Pacific coast in northern California. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


He was born about 1717 at Balaguer in Catalonia, Spain, of a Spanish noble family. Don Gaspar de Portolà served as a soldier in the Spanish army in Italy and Portugal. He was commissioned ensign in 1734, lieutenant in 1743 and captain in 1764. Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance March 2 — Dancer John Weaver performs in the first ballet in Britain shown in Drury Lane The Loves of Mars and Venus March 31 - Bishop Benjamin Hoadly, acting on the advice of King George begins the Bangorian Controversy by saying... Balaguer, in Noguera Demonym (In Catalan) balaguerí, balaguerina Population (2001) 13,359 Surface area 57. ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Spanish and Catalan In Val dAran, also Aranese. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... In the military of various countries, ensign is a low rank of commissioned officer. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... A Lieutenant is a military, paramilitary or police officer. ... Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Captain is both a nautical term and a military rank. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


By 1767, Jesuit missionaries on the peninsula of Baja California had established approximately twenty-three missions over a period of seventy-two years. Rumors were circulating that the Jesuits had amassed a fortune and were becoming very powerful. When word reached Spain, King Carlos III ordered the Jesuits expelled at gunpoint and deported back to Spain. Following the command of the king, the viceroy of New Spain ordered the arrest and deportation of all Jesuits in missions and colleges in Baja California. 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Charles III (January 20, 1716 - December 14, 1788) was king of Spain from 1759 to 1788. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Flag of New Spain New Spain (in the Spanish language Nueva España) was the name given to the Spanish colonial territory in North America from c. ...


As the newly appointed governor of the Californias, Don Gaspar de Portolà was responsible for the expulsion of the Jesuits from Baja. The missions were turned over to the Franciscans and later to the Dominicans. The Order of Friars Minor (commonly called the Franciscans) is a mendicant religious order of men tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ...


Besides wanting to establish missions in Alta California, Spain was in fear that the territory would be claimed by the English, who not only had colonies on the East Coast of the continent, but had recently conquered Canada, or the Russians, whose fur hunters were pressing down from Alaska to the northern coast of Alta California. The Spanish Missions of California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans, to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of Dominican missions in the south. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... The East Coast (also known as the Eastern Seaboard) is a term referencing the easternmost coastal states in the United States of America. ... Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous land mass. ... State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ...


Dispatches of January 23, 1768, exchanged between King Carlos and the viceroy, set the wheels in motion to extend Spain's control up the Pacific Coast and establish colonies and missions at San Diego Bay and Monterey Bay, which had been discovered and described in reports by earlier explorer Sebastian Vizcaino, who had mapped the California coastline for Spain, in 1602. In May, the Spanish Visitor General, Jose de Galvez, proceeded to plan a four part expedition, two by sea and two by land, and de Portolà volunteered to command the expedition. January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Pacific Coast is any coast fronting the Pacific Ocean. ... San Diego Bay is a natural harbor adjacent to San Diego, California. ... Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean, on the coast of California, south of San Francisco. ... Sebastian Vizcaino was a Spanish captain and ambassador to Japan. ... Events February 14 - William Shakespeare First performance of Twelfth Night on Candlemas March 20 - The Dutch East India Company is established as The United East India Company by the Dutch States-General May 15 - Bartolomew Gosnold becomes the first European to discover Cape Cod. ...


All four detachments were to meet at the site of San Diego Bay. The first ship, the San Carlos, sailed from La Paz on January 10, 1769, and the San Antonio sailed on February 15. The first land party, led by Captain Fernando de Rivera, left from the Mission San Fernando Velicata on March 24. With Rivera was Father Juan Crespi, famed diarist of the entire expedition. The expedition led by de Portolà, which included Father Junípero Serra, the President of the Missions, and a combination of missionaries, settlers and leather-jacket soldiers, left Velicata on May 15. The Bay of La Paz, as seen from the International Space Station La Paz, the capital of Baja California Sur, Mexico, is a small city on the shores of the Gulf of California. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... Blessed Junípero Serra (November 24, 1713 - August 28, 1784) was a Spanish Franciscan who founded the California mission chain. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ...


Rivera reached the site of present day San Diego in May, established a camp in the area that is now Old Town and awaited the arrival of the others. Because of an error by Vizcaino in determining the latitude of the San Diego Harbor one hundred and sixty-seven years earlier, the ships passed by it and landed first near present day Los Angeles before finding their way back. The San Antonio arrived on April 11 and the San Carlos, the first ship to leave La Paz, having met with fierce winds and storms on the journey, arrived on April 29. A third vessel was to follow with supplies, but it was probably lost at sea. The land expedition of de Portolà arrived on June 29. City nickname Americas Finest City City flower Carnation City urban tree Jacaranda City native tree Torrey Pine Mayor Dick Murphy* City Attorney Michael Aguirre City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Scott Peters Michael Zucchet Toni Atkins Tony... Old Town, San Diego Old Town, San Diego Old Town, San Diego The Old Town San Diego State Historic Park recreates life in the Mexican and early American periods of 1821 to 1872. ... This article is about the largest city in California. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ...


After their arduous journeys, most of the men aboard ship were ill, chiefly scurvy, and many had died. Out of a total of two hundred and nineteen men who left Baja California, little more than a hundred now survived. Scurvy is a disease that results from insufficient intake of vitamin C and leads to the formation of livid spots on the skin, spongy gums and bleeding from almost all mucous membranes. ...


Eager to press on to Monterey Bay, de Portolà and his expedition, consisting of Father Crespi, sixty-three leather-jacket soldiers and a hundred mules loaded down with provisions, headed north on July 14, 1769. Marching two to four leagues a day, they reached the site of present day Los Angeles on August 2. The following day, they marched out the Indian trail that would one day become Wilshire Boulevard to the present site of Santa Monica. Winding around to the area of later Saugus (which is now part of Santa Clarita), they reached the area to become Santa Barbara on August 19, and the present day San Simeon/Ragged Point area on September 13. On October 1, de Portolà's party emerged from the Santa Lucia Mountains and reached the mouth of the Salinas River. July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Santa Monica Pier Santa Monica is a coastal city located in Los Angeles County, California USA, by the Pacific Ocean, south of Pacific Palisades and Brentwood, west of Westwood, Los Angeles, and north of Venice. ... County Los Angeles County, California Area  - Total  - Water 123. ... Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California, United States. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... San Simeon (ZIP Code: 93452) is a settlement on the Pacific coast of San Luis Obispo County, California notable in two respects: Its position along Pacific Coast Highway is almost precisely halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, each of those towns being roughly 230 mi (370 km) away. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... The Santa Lucia Mountains or Santa Lucia Range is a mountain range in coastal California, running from Monterey southeast for 170 km to San Luis Obispo. ... The Salinas River may refer to: The Salinas River in California in the United States. ...


After a march of some four hundred miles from San Diego and about one thousand miles from Velicata, they were at the harbor they were seeking. But fog obscured the shoreline, making the rough harbor look like open ocean, and they failed to discern the port round like an "O" described by Vizcaino, although members of the party had marched precisely along its beach two times.


The difficult journey had taken six months and they believed they had missed the harbor of Monterey. Having failed to find their goal, they marched on north to further explore the region and reached the area that would become Santa Cruz on October 18. They did, however, reach the San Francisco Bay area on October 31 and explored and named many localities in the region south of what would eventually become the Golden Gate. Downtown Santa Cruz Santa Cruz is the county seat of Santa Cruz County, California, United States. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate The San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary in which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... This article is about the strait in California. ...


They then marched back to San Diego, failing to find Vizcaino's harbor on their way. Surviving on mule meat for most of the journey, they arrived on January 24, 1770. January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


One of de Portolà's officers, Captain Vicente Vila, convinced him that he had actually been exactly on the Bay of Monterey when he placed his second cross at what later became Pacific Grove. After replenishing supplies at San Diego, de Portolà and Father Serra decided on a joint expedition by land and sea to again search for the bay and establish a colony if they were successful. Pacific Grove is a town in Monterey County, California, with a total population of 15,522 as of the 2000 census. ...


The San Antonio sailed on April 16, 1770. On board were Father Serra, Miguel Costanso, military engineer and cartographer, and Don Pedro Prat, army surgeon, along with a cargo of supplies for the new mission at Monterey. On April 17, after mustering what forces he could, de Portolà's land expedition, which included Lt. Pedro Fages, twelve Catalonian volunteers, seven leather-jacket soldiers, five Baja California Indians, two muleteers, and Father Crespi serving as the expedition's chaplain, again marched north. April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ...


The expedition followed the same route they had the previous winter while returning to San Diego. After thirty-six days on the road, with only two days of rest, de Portolà arrived at his second cross on May 24, 1770. He then saw that on a clear day and from a certain point of view the round harbor assumed the proportions described by the earlier enthusiastic explorers. May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Having recognized the bay at last, the site chosen for Spanish occupation of Upper California, a Mass was conducted near the oak tree that the Franciscan missionaries with Vizcaino had worshiped under in 1603 and possession was officially taken. On June 3, 1770, they laid the beginnings of the Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo and founded the presidio (or military post) at Monterey. Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The basilica of the Mission from the central courtyard Mission Basilica San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo was founded on June 3, 1770, the second mission of the 21 California missions. ...


Governor de Portolà's task was finished. He then left Captain Pedro Fages in charge and on June 9 he sailed for San Blas, never to return to Upper California. Don Pedro Fages (1734–1794), nicknamed El Oso, was a Catalan soldier, explorer, and the second Spanish military Governor of New California (California Nueva, later Alta California) from 1770–1774, and Governor of the Californias from 1782–1791. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ...


In 1776, de Portolà was appointed the governor of Puebla. After the appointment of his successor in 1784, he was advanced money for expenses and returned to Spain, after which nothing more is known about him. This article is about the year 1776. ... Puebla is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Honors

The 9-foot statue, on the city of Pacifica (California), was sculpted by Catalan artist Josep Maria Subirachs and his associate, Francesc Carulla. It was given to the State of California by the Catalan Government, in 1988. Pacifica may be used in any of the following ways: The place Pacifica, California in the USA The Pacifica Radio network The planet Pacifica from the fictional Star Trek universe This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... Catalan (Catal , Valenci ) is a Romance language spoken by as many as approximately 12 million people in portions of Spain, France, Andorra and Italy, although the majority of Catalan speakers are in Spain. ... Generalitat de Catalunya is the official name of the autonomous system of government of Catalonia, in Spain. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

  • Biography of Gaspar de Portolà (http://www.sandiegohistory.org/bio/portola/portola.htm) at the San Diego Historical Society website
  • Early Exploration of San Diego: 1542 to 1769 (http://historyandculture.com/chcc/explorers.html) at the California History & Culture Conservancy website
  • Gaspar de Portolà Foundation (http://www.gportola.com/) official website
  • Gaspar de Portolà Middle School in Tarzana, CA (http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/Portola_MS/) official website
  • Gaspar de Portolà - Pere Fages, Casal Català del Nord de Callifòrnia (http://www.casalcatala.org/) at El Cerrito, CA
  • Portolà's History and Statue (http://www.ci.pacifica.ca.us/HISTORY/portola.html) in the City of Pacifica, CA
  • Spanish exploration of the Northwest Coast of North America (http://pages.quicksilver.net.nz/jcr/~vspanish1.html) website article

 
 

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