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Encyclopedia > Gasoline
A container for storing gasoline used in the United States; red containers are typically used.
A container for storing gasoline used in the United States; red containers are typically used.

Gasoline (gas) or petroleum spirit (petrol) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons, enhanced with iso-octane or the aromatic hydrocarbons toluene and benzene to increase its octane rating, and is primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines. Petrol may refer to: Petrol, or gasoline Petrol (song), by the Brit-pop band Ash Petrol AD - an oil company of Bulgaria Petrol d. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , Flash point 4. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... A gas station pump offering five different octane ratings. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...


Most Commonwealth countries or former Commonwealth countries (with the exception of Canada) use the term "petrol" (abbreviated from petroleum spirit). The term "gasoline" is commonly used in North America where it is often shortened in colloquial usage to "gas." This should be distinguished in usage from genuinely gaseous fuels used in internal combustion engines such as liquefied petroleum gas (which is stored pressurised as a liquid but is allowed to return naturally to a gaseous state before combustion). The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... North American redirects here. ... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... Look up gas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other meanings see gas (disambiguation). ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ...


The term mogas, short for motor gasoline, distinguishes automobile fuel from aviation gasoline, or avgas. The word "gasoline" can also be used in British English to refer to a different petroleum derivative historically used in lamps, but this use is now uncommon. Car redirects here. ... // Avgas is a high-octane fuel used for aircraft and, in the past, racing cars. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...

Contents

History

Gasoline is a mixture of hydrocarbons, although some may contain significant quantities of ethanol and some may contain small quantities of additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether as anti-knock agents to increase the octane rating. The hydrocarbons consist of a mixture of n-paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Naphthenes, olefins and aromatics increase the octane rating of the gasoline whereas the n-paraffins have the opposite effect.[1] Methyl tert-butyl ether, also known as methyl tertiary butyl ether and MTBE, is a chemical compound with molecular formula C5H12O. MTBE is a volatile, flammable and colorless liquid that is immiscible, yet reasonably soluble in water. ...


Early uses

Before gasoline was used as fuel for engines, it was sold in small bottles as a treatment against lice and their eggs. At that time, the word Petrol was a trade name. This treatment method is no longer common, because of the inherent fire hazard and the risk of dermatitis. For other uses, see Louse (disambiguation). ... A trade name, also known as a trading name or a business name, is the name which a business trades under for commercial purposes, although its registered, legal name, used for contracts and other formal situations, may be another. ... Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ...


In the U.S., gasoline was also sold as a cleaning fluid to remove grease stains from clothing. Before dedicated filling stations were established, early motorists would buy gasoline in cans to fill their tanks. Modern filling station, Preem in Karlskrona, Sweden An Ampol station in Australia in the late 1940s. ...


The name gasoline is similar to that of other petroleum products of the day, most notably petroleum jelly, a highly purified heavy distillate, which was branded Vaseline. The trademark Gasoline, however, was never registered, and thus became generic. Gasoline was also used in kitchen ranges and for lighting, and is still available in a highly purified form, known as camping fuel or white gas, for use in lanterns and portable stoves. White Petrolatum Petroleum jelly, vaseline, petrolatum or soft paraffin [2] is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25),[3] originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. ... Petroleum jelly or petrolatum is a byproduct of the refining of petroleum, made from the residue of petroleum distillation left in the still after all the oil has been vaporized. ... Naphtha is a group of various volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures used chiefly as solvents. ...


During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), pétrole was stockpiled in Paris for use against a possible German-Prussian attack on the city. Later in 1871, during the revolutionary Paris Commune, rumours spread around the city of pétroleuses, women using bottles of petrol to commit arson against city buildings. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... This article is about the capital of France. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... According to popular rumours at the time, the pétroleuses were female supporters of the Paris Commune, accused of burning down much of Paris during the last days of the Commune in May 1871. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ...


Etymology

The word "gasolene" was coined in 1865 from the word gas and the chemical suffix -ine/-ene. The modern spelling was first used in 1871. The shortened form "gas" was first recorded in American English in 1905.[2] Gasoline originally referred to any liquid used as the fuel for a gasoline-powered engine, other than diesel fuel or liquefied gas; methanol racing fuel would have been classed as a type of gasoline.[3] For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... -ine is a Latin suffix used to denote a similarities or equivalence to something else. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ...


The word "petrol" was first used in reference to the refined substance as early as 1892 (it was previously used to refer to unrefined petroleum), and was registered as a trade name by British wholesaler Carless, Capel & Leonard at the suggestion of Frederick Richard Simms.[4] Although it was never officially registered as a trademark, Carless's competitors used the term "Motor Spirit" until the 1930s.[2][5] It has also been suggested that the word was coined by Edward Butler in 1887.[6] Frederick Richard Simms was a British engineer and motor industry pioneer. ... Edward Butler (1862, England - ??) was an English inventor who produced an early three-wheeled automobile, the Butler Petrol Cycle, which is accepted by many as the first British car. ...


In Germany and some other European countries, gasoline is called Benzin (German and Danish), Bensin (Swedish and Norwegian), Benzyna (Polish), Benzina (Catalan), Benzină (Romanian), Бензин (Russian), and other variants of this word. The usage does not derive from Bertha Benz, who used chemist shops to purchase the gasoline for her famous drive from Mannheim to Pforzheim in 1888, but from the chemical benzene. Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Bertha Benz, born Bertha Ringer (born May 3, 1849 in Pforzheim, Germany, married inventor Karl Benz on July 20, 1872, and died May 5, 1944 in Ladenburg), was the first person to drive an automobile over a long distance. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Pforzheim city center, Wallberg (on rubble mound) in background. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ...


Chemical analysis and production

Petrol pumps
Petrol pumps

Gasoline is produced in oil refineries. Material that is separated from crude oil via distillation, called virgin or straight-run gasoline, does not meet the required specifications for modern engines (in particular octane rating; see below), but will form part of the blend. View of the Shell/Valero Martinez oil refinery An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate...


The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of hydrocarbons with between 5 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule. A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ...


Many of these hydrocarbons are considered hazardous substances and are regulated in the United States by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The Material Safety Data Sheet for unleaded gasoline shows at least fifteen hazardous chemicals occurring in various amounts. These include benzene (up to 5% by volume), toluene (up to 35% by volume), naphthalene (up to 1% by volume), trimethylbenzene (up to 7% by volume), MTBE (up to 18% by volume) and about 10 others.[7] OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point 79 - 87 °C Autoignition temperature 525 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Naphthalene (not to be confused with naphtha) (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, moth ball, tar... 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene is a colorless liquid with chemical formula C9H12. ... MTBE is highly flammable and is widely used as an oxygenate. ...


The various refinery streams blended together to make gasoline all have different characteristics. Some important streams are: View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ...

  • Reformate, produced in a catalytic reformer with a high octane rating and high aromatic content, and very low olefins (alkenes).
  • Cat Cracked Gasoline or Cat Cracked Naphtha, produced from a catalytic cracker, with a moderate octane rating, high olefins (alkene) content, and moderate aromatics level. Here, "cat" is short for "catalytic".
  • Hydrocrackate (Heavy, Mid, and Light), produced from a hydrocracker, with medium to low octane rating and moderate aromatic levels.
  • Virgin or Straight-run Naphtha (has many names), directly from crude oil with low octane rating, low aromatics (depending on the crude oil), some naphthenes (cycloalkanes) and no olefins (alkenes).
  • Alkylate, produced in an alkylation unit, with a high octane rating and which is pure paraffin (alkane), mainly branched chains.
  • Isomerate (various names) which is obtained by isomerising the pentane and hexane in light virgin naphthas to yield their higher octane isomers.

(The terms used here are not always the correct chemical terms. They are the jargon normally used in the oil industry. The exact terminology for these streams varies by refinery and by country.) A reformation technique used to strip gasoline of impurities, improve octane rating etc. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Naphtha (CAS No. ... A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Cycloalkanes are chemical compounds with a one or more rings of carbons to which hydrogens are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... cyclobutane Cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes) are chemical compounds with one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ... For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ...


Overall a typical gasoline is predominantly a mixture of paraffins (alkanes), naphthenes (cycloalkanes), and olefins (alkenes). The exact ratios can depend on Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ...

  • the oil refinery that makes the gasoline, as not all refineries have the same set of processing units.
  • the crude oil feed used by the refinery.
  • the grade of gasoline, in particular the octane rating.

Currently many countries set tight limits on gasoline aromatics in general, benzene in particular, and olefin (alkene) content. This is increasing the demand for high octane pure paraffin (alkane) components, such as alkylate, and is forcing refineries to add processing units to reduce the benzene content. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ...


Gasoline can also contain some other organic compounds: such as organic ethers (deliberately added), plus small levels of contaminants, in particular sulfur compounds such as disulfides and thiophenes. Some contaminants, in particular thiols and hydrogen sulfide, must be removed because they cause corrosion in engines. Sulfur compounds are usually removed by hydrotreating, yielding hydrogen sulfide which can then be transformed into elemental sulfur via the Claus process. Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... An organic ether is essentially a water molecule with both hydrogen atoms replaced by hydrocarbons: H-O-H + 2 CH2=CH2 + acid catalyst <=> CH3CH2-O-H + CH2=CH2, H-O-H = water. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... In chemistry, a disulfide ion is an anion (negatively-charged ion) formed by two sulfur atoms having an overall -2 charge. ... Thiophene is an aromatic heterocyclic compound consisting of four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom in a five-membered ring. ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The density of gasoline is approx. 0.784 gm/cc, which means it floats on water. This may be advantageous in the event of a spill. It is flammable and can burn while floating over water.


Volatility

A container for storing gasoline used in Germany
A container for storing gasoline used in Germany

Gasoline is more volatile than diesel oil, Jet-A or kerosene, not only because of the base constituents, but because of the additives that are put into it. The final control of volatility is often achieved by blending with butane. The Reid Vapor Pressure test is used to measure the volatility of gasoline. The desired volatility depends on the ambient temperature: in hotter climates, gasoline components of higher molecular weight and thus lower volatility are used. In cold climates, too little volatility results in cars failing to start. In hot climates, excessive volatility results in what is known as "vapour lock" where combustion fails to occur, because the liquid fuel has changed to a gaseous fuel in the fuel lines. The ability of a liquid to evaporate quickly and at relatively low temperatures. ... This article is about the fuel. ... An aviation fuel truck. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... Gasoline additives increase gasolines octane rating or act as corrosion inhibitors or lubricators, thus allowing the use of higher compression ratios for greater efficiency and power, however some carry heavy environmental risks. ... The ability of a liquid to evaporate quickly and at relatively low temperatures. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Vapour lock is a problem internal combustion engines can suffer. ...


In the United States, volatility is regulated in large urban centers to reduce the emission of unburned hydrocarbons. In large cities, so-called reformulated gasoline that is less prone to evaporation, among other properties, is required. In Australia summer petrol volatility limits are set by State Governments and vary between capital cities. Most countries simply have a summer, winter and perhaps intermediate limit.


Volatility standards may be relaxed (allowing more gasoline components into the atmosphere) during emergency anticipated gasoline shortages. For example, on 31 August 2005 in response to Hurricane Katrina, the United States permitted the sale of non-reformulated gasoline in some urban areas, which effectively permitted an early switch from summer to winter-grade gasoline. As mandated by EPA administrator Stephen L. Johnson, this "fuel waiver" was made effective through 15 September 2005.[8] Though relaxed volatility standards may increase the atmospheric concentration of volatile organic compounds in warm weather, higher volatility gasoline effectively increases a nation's gasoline supply because the amount of butane in the gasoline pool is allowed to increase.[citation needed] is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... EPA redirects here. ... Stephen L. Johnson Stephen L. Johnson (born March 21, 1951 in Washington D.C) is an American career civil servant. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Octane rating

For more details on this topic, see octane rating.

An important characteristic of gasoline is its octane rating, which is a measure of how resistant gasoline is to the abnormal combustion phenomenon known as detonation (also known as knocking, pinging, spark knock, and other names). Deflagration is the normal type of combustion. Octane rating is measured relative to a mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (an isomer of octane) and n-heptane. There are a number of different conventions for expressing the octane rating; therefore, the same fuel may be labeled with a different number, depending upon the system used. A gas station pump offering five different octane ratings. ... A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion in which a shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it. ... A log in a fire place. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , Flash point 4. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... For other uses, see Octane (disambiguation). ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , Flash point −4 °C Autoignition temperature 285 °C Explosive limits 1. ...


World War II and octane ratings

During World War II, Germany received much of its oil from Romania. From 2.8 million barrels (450,000 m³) in 1938, Romania’s exports to Germany increased to 13 million barrels (2,100,000 m³) by 1941, a level that was essentially maintained through 1942 and 1943, before dropping by half, due to Allied bombing and mining of the Danube. Although these exports were almost half of Romania’s total production, they were considerably less than what the Germans expected. Even with the addition of the Romanian deliveries, overland oil imports after 1939 could not make up for the loss of overseas shipments. In order to become less dependent on outside sources, the Germans undertook a sizable expansion program of their own meager domestic oil pumping. After 1938, the Austrian oil fields were made available, and the expansion of Nazi crude oil output was chiefly concentrated there. Primarily as a result of this expansion, the Reich's domestic output of crude oil increased from approximately 3.8 million barrels (600,000 m³) in 1938 to almost 12 million barrels (1,900,000 m³) in 1944. Even this was not enough. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Polish wz. ...


Instead, Germany had developed a synthetic fuel capacity that was intended to replace imported or captured oil. Fuels were generated from coal, using either the Bergius process or the Fischer-Tropsch process. Between 1938 and 1943, synthetic fuel output underwent a respectable growth from 10 million barrels (1,600,000 m³) to 36 million. The percentage of synthetic fuels compared with the yield from all sources grew from 22 percent to more than 50 percent by 1943. The total oil supplies available from all sources for the same period rose from 45 million barrels (7,200,000 m³) in 1938 to 71 million barrels (11,300,000 m³) in 1943. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ...


By the early 1930s, automobile gasoline had an octane reading of 40 and aviation gasoline of 75-80. Aviation gasoline with such high octane numbers could only be refined through a process of distillation of high-grade petroleum. Germany’s domestic oil was not of this quality. Only the additive tetra-ethyl lead could raise the octane to a maximum of 87. The license for the production of this additive was acquired in 1935 from the American holder of the patents, but without high-grade Romanian oil even this additive was not very effective. 100 octane fuel, designated either 'C-2' (natural) or 'C-3' (synthethic) was introduced in late 1939 with the Daimler-Benz DB 601N engine, used in certain of the Luftwaffe`s Bf 109E and Bf 109F single-engined fighters, Bf 110C twin-engined fighters, and several bomber types. Some later combat types, most notably the BMW 801D-powered Fw 190A, F and G series, and later war Bf 109G and K models, used C-3 as well. The nominally 87 octane aviation fuel, designated 'B-4' was produced in parallel during the war. Tetra-ethyl lead (also known as TEL, lead tetraethyl and tetraethyllead) is a toxic organometallic chemical compound, with formula (CH3CH2)4Pb, which was once used as a gasoline (petrol) additive. ... The Daimler-Benz DB 601 was a German aircraft engine built during World War II. It was a liquid-cooled inverted V12, and powered the Messerschmitt Bf 109, among others. ... German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ... German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ... The Messerschmitt Bf 110 (called an M.E. One-Ten by American pilots) was a twin-engine heavy fighter (Zerstörer - German for Destroyer) in the service of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Later in the war it was changed to fighter-bomber (JagdBomber-Jabo) and night fighter operations... The BMW 801 was a powerful German air-cooled radial aircraft engine built by BMW and used in a number of German military aircraft of World War II. The engine’s cylinders were in two rows of seven cylinders each, the bore and stroke were both 156 mm, giving a... The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (shrike), often called Butcher-bird, was a single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft of Germanys Luftwaffe, and one of the best fighters of its generation. ...


In the US the oil was not "as good," and the oil industry had to invest heavily in various expensive boosting systems. This turned out to have benefits: the US industry started delivering fuels of increasing octane ratings by adding more of the boosting agents, and the infrastructure was in place for a post-war octane-agents additive industry. Good crude oil was no longer a factor during wartime, and by war's end, American aviation fuel was commonly 130 octane, and 150 octane was available in limited quantities for fighters from the summer of 1944. This high octane could easily be used in existing engines to deliver much more power by increasing the pressure delivered by the superchargers. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A supercharger (or blower ) is a gas compressor that forces more air into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than is achievable with ambient atmospheric pressure (as seen in a naturally-aspirated engine, see forced induction). ...


In late 1942, the Germans increased to octane rating of their high-grade 'C-3' aviation fuel to 150 octane. The relative volumes of production of the two grades B-4 and C-3 cannot be accurately given, but in the last war years perhaps two-thirds of the total was C-3. Every effort was being made toward the end of the war to increase isoparaffin production; more isoparaffin meant more C-3 available for fighter plane use. An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ...


A common misapprehension exists concerning wartime fuel octane numbers. There are two octane numbers for each fuel, one for lean mix and one for rich mix, rich being greater. The misunderstanding that German fuels had a lower octane number (and thus a poorer quality) arose because the Germans quoted the lean mix octane number for their fuels while the Allies quoted the rich mix number. Standard German high-grade 'C-3' aviation fuel used in the later part of the war had lean/rich octane numbers of 100/130. The Germans would list this as a 100 octane fuel while the Allies would list it as 130 octane.


After the war the US Navy sent a Technical Mission to Germany to interview German petrochemists and examine German fuel quality. Their report entitled “Technical Report 145-45 Manufacture of Aviation Gasoline in Germany” chemically analyzed the different fuels, and concluded that “Toward the end of the war the quality of fuel being used by the German fighter planes was quite similar to that being used by the Allies.”


Energy content

Gasoline contains about 34.8 megajoules per liter(MJ/L), 131 MJ/US gallon, or 158 MJ/UK gallon. In kWh terms, this is 9.6 kWh per liter, 36.4 kWh per US gallon, or 44.0 kWh per UK gallon. This is an average; gasoline blends differ, therefore actual energy content varies from season to season and from batch to batch, by as much as 4% more or less than the average, according to the US EPA. On average, about 19.5 gallons of gasoline are available from a 42 gallon barrel of crude oil, varying due to quality of crude and grade of gasoline. The remaining residue comes off as products ranging from tar to naptha [1]. A megajoule (abbreviation: MJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000000 joules. ...


Volumetric energy density of some fuels compared with gasoline:[9] Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume, or per unit mass, depending on the context. ...

Fuel type      MJ/litre      MJ/kg     BTU/Imp gal     BTU/US gal     Research octane
number (RON)
Regular Gasoline 34.8 44.4[10] 150,100 125,000 Min 91
Premium Gasoline 39.5 Min 95
Autogas (LPG) (60% Propane + 40% Butane) 26.8 46 108
Ethanol 23.5 31.1[11] 101,600 84,600 129
Methanol 17.9 19.9 77,600 64,600 123
Butanol 29.2 91-99
Gasohol (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) 33.7 145,200 120,900 93/94
Diesel 38.6 45.4 166,600 138,700 25(*)
Aviation gasoline (high octane gasoline, not Jet fuel) 33.5 46.8 144,400 120,200
Jet fuel (kerosene based) 35.1 43.8 151,242 125,935
Liquefied natural gas 25.3 ~55 109,000 90,800
Hydrogen 25.7 121 130[12]

(*) Diesel is not used in a gasoline engine, so its low octane rating is not an issue; the relevant metric for diesel engines is the cetane number The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a unit of energy used in the Power, Steam Generation and Heating and Air Conditioning industry globally. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... The gallon is a unit of volume used for measuring liquids (as well as dry matter). ... A gas station pump offering five different octane ratings. ... Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Information on pump, California. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine. ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil Rising energy prices and global warming have led to increased interest in alternative fuels. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Avgas is a high-octane fuel used for aircraft and, in the past, racing cars. ... An aviation fuel truck. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Cetane number or CN is to diesel fuel what octane rating is to gasoline. ...


A high octane fuel such as Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has a lower energy content than lower octane gasoline, resulting in an overall lower power output at the regular compression ratio an engine ran at on gasoline. However, with an engine tuned to the use of LPG (ie. via higher compression ratios such as 12:1 instead of 8:1), this lower power output can be overcome. This is because higher-octane fuels allow for a higher compression ratio - this means less space in a cylinder on its combustion stroke, hence a higher cylinder temperature which improves efficiency according to Carnot's theorem, along with fewer wasted hydrocarbons (therefore less pollution and wasted energy), bringing higher power levels coupled with less pollution overall because of the greater efficiency. 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... For other uses, see tuning. ... Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... Bold text The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... The Carnot heat engine uses a particular thermodynamic cycle studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Thomas Benoit in the 1840s and 50s. ...


The main reason for the lower energy content (per litre) of LPG in comparison to gasoline is that it has a lower density. Energy content per kilogram is higher than for gasoline (higher hydrogen to carbon ratio). The weight-density of gasoline is about 737.22 kg/m³. For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


Different countries have some variation in what RON (Research Octane Number) is standard for gasoline, or petrol. In the UK, ordinary regular unleaded petrol is 91 RON (not commonly available), premium unleaded petrol is always 95 RON, and super unleaded is usually 97-98 RON. However both Shell and BP produce fuel at 102 RON for cars with hi-performance engines, and the supermarket chain Tesco began in 2006 to sell super unleaded petrol rated at 99 RON. In the US, octane ratings in fuels can vary between 86-87 AKI (91-92 RON) for regular, through 89-90 (94-95) for mid-grade (European Premium), up to 90-94 (RON 95-99) for premium unleaded or E10 (Super in Europe) , For other uses, see Tesco (disambiguation). ...


Additives

Main article: Gasoline additive

Gasoline additives increase gasolines octane rating or act as corrosion inhibitors or lubricators, thus allowing the use of higher compression ratios for greater efficiency and power, however some carry heavy environmental risks. ...

Lead

The mixture known as gasoline, when used in high compression internal combustion engines, has a tendency to autoignite(detonation) causing a damaging "engine knocking" (also called "pinging" or "pinking") noise. Early research into this effect was led by A.H. Gibson and Harry Ricardo in England and Thomas Midgley and Thomas Boyd in the United States. The discovery that lead additives modified this behavior led to the widespread adoption of the practice in the 1920s and therefore more powerful higher compression engines. The most popular additive was tetra-ethyl lead. However, with the discovery of the environmental and health damage caused by the lead, and the incompatibility of lead with catalytic converters found on virtually all newly sold US automobiles since 1975, this practice began to wane (encouraged by many governments introducing differential tax rates) in the 1980s. Most countries are phasing out leaded fuel; different additives have replaced the lead compounds. The most popular additives include aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers and alcohol (usually ethanol or methanol). Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... Knocking (also called pinking or pinging)— colloquially detonation—in internal combustion engines occurs when air/fuel mixture in the cylinder detonates or ignites prior to the timed pre-set conditions in the engines cylinder(s). ... ira ira irsa ir air ira ira irs ira ira ira ira ira irea ira ira ira ira ira ira ira ira irs rias irsa k5tan ir4aq ira ira iora ira rika ira 9ria ira iras oira ir ri aria ria ria ira ira ira eia iea ieaiea iramieaneianieaie aieanimsnkwjijair... Thomas Midgley, Jr. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Tetra-ethyl lead (also known as TEL, lead tetraethyl and tetraethyllead) is a toxic organometallic chemical compound, with formula (CH3CH2)4Pb, which was once used as a gasoline (petrol) additive. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... The use of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuels. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ...


In the U.S., where lead was blended with gasoline (primarily to boost octane levels) since the early 1920s, standards to phase out leaded gasoline were first implemented in 1973. In 1995, leaded fuel accounted for only 0.6 % of total gasoline sales and less than 2,000 short tons of lead per year. From January 1, 1996, the Clean Air Act banned the sale of leaded fuel for use in on-road vehicles. Possession and use of leaded gasoline in a regular on-road vehicle now carries a maximum $10,000 fine in the United States. However, fuel containing lead may continue to be sold for off-road uses, including aircraft, racing cars, farm equipment, and marine engines.[13] The ban on leaded gasoline led to thousands of tons of lead not being released in the air by automobiles. Similar bans in other countries have resulted in lowering levels of lead in people's bloodstreams.[14][15] The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Smog over Shanghai. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ...


A side effect of the lead additives was protection of the valve seats from erosion. Many classic cars' engines have needed modification to use lead-free fuels since leaded fuels became unavailable. However, "Lead substitute" products are also produced and can sometimes be found at auto parts stores. A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. ... Ford Model A Four-door 1948 Buick Eight convertible 1959 Chevrolet Impala A yank tank or maquina in Havana, Cuba A 1963 Buick Special, one of the first practical V6 automobiles in North America 1967 Ford Mustang Coupe Classic car is a term frequently used to describe an older car...


Gasoline, as delivered at the pump, also contains additives to reduce internal engine carbon buildups, improve combustion, and to allow easier starting in cold climates. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ...


In some parts of South America, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, leaded gasoline is still in use. Leaded gasoline was phased out in sub-Saharan Africa effective 1 January 2006. A growing number of countries have drawn up plans to ban leaded gasoline in the near future. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


MMT

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used for many years in Canada and recently in Australia to boost octane. It also helps old cars designed for leaded fuel run on unleaded fuel without need for additives to prevent valve problems. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organometallic compound with the formula (CH3C5H4)Mn(CO)3. ...


US Federal sources state that MMT is suspected to be a powerful neurotoxin and respiratory toxin,[citation needed] and a large Canadian study concluded that MMT impairs the effectiveness of automobile emission controls and increases pollution from motor vehicles.[16]


In 1977, use of MMT was banned in the US by the Clean Air Act until the Ethyl Corporation could prove that the additive would not lead to failure of new car emissions-control systems. As a result of this ruling, the Ethyl Corporation began a legal battle with the EPA, presenting evidence that MMT was harmless to automobile emissions-control systems. In 1995, the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that the EPA had exceeded its authority and, as a result, MMT became a legal fuel additive in the US. MMT is nowadays manufactured by the Afton Chemical Corporation division of Newmarket Corporation.[17]


Ethanol

In the United States, ethanol is sometimes added to gasoline but sold without an indication that it is a component. Chevron, 76, Shell, and several other brands market ethanol-gasoline blends.[citation needed] Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


In several states, ethanol is added by law to a minimum level which is currently 5.9%. Most fuel pumps display a sticker stating that the fuel may contain up to 10% ethanol, an intentional disparity which allows the minimum level to be raised over time without requiring modification of the literature/labeling. The bill which was being debated at the time the disclosure of the presence of ethanol in the fuel was mandated has recently passed. This law (Energy Policy Act of 2005) will require all auto fuel to contain at least 10% ethanol. Many call this fuel mix gasohol. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. ... The use of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuels. ...


In the EU, 5% ethanol can be added within the common gasoline spec (EN 228). Discussions are ongoing to allow 10% blending of ethanol. Most countries (fuel distributors) today do not add so much ethanol.[citation needed] Most gasoline (petrol) sold in Sweden has 5% ethanol added.


In Brazil, the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) requires that gasoline for automobile use has 23% of ethanol added to its composition.


Dye

Main article: Fuel dyes

In the United States the most commonly used aircraft gasoline, avgas, or aviation gas, is known as 100LL (100 octane, low lead) and is dyed blue. Red dye has been used for identifying untaxed (non-highway use) agricultural diesel. The UK uses red dye to differentiate between regular diesel fuel, (often referred to as DERV), which is undyed, and diesel intended for agricultural and construction vehicles like excavators and bulldozers. Red diesel is still occasionally used on HGVs which use a separate engine to power a loader crane. This is a declining practice however, as many loader cranes are powered directly by the tractor unit. Fuel dyes are dyes added to fuels, as in some countries it is required by law to dye a low-tax fuel to deter its use in applications intended for higher-taxed ones. ... // Avgas is a high-octane fuel used for aircraft and, in the past, racing cars. ... Diesel is a product used as a fuel in a diesel engine invented by Rudolf Diesel, and perfected by Charles F. Kettering. ... Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) is a generic and formal designation in British English for classification of large road vehicles intended to carry goods. ... An old crane with incline of pivoted main boom controlled by means of chains, sprockets and gears. ... see also Articulated vehicle Fifth wheel Tractor ...


Oxygenate blending

Oxygenate blending adds oxygen to the fuel in oxygen-bearing compounds such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol, and so reduces the amount of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel in the exhaust gas, thus reducing smog. In many areas throughout the US oxygenate blending is mandated by EPA regulations to reduce smog and other airborne polutants. For example, in Southern California, fuel must contain 2% oxygen by weight, resulting in a mixture of 5.6% ethanol in gasoline. The resulting fuel is often known as reformulated gasoline (RFG) or oxygenated gasoline. The federal requirement that RFG contain oxygen was dropped May 6, 2006 because the industry had developed VOC-controlled RFG that did not need additional oxygen.[18] Oxygenated substances have been infused with oxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... MTBE is highly flammable and is widely used as an oxygenate. ... Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), is created by mixing ethanol and isobutene and reacting them with heat over a catalyst. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...


MTBE use is being phased out in some states due to issues with contamination of ground water. In some places it is already banned. Ethanol and to a lesser extent the ethanol derived ETBE are a common replacements. Especially since ethanol derived from biomatter such as corn, sugar cane or grain is frequent, this will often be referred to as bio-ethanol. A common ethanol-gasoline mix of 10% ethanol mixed with gasoline is called gasohol or E10, and an ethanol-gasoline mix of 85% ethanol mixed with gasoline is called E85. The most extensive use of ethanol takes place in Brazil, where the ethanol is derived from sugarcane. In 2004, over 3,400 million US gallons (13,000,000 m³) of ethanol was produced in the United States for fuel use, mostly from corn, and E85 is slowly becoming available in much of the United States. Unfortunately many of the relatively few stations vending E85 are not open to the general public.[19] The use of bioethanol, either directly or indirectly by conversion of such ethanol to bio-ETBE, is encouraged by the European Union Directive on the Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport. However since producing bio-ethanol from fermented sugars and starches involves distillation, ordinary people in much of Europe cannot ferment and distill their own bio-ethanol at present (unlike in the US where getting a BATF distillation permit has been easy since the 1973 oil crisis.) Information on pump, California. ... Logo used in the United States for E85 fuel Not to be confused with European route E85, a motorway in Europe. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... This article is about the maize plant. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Directive on the Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport, officially 2003/30/EC and popularly better known as the biofuels directive is a European Union directive for promoting the use of biofuels for EU transport. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ...


Health concerns

Uncontrolled burning of gasoline produces large quantities of soot.
Uncontrolled burning of gasoline produces large quantities of soot.

Many of the non-aliphatic hydrocarbons naturally present in gasoline (especially aromatic ones like benzene), as well as many anti-knocking additives, are carcinogenic. Because of this, any large-scale or ongoing leaks of gasoline pose a threat to the public's health and the environment, should the gasoline reach a public supply of drinking water. The chief risks of such leaks come not from vehicles, but from gasoline delivery truck accidents and leaks from storage tanks. Because of this risk, most (underground) storage tanks now have extensive measures in place to detect and prevent any such leaks, such as sacrificial anodes. Gasoline is rather volatile (meaning it readily evaporates), requiring that storage tanks on land and in vehicles be properly sealed. The high volatility also means that it will easily ignite in cold weather conditions, unlike diesel for example. Appropriate venting is needed to ensure the level of pressure is similar on the inside and outside. Gasoline also reacts dangerously with certain common chemicals. Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Tap water Mineral Water Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. ... A sacrificial anode, or sacrificial rod, is a metallic anode used in an electrochemical process where it is intended to be dissolved to protect other metallic components. ... The ability of a liquid to evaporate quickly and at relatively low temperatures. ... Vaporization redirects here. ...


Gasoline is also one of the sources of pollutant gases. Even gasoline which does not contain lead or sulfur compounds produces carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide in the exhaust of the engine which is running on it. Furthermore, unburnt gasoline and evaporation from the tank, when in the atmosphere, react in sunlight to produce photochemical smog. Addition of ethanol increases the volatility of gasoline. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... // The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen (I) oxide Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), nitrogen(II, IV) oxide Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrogen... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Look up exhaust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... Photochemical smog is the term to represent a multitude of chemical agents which are considered to be detrimental to the environment and health. ...


Through misuse as an inhalant, gasoline also contributes to damage to health. Petrol sniffing is a common way of obtaining a high for many people and has become epidemic in some poorer communities and indigenous groups in America, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and some Pacific Islands.[20] In response, Opal fuel has been developed by the BP Kwinana Refinery in Australia, and contains only 5% aromatics (unlike the usual 25%) which inhibits the effects of inhalation.[21] An aerosol metered-dose inhaler (MDI) used for administration of asthma medication. ... An Ohio man arrested after inhaling spray paint Inhalants are a chemically diverse group of psychoactive substances composed of organic solvents and volatile substances commonly found in more than 1000 common household products, such as glues, hair spray, air fresheners, gasoline, lighter fluid, and paint. ... Opal is a tyle of gasoline (petrol) fuel developed in 2005 by BP Australia to combat the rising use of gasoline as an inhalant by the Indigenous Australian community. ... This article is about the energy corporation. ... Location of Kwinana, Western Australia Kwinana is a Local Government Area of Western Australia. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ...


Like other alkanes, gasoline burns in the vapor phase and, coupled with its volatility, this makes leaks highly dangerous when sources of ignition are present. Many accidents involve gasoline being used in an attempt to light bonfires; rather than helping the material on the bonfire to burn, some of the gasoline vaporises quickly after being poured and mixes with the surrounding air, so when the fire is lit a moment later the vapor surrounding the bonfire instantly ignites in a large fireball, engulfing the unwary user. The vapor is also heavier than air and tends to collect in garage inspection pits.


Usage and pricing

UK gasoline prices
UK gasoline prices

The United States accounts for about 44 percent of the world’s gasoline consumption.[22] In 2003 The United States of America consumed 476,474,000,000 litres (476.474 gigalitres),[23] which equates to 1.3 gigalitres of gasoline each day (about 360 million US liquid gallons). The U.S. used about 510 billion litres (138 billion gallons) of gasoline in 2006, of which 5.6% was mid-grade and 9.5% was premium grade.[24] Long-term U.S. gasoline prices, 1990-2007 (adjusted for inflation using the U.S. CPI). ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ...


Western countries have among the highest usage rates per person.


Based on externalities, some countries, e.g. in Europe and Japan, impose heavy fuel taxes on fuels such as gasoline. Because a greater proportion of the price of gasoline in the United States is due to the cost of oil, rather than taxes, the price of the retail product is subject to greater fluctuations (vs. outside the U.S.) when calculated as a percentage of cost-per-unit, but is actually less variable in absolute terms. In economics, an externality is an impact (positive or negative) on anyone not party to a given economic transaction. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Gold standard Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Policy-mix Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Regulation Banking Fractional-reserve Full-reserve   Free banking Islamic...


Fuel prices have been rising steadily since the start of 2008, especially in the UK [25], Europe, Canada and the USA. The UK in particular has seen an increase of approximately 20p per litre in the space of one year.


Stability

When gasoline is left for a certain period of time, gums and varnishes may build up and precipitate in the gasoline, causing "stale fuel." This will cause gums to build up in the fuel tank, lines, and carburetor or fuel injection components making it harder to start the engine. Motor gasoline may be stored up to 60 days in an approved container. If it is to be stored for a longer period of time, a fuel stabilizer may be used. This will extend the life of the fuel to about 1-2 years, and keep it fresh for the next uses. Fuel stabilizer is commonly used for small engines such as lawnmower and tractor engines to promote quicker and more reliable starting. Users have been advised to keep gasoline containers and tanks more than half full and properly capped to reduce air exposure, to avoid storage at high temperatures,[26] to run an engine for ten minutes to circulate the stabilizer through all components prior to storage, and to run the engine at intervals to purge stale fuel from the carburetor.[27] Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ...


Gummy, sticky resin deposits result from oxidative degradation of gasoline. This degradation can be prevented through the use of antioxidants such as phenylenediamines, alkylenediamines (diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, etc), and alkylamines (diethylamine, tributylamine, ethylamine). Other useful additives include gum inhibitors such as N-substituted alkylaminophenols and color stabilizers such as N-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine, N,N-diethylhydroxylamine, and triethylenetetramine.[28] The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... There are three types of Phenylenediamine: o-Phenylenediamine or ortho-Phenylenediamine, m-Phenylenediamine or meta-Phenylenediamine and p-Phenylenediamine or para-Phenylenediamine, . ortho-Phenylenediamine (image thanks to DuPont) para-Phenylenediamine (image thanks to DuPont) o-Phenylenediamine (1,2-phenyldiamine), also known as OPD, is an intermediate used in the production... Diethylene triamine (DETA) is a yellow hygroscopic liquid, soluble in water and hydrocarbons. ... Chemical structure of triethylenetetramine. ... Diethylamine is a secondary amine with the molecular structure CH3CH2NHCH2CH3. ... Ethylamine is a volatile amine with the molecular structure CH3CH2NH2. ...


By 1975, improvements in refinery techniques have generally reduced the reliance on the catalytically or thermally cracked stocks most susceptible to oxidation.[29] Gasoline containing acidic contaminants such as naphthenic acids can be addressed with additives including strongly basic organo-amines such as N,N-diethylhydroxylamine, preventing metal corrosion and breakdown of other antioxidant additives due to acidity. Hydrocarbons with a bromine number of 10 or above can be protected with the combination of unhindered or partially hindered phenols and oil soluble strong amine bases such as monoethanolamine, N-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine, cyclohexylamine, 1,3-cyclohexane-bis(methylamine), 2,5-dimethylaniline, 2,6-dimethylaniline, diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine.[28] Naphthenic acid is the name for an unspecific mixture of several cylopentyl and cyclohanexyl carboxylic acids. ... DEHA is, in chemistry, a plastic. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as MEA), is an organic chemical compound which is both a primary amine (due to an amino group in its molecule) and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group). ... Cyclohexylamine, also called hexahydroaniline, 1-aminocyclohexane, or aminohexahydrobenzene, is an organic chemical, an amine derived from cyclohexane. ... Dimethylaniline is a chemical compound consisting of a ring of six carbon atoms, with three double bonds each equally spaced with a single bond between them. ... Diethylene triamine (DETA) is a yellow hygroscopic liquid, soluble in water and hydrocarbons. ... Chemical structure of triethylenetetramine. ...


"Stale" gasoline can be detected by a colorimetric enzymatic test for organic peroxides produced by oxidation of the gasoline.[30] A colorimeter is device used to measure the absorbance of a specific solution. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ...


Alternatives

Main article: Alternative fuel

Many of these alternatives are less damaging to the environment than gasoline, but the first generation biofuels are still not 100 percent clean. The definition of alternative fuel varies according to the context of its usage. ...

This article is about transesterified lipids. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... CNG can mean: Compressed natural gas Comfort Noise Generator used in Speech Codecs to insert artificial noise during silent intervals of speech. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which the energy needed for motive power (for automobiles or other vehicle types) or electricity (for stationary applications) is derived from reacting hydrogen (H2) with oxygen. ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... This article is about the fuel. ...

Vegoil and biodiesel to gasoline

XcelPlus Global Holdings[31] working in conjunction with Maverick BioFuels developed the technology in which a fuel compatible with internal combustion gasoline engines is derived from natural renewable oils like soybean, other vegetable oils and biodiesel. Initial marketing efforts will focus on an additive package for converting ordinary Biodiesel into gasoline, adding the Biolene additive package. The additive is expected to be on the market later this year. Home blenders can expect final pump-grade fuel to cost approximately $2.70 per gallon.[32] Soy redirects here. ...


Companies such as Sapphire Energy are developing a means to "grow" gasoline, that is, produce it directly from living organisms, i.e. algae. Biogasoline has the advantage of not needing any change in vehicle or distribution infrastructure.


See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... ... Information on pump, California. ... This article is about the fuel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of automotive fuel retail brands (petrol or gasoline, diesel, etc. ... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... An aviation fuel truck. ... An aftermarket fuel economy device is a device sold on the aftermarket that claims to improve the fuel economy and possibly the fuel emissions of a vehicle. ... A gas station pump offering five different octane ratings. ...

Notes

  1. ^ gasoline components
  2. ^ a b Online Etymology Dictionary
  3. ^ Motor Fuels Tax Audit Procedures Manual - Ch 153 - Glossary
  4. ^ Petrochem Carless :: History
  5. ^ Ron Hincks (2004). "Our Motoring Heritage: Petrol & Oil". Chrysler Collector (154): 16–20. 
  6. ^ "Keeping track: All fired up about `petrol'", =Daily Telegraph, 2002-02-01. 
  7. ^ MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Tesoro Petroleum Companies, Inc., USA, 2003-02-08
  8. ^ Week 1: Nationwide fuel waiver issued to bolster fuel supplies. Response to 2005 Hurricanes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2005-08-31).
  9. ^ Appendix B, Transportation Energy Data Book from the Center for Transportation Analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  10. ^ Thomas, George. Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program [pdf. Livermore, CA. Sandia National Laboratories. 2000.]
  11. ^ Calculated from heats of formation. Does not correspond exactly to the figure for MJ/l divided by density.
  12. ^ National Hydrogen Association FAQs
  13. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1996-01-29). "EPA Takes Final Step in Phaseout of Leaded Gasoline". Press release.
  14. ^ Lourdes Schnaas, Stephen J. Rothenberg, María-Fernanda Flores, Sandra Martínez, Carmen Hernández, Erica Osorio,1 and Estela Perroni (2004). "Blood Lead Secular Trend in a Cohort of Children in Mexico City (1987–2002)" (Open-access full-text reprint). Environ. Health. Perspect. 112 (10): 1110–1115. doi:10.1289/ehp.6636. PMID 15238286. 
  15. ^ Paulina Pino, Tomás Walter; Manuel J. Oyarzún A3, Matthew J. Burden; Betsy Lozoff (2004). "Rapid Drop in Infant Blood Lead Levels during the Transition to Unleaded Gasoline Use in Santiago, Chile". Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal 59 (4): 182–187. doi:10.3200/AEOH.59.4.182-187. 
  16. ^ Final Report: Effects of MMT in Gasoline on Emissions from On-Road Motor Vehicles in Canada. Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers’ Association, and Association of International Automobile Manufacturers of Canada (2002-11-11).
  17. ^ History of mmt®. Afton Chemical. Retrieved on 2008-02-22.
  18. ^ Removal of Reformulated Gasoline Oxygen Content Requirement (national) and Revision of Commingling Prohibition to Address Non-0xygenated Reformulated Gasoline (national). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2006-02-22).
  19. ^ Alternative Fueling Station Locator. U.S. Department of Energy.
  20. ^ Petrol Sniffing Fact File Sheree Cairney, www.abc.net.au, Published 24/11/2005. Retrieved 2007-10-13, a modified version of the original article, now archived here
  21. ^ Fuel technology www.bp.com. Retrieved 2007-06-08.
  22. ^ http://www.worldwatch.org/node/5579 , http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/oilconsumption.html
  23. ^ [http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/energy-resources/variable-291.html EarthTrends: Energy and Resources - Transportation: Motor gasoline consumption Units: Million liters]
  24. ^ U.S. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products. United States Energy Information Administration. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  25. ^ Whatgas: Unleaded Petrol Price Trend
  26. ^ Fuel storage practices.
  27. ^ PER Notebook.
  28. ^ a b EP patent 0534668 Stabilization of gasoline mixtures
  29. ^ US patent 3994698 Gasoline additive concentrate composition
  30. ^ A1 AU patent 2000/72399 A1 Gasoline test kit
  31. ^ http://xcelplusglobal.com/
  32. ^ http://www.autobloggreen.com/2008/05/24/got-some-biodiesel-you-cant-use-convert-it-to-gasoline-with-bi/

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The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin states that petroleum is produced by non_biological processes deep in the Earth. ... Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ... The Higher Heating Value (HHV) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is combusted and the reactants have returned to a temperature of 25°C. The Higher Heating Value takes into account the latent heat of...

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  • "Down the Gasoline Trail" Handy Jam Organization, 1935 (Cartoon)

  Results from FactBites:
 
C&EN: WHAT'S THAT STUFF? GASOLINE (869 words)
In a nutshell, gasoline is a mixture of C
Gasoline in the U.S. is usually blended from straight run gasoline, reformate, alkylate, and some butane.
Gasoline has to be volatile enough to vaporize and mix with air to burn, but one problem is that the vapor pressure can go up or down with a change in temperature or with altitude.
Gasoline FAQ - Part 2 of 4 (6491 words)
Gasoline Middle Distillates USA 338.6 246.3 Canada 26.8 26.1 Western Europe 163.2 266.8 Japan 60.2 92.2 Total World 820.4 1029.0 The USA consumption of gasoline increased from 294.4 (1982) to 335.6 (1989) then dipped to 324.2 (1991), and has continued to rise since then to reach 338.6 million tonnes in 1994.
Gasoline volatility is being reduced as modern engines, with their fuel injection and management systems, can automatically compensate for some of the changes in ambient conditions - such as altitude and air temperature, resulting in acceptable driveability using less volatile fuel.
Reduced gasoline volatility and composition changes, along with cleanliness additives and engine management systems, can help minimise cold start emissions, but currently the most effective technique appears to be rapid, deliberate heating of the catalyst, and the new generation of low thermal inertia "fast light-up" catalysts reduce the problem, but further research is necessary [76,82].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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