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Encyclopedia > Gascony
Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony.
Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony.
flag of Gascony
flag of Gascony

Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced /gaskɔɲ/ ; Gascon Occitan: Gasconha, pronounced /gasˈkuɲɔ/) is an area of southwest France that constituted a province of France prior to the French Revolution. It is currently divided between the Aquitaine région (départements of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, south and west of Gironde, and south of Lot-et-Garonne) and the Midi-Pyrénées région (départements of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwest of Tarn-et-Garonne, and west of Haute-Garonne). Image File history File links MapOfGascony. ... Image File history File links MapOfGascony. ... Image File history File links Gascogne_flag. ... Image File history File links Gascogne_flag. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Landes (Occitan: Lanas) is a département in southern France. ... Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Basque: Pirinio-Atlantiarrak or Pirinio-Atlantikoak) is a département in the southwest of France which takes its name from the Pyrenees mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. ... Gironde is a département in the southwest of France named after the Gironde Estuary. ... Lot-et-Garonne is a département in the southwest of France named after the Lot and Garonne rivers. ... (Region flag) (Occitan cross) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Ariège Aveyron Gers Haute-Garonne Hautes-Pyrénées Lot Tarn Tarn-et-Garonne Arrondissements 22 Cantons 293 Communes 3,020 Statistics Land area1 45,348 km² Population (Ranked 8th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Gers (Occitan: Gers) is a department in the southwest of France named after the Gers River. ... Hautes-Pyrénées is a département in southwestern France. ... Tarn-et-Garonne is a French département in the southwest of France. ... Haute-Garonne is a département in the southwest of France named after the Garonne river. ...


Gascony was historically inhabited by Basque related people. It is home to the Gascon language. It is also the land of d'Artagnan, who inspired Alexandre Dumas's character in the Three Musketeers. It is also home of hero of the play Cyrano de Bergerac (but this character has not much in common with the real Cyrano de Bergerac, who was a Parisian). Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... The statue of dArtagnan in Auch Statue of dArtagnan in Maastricht Charles de Batz-Castelmore, Comte dArtagnan (c. ... Alexandre Dumas, père, born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (July 24, 1802 – December 5, 1870) was a French writer, best known for his numerous historical novels of high adventure which have made him one of the most widely read French authors in the world. ... For other uses, see The Three Musketeers (disambiguation). ... Cyrano de Bergerac is a play written in 1897 by Edmond Rostand based on the life of the real Cyrano de Bergerac. ... Cyrano de Bergerac Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac (March 6, 1619 – July 28, 1655) was a French dramatist and duellist born in Paris, who is now best remembered for the many works of fiction which have been woven around his life story, most notably the play by Edmond Rostand which...


Gascony is also famed for its douceur de vivre ("sweetness of life"): its food (Gascony is home to foie gras and Armagnac brandy), its medieval towns and villages locally called bastides nested amidst green rolling hills, its sunny weather, the beauty of its landscape, with the occasional distant views of the Pyrenees mountain range, all contribute to the popularity of Gascony as a tourist destination. Due to rural exodus, Gascony is one of the least populated areas of western Europe, and so it has recently become a haven for stressed urbanites of northern Europe (chiefly France, England, and the Benelux nations) who, in search of quiet and peace of mind, are increasingly buying second homes in Gascony. Pâté de foie gras (right) with pickled pear. ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... Bastides are fortified towns built in medieval France starting around 1229, the date of the first recorded bastide. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Rural exodus is a term used to describe the migratory patterns that normally occur in a region following the mechanisation of agriculture. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ...

Contents

History

See also: Duke of Gascony
Typical view of the hilly countryside of Gascony, with the Pyrenees mountains in the far distance

Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... Photo self-taken in 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Gascony Categories: GFDL images ... Photo self-taken in 2002 File links The following pages link to this file: Gascony Categories: GFDL images ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...

Aquitania

In pre-Roman times, the inhabitants of Gascony were the Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani), who spoke a language related to the Old Basque language (which predates the modern Basque language). The Aquitanians inhabited a territory limited to the north and east by the Garonne River, to the south by the Pyrenees mountain range, and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Romans called this territory Aquitania, either from the Latin word aqua (meaning "water"), in reference to the many rivers flowing from the Pyrenees through the area, or from the name of the Aquitanian Ausci tribe (whose name seems related to the Basque root eusk- meaning "Basque"), in which case Aquitania would mean "land of the Ausci". In the 50s BC, Aquitania was conquered by lieutenants of C. Julius Caesar and became part of the Roman Empire. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne), region later known as Gascony before the Roman conquest and, probably much later until the Upper Middle Ages. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... The Garonne (Latin: Garumna, Occitan: Garona) is a river in southwest France, with a length of 575 km (357 miles). ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Auch is a town and commune in southwestern France. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC _ 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC _ 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52... Bust of Julius Caesar This article is about Julius Caesar the Roman dictator. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Later, in 27 BC, during the reign of Emperor Augustus, the province of Gallia Aquitania was created. Gallia Aquitania was far larger than the original Aquitania, as it extended north of the Garonne River, in fact all the way north to the Loire River, thus including the Celtic Gallic people that inhabited the regions between the Garonne and the Loire rivers. These Gallic people (with their Gaulish language) were quite different from the non-Indo-European Aquitanians. This was a deliberate policy of Rome, which sought to gather people from different ethnic backgrounds into a single province, in order to avoid the development of a regional identity. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ... This article is about the European people. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... For the language group see Indo-European languages; for other uses see Indo-European (disambiguation) Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ...


In 297, as Emperor Diocletian reformed the administrative structures of the Roman Empire, long claims of the now Romanized descendants of the Aquitanians, who had long desired to be separated from the now also Romanized descendants of the Gallic people inhabiting north of the Garonne, were finally heard and Gallia Aquitania was split into three provinces. The territory south of the Garonne River, corresponding to the original Aquitania, was made a province called Novempopulana (that is, "land of the nine tribes"), while the part of Gallia Aquitania north of the Garonne became the province of Aquitanica I and the province of Aquitanica II. The territory of Novempopulana corresponded quite well to what we call now Gascony. From 297 on, the name "Aquitaine" was never used again for Gascony, despite it having been its original name, and instead became used only for territories north of the Garonne River.[citation needed] Events Narseh of Persia and Diocletian conclude a peace treaty between Persia and Rome. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ...


Novempopulana

Novempopulana suffered like the rest of the Western Roman Empire from the invasions of Germanic tribes, most notably the Vandals in 407-409. In 416-418, Novempopulana was delivered to the Visigoths as their federate settlement lands and became part of the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse. The Visigoths were defeated by the Franks in 507, and fled into Spain. Novempopulana then became part of the Frankish Kingdom like the rest of southern France. However, Novempopulana was far away from the home base of the Franks in northern France, and was only very loosely controlled by the Franks. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... // Events Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals and the Alans after the death of his father Godgisel Gratianus of Britain is assassinated and Constantine III takes his place at the head of the mutinous Roman garrison in Britain. ... For the cleaning product 409®, see butoxyethanol. ... Events Krakatoa undergoes a massive explosion. ... // Events December 28 - Boniface succeeds Zosimus as Pope Council of Carthage - discussion of Biblical canon Births Deaths December 26 - Pope Zosimus In Other Fields 418 is the area code for telephone numbers in the Quebec City region of the province of Quebec of Canada. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ...


Wasconia

Main article: Duchy of Vasconia

It is then, around 600, that taking advantage of the power vacuum thus created, the Basque clans descended from their refuge in the western Pyrenees and established their hegemony over Novempopulana. This is why Novempopulana became known as Vasconia (that is, "land of the Vascones", the Latin word "Vasco" later evolving into the word "Basque"). The word Vasconia evolved into Wasconia, and then into Gasconia (w- often evolved into g- under the influence of Romance languages, cf. warrantee and guarantee, William and Guillaume). Although the Basque clans dominated Gascony, the gradual abandonment of the Basque-related Aquitanian language in favor of a local vulgar Latin, which was well under its way, was not reversed. This local vulgar Latin later evolved into Gascon. However, Gascon was heavily influenced by the original Aquitanian language (for example, Latin f- became h-, cf. Latin fortia, French force, Spanish fuerza, Occitan fòrça, but Gascon hòrça). Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ...


Viking invasions (840-982)

Viking raiders conquered several Gascon towns in 842-844, including Bordeaux and Bayonne, from where they were only expelled in 982-986. Events Oaths of Strasbourg — alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar — sworn and recorded in vernacular languages. ... Events Succession of Pope Sergius II (844 - 847). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Events Greenland founded by Erik the Red ; first contact of Europeans with North America Births Emma of Normandy Atisha the Bengali Buddhist Saint Deaths Categories: 982 ... Events March 2 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks End of the reign of Emperor Kazan of Japan Emperor Ichijo ascends to the throne of Japan Explorer Bjarni Herjólfsson becomes the first inhabitant of the Old World to sight North America Births Deaths March 2 - Lothair, King of...


Their attacks in Gascony may have helped the political disintegration of the Duchy. Their presence nevertheless left a mariner legacy that Basques and Gascons would later exploit in their cod-fishing and whale-hunting activities that would bring them as far as Newfoundland. For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ...


Geography

The most important towns are :

Auch is a town and commune in southwestern France. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dax is a commune of France, sous-préfecture of the Landes département Categories: Stub ... This article is about the French pilgrimage location. ... Bagnères-de-Luchon, also referred to as Luchon, is a spa town and a commune in the Haute-Garonne département, in southwestern France. ... Mont-de-Marsan is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Landes département. ... Aquitaine Region flag Coat of arms The location of Pau is shown on this map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... Location within France Tarbes is a French town and commune, in the département of Hautes-Pyrénées, of which it is the préfecture. ...

Economy

Main industries are :

  • fishing
  • stock raising
  • wine making
  • brandy distilling
  • tourism

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gascogne
  • Old flag. Given to the Gascons by Pope Clement III during the Third Crusade.
  • This article incorporates some information taken from http://www.hostkingdom.net/ with permission

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gascony - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (932 words)
Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced /gaskɔɲ/ ; Gascon Occitan: Gasconha, pronounced /gasˈkuɲɔ/) is an area of southwest France that constituted a province of France prior to the French Revolution.
Due to rural exodus, Gascony is one of the least populated areas of western Europe, and so it has recently become a haven for stressed urbanites of northern Europe (chiefly France, England, and the Benelux nations) who, in search of quiet and peace of mind, are increasingly buying second homes in Gascony.
The territory south of the Garonne River, corresponding to the original Aquitania, was made a province called Novempopulana (that is, "land of the nine tribes"), while the part of Gallia Aquitania north of the Garonne became the province of Aquitanica I and the province of Aquitanica II.
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