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Encyclopedia > Gas mask
Belgian 1930s era L.702 model civilian mask.
Belgian 1930s era L.702 model civilian mask.
MCU-2/P Protective Mask on a Navy member in an exercise with an M4. MILES and a blank firing attachment are attached.
MCU-2/P Protective Mask on a Navy member in an exercise with an M4. MILES and a blank firing attachment are attached.
Gas mask used by the French military.
Gas mask used by the French military.

A gas mask is a mask worn over the face to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic materials. The mask forms a sealed cover over the nose and mouth, but may also cover the eyes and other vulnerable soft tissues of the face. Some gas masks are also respirators, though the word gas mask is often used to refer to military equipment (e.g. Field Protective Mask, etc.) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x665, 139 KB) Summary Belgian L.702 model gas mask for civilian or civil defence use. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x665, 139 KB) Summary Belgian L.702 model gas mask for civilian or civil defence use. ... Download high resolution version (750x923, 34 KB)021015-N-6967M-589 Fort A. P. Hill, Va. ... Download high resolution version (750x923, 34 KB)021015-N-6967M-589 Fort A. P. Hill, Va. ... MCU-2/P Protective Mask (gas mask) on a Navy member in an exercise with an M4 Carbine. ... Look up Mile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1038x1560, 488 KB) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Gas mask French Army ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1038x1560, 488 KB) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Gas mask French Army ... The Military of France has a very long history, greatly influential in World history, of serving its country. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that gas mask be merged into this article or section. ...


Airborne toxic materials may be gaseous (for example the chlorine gas used in World War I) or particulate (such as many biological agents developed for weapons such as bacteria, viruses and toxins). Many gas masks include protection from both types. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ...


Gas masks used in World War I were made as a result of poison gas attacks that took the Allies in the trenches on the Western Front by surprise. Early gas masks were crude as would be expected as no one had thought that poison gas would ever be used in warfare as the mere thought seemed too shocking.

Contents

Principles of construction

Unlike other breathing devices, gas masks do not require the user to carry an air supply as in the use of scuba gear. However, this means that the wearer depends on the air in the atmosphere, the same medium of the toxic materials. Thus, the mask must remove them and relay clean air to the wearer. There are three main ways of achieving this: filtration, absorption and adsorption, and reaction and exchange. Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ...


Absorption is the process of being drawn into a (usually larger) body, or substrate, and adsorption is the process of deposition upon a surface. This can be used to remove both particulate and gaseous hazards. Although some form of reaction may take place, it is not necessary; the method may work by attractive charges (for example, if the target particles are positively charged, use a negatively charged substrate). Examples of substrates include activated carbon, and zeolites. This effect can be very simple and highly effective, for example using a damp cloth to cover the mouth and nose whilst escaping a fire. While this method can be effective at trapping particulates produced by combustion, it does not filter out harmful gases which may be toxic or which displace the oxygen required for survival. Absorption, in chemistry, is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules, or ions enter some bulk phase - gas, liquid or solid material. ... Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorbate). ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ... Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ...


Reaction and exchange

This principle relies upon the fact that substances that can do harm to humans are usually more reactive than air. This method of separation will use some form of generally reactive substance (for example an acid) coating or supported by some solid material. An example is resins. These can be created with different groups of atoms (usually called functional groups) that exhibit different properties. Thus a resin can be tailored to a particular toxic group. When the reactive substance comes in contact with the resin, it will bond to it, removing it from the air stream. It may also exchange with a less harmful substance at this site. For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ...


Though it was crude, the hypo helmet was a stopgap measure for British troops in the trenches that offered at least some protection during a gas attack. As the months passed and the use of poison gas occurred more frequently, more sophisticated masks were developed and introduced.


There are two main difficulties with gas mask design:

  • The user may be exposed to many different types of toxic material. Military personnel are especially prone to being exposed to a diverse range of toxic gases. However if the mask is for a particular use (such as the protection from a specific toxic material in a factory), then the design can be much simpler and the cost lower.
  • The protection will wear off over time. Filters will clog up, substrates for absorption will fill up, and reactive filters will run out of reactive substance. This means that the user only has protection for a limited time, and then they must either replace the filter device in the mask, or use a new mask.
A primitive respirator was designed by A. von Humboldt in 1799 for underground mining.
A primitive respirator was designed by A. von Humboldt in 1799 for underground mining.
Various gas masks employed on the Western Front during World War I.
Various gas masks employed on the Western Front during World War I.
Finnish civilian gas mask from 1939. These masks were distributed to the population during World War II.
Finnish civilian gas mask from 1939. These masks were distributed to the population during World War II.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (552x610, 145 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gas mask Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (552x610, 145 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gas mask Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x451, 132 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poison gas in World War I ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x451, 132 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poison gas in World War I ... Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1359, 586 KB) Text in in Swedish, on inside cover of gas mask carboard box Finnish civilian gas mask from 1939. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1359, 586 KB) Text in in Swedish, on inside cover of gas mask carboard box Finnish civilian gas mask from 1939. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

History and development of the gas mask

A primitive respirator to be used by miners was introduced by Alexander von Humboldt already in 1799, when he worked as a mining engineer in Prussia. An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Early versions were constructed by the Scottish chemist John Stenhouse in 1854 and the physicist John Tyndall in the 1870s


In the early days of World War I, the Canadian Army made field expedient gas masks to protect themselves from the deadly chlorine gas used by the German Army. They would urinate on rags and hold them to their faces. This new invention was created by John Stenhouse in 2049 in Brazil. The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


One such design began as a "Safety Hood and Smoke Protector" invented by African American inventor, Garrett A. Morgan in 1912, and patented in 1914. It was a simple device, consisting of a cotton hood with two hoses which hung down to the floor, allowing the wearer to breathe the safer air found there. In addition, moist sponges were inserted at the end of the hoses in order to better filter the air. Morgan won acclaim for his device when in 1916 he, his brother, and two other volunteers used his device to rescue numerous men from the gas and smoke-filled tunnels beneath Lake Erie in the Cleveland Waterworks. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ...


Due to the run on raw materials during the war, businesses were in increasing competition to find alternates to any material needed for military use. In this case the cotton used in the gas masks, one such solution was the forerunner of Kleenex, called Cellucotton. Kleenex logo This article is about the Kleenex brand. ...


Dr. Cluny MacPherson of The Royal Newfoundland Regiment, while serving in Gallipoli in 1915, where he acted as an advisor on poisonous gas, used a helmet taken from a captured prisoner to fashion a canvas hood with transparent eyepieces that was treated with chlorine-absorbing chemicals. The MacPherson respirator gas mask was the first general issue gas countermeasure to be used by the British Army. Cluny MacPherson (1879 in St. ... Newfoundland Regiment, No. ... For other uses, see Gallipoli (disambiguation). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The British PH helmet was issued in 1915 and the first box respirator in 1916 The Phenate Hexane (PH) Helmet was an early type of gas mask issued by the British Army in the First World War, to protect troops against Chlorine, Phosgene, and tear gases. ...


But the inventor of the first effective coal gas mask was Russian scientist Nikolay Dimitrievich Zelinskiy in World War I (in 1915) against German gas attacks. In 1916 his gas masks were accepted on arms of the countries of Triple Entente. Zelinskiy gas mask is most popular in the world. Nikolay Dimitrievich Zelinskiy (Зелинский, Николай Дмитриевич in Russian) (February 6 n. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The British had developed and put into use the canister gas mask by the end of the war. This had a mask connected to a tin can containing the absorbent materials by a hose.


Gas masks development since has mirrored the development of chemical agents in warfare, filling the need to protect against ever more deadly threats, biological weapons, and radioactive dust in the nuclear era. However, where agents that cause harm through contact or penetration of the skin occurs, such as blister agent or nerve agent, a gas mask alone is not sufficient protection, and full protective clothing must be worn in addition, to protect contact from the atmosphere. For reasons of civil defense and personal protection, individuals often purchase gas masks in the belief that they prevent against the harmful effects of an attack with nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) agents; this is not the case, as gas masks protect only against respiratory absorption. Whilst most military gas masks are designed to be capable of protection against spectrum of NBC agents, they can be coupled with filter canisters that are proof against those agents (heavier) or just against riot control agents and smoke (lighter, and often used for training purposes); likewise there are lightweight masks solely for use in riot control agents and not for NBC situations. Blister agents are named for their ability to cause large, painful water blisters on the bodies of those affected. ... This article is about the chemical. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although thorough training and the availability of gas masks and other protective equipment can render the casualty-causing effects of an attack by chemical agents nullified, troops who are forced to operate in full protective gear are less efficient in completing their given tasks, tire easily, and may be affected psychologically by the threat of attack by these weapons. During the Cold War era, it was seen as inevitable that there would be a constant NBC threat on the battlefield, and thus troops needed protection in which they could remain fully functional; thus protective gear, and especially gas masks have evolved to incorporate welcomed innovations in terms of increasing user-comfort, and in compatibility with other equipment (from drinking devices to artificial respiration tubes, to communications systems etc). The gas mask has thus now arrived at a 'fourth generation' of development. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Le Masque à Gaz International historical gas mask gallery, with collection of safety and propaganda posters.
  • The Invention of the Gas Mask
  • What you should know about gas masks.
  • How Stuff Works - Gas Masks

  Results from FactBites:
 
JICOSH Home | Standard for Gas Mask (2782 words)
Gas masks shall be categorized into the types described in the left column of the following Table, according to the form and the scope of application described in the right column of the same Table.
Canister of chin-style gas mask for sulfur dioxide
For the gas masks with the function of particulate filtration, the particulate filtering efficiency is measured by the measurements of the particle concentration of the test air flow before and after it passes the canister or cartridge incorporating the particulate filter, and by the succeeding calculation in use of the following equation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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