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Encyclopedia > Gas laws

The gas laws are a set of laws that describe the relationship between thermodynamic temperature (T), pressure (P) and volume (V) of gases. It is a loose collection of rules developed between the late Renaissance and early 19th century. Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ... Volume is how much space a thing has. ... A gas is one of the four major phases of matter (after solid and liquid, and followed by plasma, that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Ideal gases

Three earlier gas laws--

  • Boyle's law (1662, relating pressure and volume)
  • Charles' law (1787, relating volume and temperature), and
  • Gay-Lussac's law (1809, relating pressure and temperature)--

were combined to form the combined gas law Boyles law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle Mariotte law), one of the gas laws, states that the product of the pressure and volume of a fixed quantity of ideal gas, when held at a fixed temperature, is a constant. ... Charless law (sometimes called the Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac) is one of the gas laws; it relates the volume and temperature of an ideal gas held at a constant pressure. ... Gay-Lussacs law was named after the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. ... The ideal gas law or equation is the equation of state of an ideal gas. ...

frac {P_1V_1} {T_1} = frac {P_2V_2} {T_2}.

With the addition of Avogadro's law, this gave way to the In 1811 Amedeo Avogadro stated the hypothesis which we now call Avogadros law: (See: this site for an English translation of his 1811 paper). ...

PV = nRT ,,

where Isotherms of an ideal gas The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas, first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834. ...

P is the pressure (SI unit: pascal)
V is the volume (SI unit: cubic meter)
n is the number of moles of gas
R is the ideal gas constant (SI: 8.3145 J/(mol K))
T is the thermodynamic temperature (SI unit: kelvin).

(The law works with any consistent set of units, provided that the temperature scale is zero at absolute zero, and the proper gas constant is used.) The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ... Cover of brochure The International System of Units. ... The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure or stress (also: Youngs modulus and tensile strength). ... Volume is how much space a thing has. ... Cover of brochure The International System of Units. ... The cubic metre (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... A mole (symbol: mol) is approximately 6. ... The gas constant (also known as the universal or ideal gas constant, usually denoted by symbol R) is a physical constant used in equations of state to relate various groups of state functions to one another. ... Cover of brochure The International System of Units. ... A joule is the work done or energy required to exert a force of one newton for a distance of one metre, so the same quantity may be referred to as a newton metre or newton-metre with the symbol N·m. ... A mole (symbol: mol) is approximately 6. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. ... Cover of brochure The International System of Units. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ... Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. ... Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder, and no heat energy remains in a substance. ... The gas constant (also known as the universal or ideal gas constant, usually denoted by symbol R) is a physical constant used in equations of state to relate various groups of state functions to one another. ...


An equivalent formulation of this law is:

PV = NkT ,

where

N is the number of molecules
k is the Boltzmann constant.

These equations are exact only for an ideal gas, which is a fictional construct. However, the ideal gas laws are good approximations for many gases under many circumstances. Ludwig Boltzmann The Boltzmann constant (k or kB) is the physical constant relating temperature to energy. ... An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles of zero volume, with no intermolecular forces. ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ...


The kinetic theory of gases, Graham's law of effusion and root mean square velocity all explain how individual molecules in a gas act and their relation to pressure, volume, and temperature. Dalton's law of partial pressures, another important gas law, explains the behavior of mixtures of gases. Kinetic theory attempts to explain macroscopic properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, or volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion. ... Grahams law, also known as Grahams law of effusion, was formulated by Scottish physical chemist, Thomluyfkuyfj,gfhuas Graham. ... In mathematics, the root mean square or rms is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. ... In chemistry and physics, Daltons law (also called Daltons law of partial pressures) states that the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture. ...


Non-ideal gases

Other gas laws, such as van der Waals equation, seek to correct the ideal gas laws to reflect the behaviour of actual gases. The van der Waals equation alters the ideal gas law to reflect how actual gases function using a series of calculated values called van der Waals constants. The van der Waals equation is an equation of state for a fluid composed of particles that have a non-zero size and a pairwise attractive inter-particle force (such as the van der Waals force. ...


It is also possible to apply Boltzmann's analysis to determine further information about gases. Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ...



S.T.P.

 -Standard Temperature and Pressure 

See also

A gas is one of the four major phases of matter (after solid and liquid, and followed by plasma, that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. ... The laws of thermodynamics, in principle, describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes. ... In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a constitutive equation describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. ...

References

  • Castka, Joseph F.; Metcalfe, H. Clark; Davis, Raymond E.; Williams, John E. (2002). Modern Chemistry. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-056537-5.
  • Guch, Ian (2003). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Chemistry. Alpha, Penguin Group Inc.. ISBN 1-59257-101-8.
  • Zumdahl, Steven S (1998). Chemical Principles. Houghton Millfin Company. ISBN 0-395-83995-5.

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