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Encyclopedia > Gas chamber
This article is part of the
Capital punishment series
Issues

Capital punishment debate
Religion and capital punishment
Wrongful execution Gas chamber may refer to: Gas chamber, a means of execution where a poisonous gas is introduced into a hermetically sealed chamber A chamber filled with tear gas, used to train military and law enforcement personnel in use of gas masks and in resisting the effects of tear gas The... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is often the subject of controversy. ... Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of capital punishment. ... Capital punishment Wrongful execution is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. The possibility of wrongful executions is one of the arguments presented by the opponents of capital punishment; other arguments include failing to deter crime more than...

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More... The only countries in Europe that havent abolished the death penalty yet is Albania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Russia. ...

Methods

Decapitation
Electrocution
Firing squad
Gas chamber
Hanging
Lethal injection
More... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... The Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ...

A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. The most commonly used poisonous agent is hydrogen cyanide; carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide have also been used. For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... An asphyxiant gas is a non-toxic or minimally toxic gas which dilutes or displaces the oxygen containing atmosphere, leading to death by asphyxiation if breathed long enough. ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...


Gas chambers were used as a method of execution for condemned prisoners in the United States beginning in the 1920s. Their use has also been reported in North Korea. Gas chambers have also been used for animal euthanasia, using carbon dioxide as the lethal agent.[1] 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


During the Holocaust, large-scale gas chambers designed for mass killing were used by Nazi Germany as part of their genocide program.[2] For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Sometimes a box filled with anaesthetic gas is used to anaesthetize small animals for surgery or euthanasia.[3] Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... For the song (Anesthesia) Pulling Teeth by Metallica, go here. ...

Contents

Method, when using cyanide

Generally speaking, in the United States the execution protocol is as follows: First, the execution technician will place a quantity of potassium cyanide (KCN) pellets into a compartment directly below the chair in the chamber. The condemned person is then brought into the chamber and strapped into the chair, and the airtight chamber is sealed. At this point the execution technician will pour a quantity of concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) down a tube that leads to a small holding tank directly below the compartment containing the cyanide pellets. The curtain is then opened, allowing the witnesses to observe the inside of the chamber. The prison warden will then ask the condemned individual if he or she wishes to make a final statement. Following this, the executioner(s) will throw a switch/lever to cause the cyanide pellets to drop into the sulfuric acid, initiating a chemical reaction that generates hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas: Potassium cyanide is the inorganic compound with the formula KCN. This colorless crystalline compound, similar in appearance to sugar, is highly soluble in water. ... A hermetic seal is an airtight seal. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ...

2KCN (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → 2HCN (g) + K2SO4

The gas is visible to the condemned, and he/she is advised to take several deep breaths to speed unconsciousness in order to prevent unnecessary suffering. Most prisoners, however, try to hold their breath.[4] Death from hydrogen cyanide is usually painful and unpleasant, although theoretically the condemned individual should lose consciousness before dying. The chamber is then purged of the gas through special scrubbers, and must be neutralized with anhydrous ammonia (NH3) before it can be opened. Guards wearing oxygen masks remove the body from the chamber. Finally, the prison doctor examines the individual in order to officially declare that he or she is dead and release the body to the next of kin. Potassium cyanide is the inorganic compound with the formula KCN. This colorless crystalline compound, similar in appearance to sugar, is highly soluble in water. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (also known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water. ... Gas can also refer to gasoline and natural gas and also hydrogen. ... Unconsciousness is the absence of consciousness. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. ...


One of the problems with the gas chamber is the inherent danger of dealing with such a toxic gas. Anhydrous ammonia is used to cleanse the chamber after cyanide gas has been used: Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

HCN + NH3NH4+ + CN-.

The anhydrous ammonia used to clean the chamber afterwards, and the contaminated acid that must be drained and disposed of, are both very poisonous. R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ...


Nitrogen gas or oxygen-depleted air has been considered for human execution, as it can induce Nitrogen asphyxiation. It has not been used to date. General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Death penalty, Death sentence, and Execution redirect here. ... Nitrogen asphyxiation is a theoretical method of capital punishment advocated by Stuart A. Creque in a 1995 article in National Review, Killing with kindness - capital punishment by nitrogen asphyxiation. The painful experience of suffocation is not caused by lack of oxygen intake but rather because of a buildup of carbon...


United States

Gas chamber history and laws in the United States.Color key:      Secondary method only      Once used gas chamber, but does not today      Has never used gas chamber
Gas chamber history and laws in the United States.
Color key:      Secondary method only      Once used gas chamber, but does not today      Has never used gas chamber

Gas chambers have been used for capital punishment in the United States in the past to execute criminals, especially convicted murderers. Five states (Wyoming, California, Maryland, Missouri, and Arizona) technically retain this method, but all allow lethal injection as an alternative. Following the videotaped execution of Robert Alton Harris a federal court in California declared this method of execution as "cruel and unusual punishment". In fact, it is highly unlikely that any of these states will ever again utilize the gas chamber, unless an inmate specifically requests to die by this method. In Arizona and Maryland, there are some inmates who were convicted before the gas chamber was replaced by lethal injection. In those states, it is possible for a gas chamber execution, but when those inmates are "removed" from death row (one way or another), the gas chamber will no longer have the realistic possibility of being used again. The use of the gas chamber was also controversial because of the use of large chambers to kill millions in Nazi concentration camps. Most states have now switched to methods considered more humane by officials, such as lethal injection. Image File history File links Map_of_US_gas_chamber_usage. ... Image File history File links Map_of_US_gas_chamber_usage. ... Image File history File links Gaschamber. ... Capital punishment in the United States is officially sanctioned by 37 of the 50 states, as well as by the federal government and the military. ... For other uses, see Crime (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Robert Alton Harris (January 15, 1953–April 21, 1992) was an American career criminal and murderer who was executed in San Quentins gas chamber in 1992. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... “Cruel And Unusual” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...


The first person to be executed in the United States via gas chamber was Gee Jon, on February 8, 1924 in Nevada. As of 2006, the last person to be executed in the gas chamber was German national Walter LaGrand, whom Arizona executed on March 3, 1999. Gee Jon was the first person in the United States to be executed by lethal gas, at Nevada State Prison on February 8, 1924. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The LaGrand case was a contentious case in the International Court of Justice, Germany vs. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


As with all judicially mandated executions in the United States, witnesses are present during the procedure. These include members of the media, citizen witnesses, prison/legal/spiritual staff, and certain family members.


The gas chamber that San Quentin State Prison in California used for capital punishment, has since been converted to an execution chamber for execution by lethal injection. There were two chairs where the restraining table is now. The sprawling San Quentin prison complex. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...


Controversy

Reports of gas chamber executions include:

  • September 2, 1983: Jimmy Lee Gray, Mississippi. Officials had to clear the room eight minutes after the gas was released when Gray’s desperate gasps for air repulsed witnesses. His attorney criticized state officials for clearing the room when the inmate was still alive. Says David Bruck, an attorney specializing in death penalty cases, "Jimmy Lee Gray died banging his head against a steel pole in the gas chamber while reporters counted his moans."
  • April 6, 1992: Donald Eugene Harding, Arizona Gas Chamber. At 12:18 a.m. one pound of sodium cyanide pellets dropped into a vat beneath Harding’s chair containing six quarts of distilled water and six pints of sulfuric acid. Cameron Harper, a reporter for KTVK-TV, said, "I watched Harding go into violent spasms for 57 seconds." Harper continued, "Then he began to convulse less frequently. His back muscles rippled. The spasms grew less violent. I timed them as ending 6 minutes and 37 seconds after they began. His head went down in little jerking motions. Obviously the gentleman was suffering. This was a violent death, make no mistake about it. [...] It was an ugly event. We put animals to death more humanely. This was not a clean and simple death." Carla McClain, another witness and a reporter for the Tucson Citizen, said, "Harding’s death was extremely violent. He was in great pain. I heard him gasp and moan. I saw his body turn from red to purple."

is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Jimmy Lee Gray (1949 – September 2, 1983) was convicted of the murder of Deressa Jean Seales. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... An attorney is someone who represents someone else in the transaction of business: For attorney-at-law, see lawyer, solicitor, barrister or civil law notary. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Sodium cyanide is a highly toxic chemical compound, also known as sodium salt of hydrocyanic acid and cyanogran. ... For other uses, see Quart (disambiguation). ... Bottle for Distilled water in the Real Farmacia in Madrid. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The Tucson Citizen is a daily newspaper in Tucson, Arizona. ...

Nazi Germany

Roof of Majdanek gas chamber showing vents through which Zyklon B was inserted.

Gas chambers were used in the German Third Reich during the 1930s and 1940s as part of the so-called "public euthanasia program" aimed at eliminating physically and intellectually disabled people and later political undesirables in the 1930s-40s. At that time, the preferred gas was carbon monoxide, often provided by the exhaust gas of cars or trucks or army tanks.[5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x732, 69 KB) Summary A Soviet army man posed at Majdanek holding the cover of the vents through which Zyklon B was inserted. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x732, 69 KB) Summary A Soviet army man posed at Majdanek holding the cover of the vents through which Zyklon B was inserted. ... Majdanek Memorial, containing the ashes of cremated victims Majdanek fence in the winter (2005) Majdanek (originally Konzentrationslager Lublin) is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... Developmental disability is a term used to describe severe, life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical impairments, manifested before the age of 22. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Automobile exhaust Exhaust gas is flue gas which occurs as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline/petrol, diesel, fuel oil or coal. ...


Later, during the Holocaust, gas chambers were modified and enhanced to accept even larger groups as part of the German policy of genocide against Jews, and others. In January or February, 1940, 250 Roma children from Brno in the Buchenwald concentration camp were used for testing the Zyklon B (hydrogen cyanide absorbed into various solid substrates).[6] On September 3, 1941, 600 Soviet POWs were gassed with Zyklon B at Auschwitz camp I; this was the first experiment with the gas at Auschwitz.[7] “Shoah” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... Slave laborers in the Buchenwald concentration camp (Elie Wiesel is second row, seventh from left). ... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Auschwitz is the name loosely used to identify three main Nazi German concentration camps and 45-50 sub-camps. ...

Interior of Majdanek gas chamber, showing Prussian blue residue.

Carbon monoxide was also used in large purpose-built gas chambers. The gas was provided by internal combustion engines (detailed in the Gerstein Report).[8] Nazi gas chambers in mobile vans and at least eight concentration camps (see also extermination camp) were used to kill several million people between 1941 and 1945. Some stationary gas chambers could kill 2,500 people at once. Numerous sources record the use of gas chambers in the Holocaust, including the direct testimony of Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... The Gerstein Report was written by Kurt Gerstein, an Obersturmführer of the Waffen-SS in 1945. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Rudolf Hoess Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Höß (in English commonly Hoess or Höss; November 25, 1900 – April 16, 1947) was a senior Nazi official, member of the SS and Waffen-SS (with the rank of SS-Obersturmbannführer) and commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp where he was responsible for...


The gas chambers were dismantled when Soviet troops got close, except at Dachau, Sachsenhausen, and Majdanek. The gas chamber at Auschwitz I was reconstructed after the war as a memorial, but without a door in its doorway and without the wall that originally separated the gas chamber from a washroom. The door that had been added when the gas chamber was converted into an air raid shelter was left intact.[10] CCCP redirects here. ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp, 1997. ... Entry to the camp Sachsenhausen was a concentration camp in Germany, operating between 1936 and 1950. ... Majdanek Memorial, containing the ashes of cremated victims Majdanek fence in the winter (2005) Majdanek (originally Konzentrationslager Lublin) is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ... Auschwitz is the name loosely used to identify three main Nazi German concentration camps and 45-50 sub-camps. ...


Napoleonic France

Main article: The Crime of Napoleon

In his book, Le Crime de Napoléon, French historian Claude Ribbe has claimed that in the early 19th century, Napoleon used poison gas to put down slave rebellions in Haiti and Guadeloupe. Based on accounts left by French officers, he alleges that enclosed spaces including the holds of ships were used as makeshift gas chambers where sulphur dioxide gas (probably generated by burning sulphur) was used to execute up to 100,000 rebellious slaves. These claims remain controversial.[11] The Crime of Napoleon (in French Le Crime de Napoléon) is a controversial book published in 2005 by French historian Claude Ribbe. ... Claude Ribbe (born October 13, 1954) is a French historian and human rights commissioner of Caribbean origin. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Other nations

Recent reports indicate that gas chambers are used by North Korea both as punishment and for testing of lethal agents on humans: from Guardian newspaper (UK): "Revealed: the gas chamber horror of North Korea's gulag " (Feb. 1, 2004).


References

  1. ^ APR Euthanasia Standards http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_n17_v47/ai_17374449
  2. ^ Many sources including http://www.yadvashem.org
  3. ^ APR Euthanasia Standards http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_n17_v47/ai_17374449
  4. ^ Methods of Execution: Gas Chamber. Archived from the original on 2007-07-01. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  5. ^ Jewish Virtual Library The T-4 Euthanasia Program http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/t4.html
  6. ^ Emil Proester, Vraždeni čs. cikanu v Buchenwaldu (The murder of Czech Gypsies in Buchenwald). Document No. UV CSPB K-135 on deposit in the Archives of the Museum of the Fighters Against Nazism, Prague. 1940. (Quoted in: Miriam Novitch, Le génocide des Tziganes sous le régime nazi (Genocide of Gypsies by the Nazi Regime), Paris, AMIF, 1968)
  7. ^ The Nizkor Project, Auschwitz: Krema I http://www.nizkor.org/faqs/auschwitz/auschwitz-faq-04.html
  8. ^ Kurt Gerstein, Der Gerstein-Bericht(The Gerstein Report) http://www.ns-archiv.de/verfolgung/gerstein/gerstein-bericht.php
  9. ^ Modern History Sourcebook: Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz: Testimony at Nuremburg, 1946 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1946hoess.html
  10. ^ The Nizkor Project, Auschwitz: Krema I http://www.nizkor.org/faqs/auschwitz/auschwitz-faq-04.html
  11. ^ Colin Randall, "Napoleon's genocide 'on a par with Hitler,'" Daily Telegraph, November 26, 2005. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/11/26/wfra26.xml&sSheet=/news/2005/11/26/ixworld.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
Methods of Execution: Gas Chamber (358 words)
This proved impossible because the gas leaked from his cell, so the gas chamber was constructed.
The last use of a gas chamber was on March 3, 1999, when Walter LaGrand, a German national, was executed in Arizona.
At postmortem, an exhaust fan sucks the poison air out of the chamber, and the corpse is sprayed with ammonia to neutralize any remaining traces of cyanide.
Gas chamber (503 words)
Gas chambers have been used for capital punishment in the United States in the past to execute criminals, especially convicted murderers.
The gas used is hydrogen cyanide, and death from it is painful and unpleasant.
More notoriously, gas chambers were used in the Nazi Third Reich during the 1930s a part of a public euthanasia program aimed at eliminating physically and intellectually disabled people, and later the mentally ill. At that time, the preferred gas was carbon monoxide, often provided by the exhaust fumes of cars and trucks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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