Garut is one of the regencies in Indonesia's southern West Java province. Its area is 3065.19 km² (1183.48 mi²). Geographically, it lies between 6°57′34″ – 7°44′57″ South latitude and 107°24′34″ – 108°7′34″ East longitude. It is bordered by:
- Eastern side: Tasikmalaya Regency
- Western side: Cianjur and Bandung Regency
- Northern side: Sumedang Regency
- Southern side: Indian Ocean
In general, Garut has a cool but tropical climate, with an average temperature of 24 °C (76 °F). Average annual rainfall is 2,590 mm (102 inches). This area includes valley territory surrounded by volcanoes (Mount Karacak: 1838 m, Mount Cikuray: 2821 m, Mount Guntur: 2249 m, Mount Papandayan: 2622 m) on the northern side, with average heights of 700–750 m above sea level. Streams of solidified lava are present on their slopes.
On March 2, 1811, the Balubur Limbangan Regency was defeated by Governor General Herman W. Daendels (of the Dutch Colonial Army), and Regent Tumenggung Wangsakusumah II resigned. Balubur Limbangan Regency comprised 6 sub-districts: Balubur, Malangbong, Wanaraja, Wanakerta, Cibeureum and Papandak.
On February 16, 1813, a new Limbangan Regency was founded by Lt. Governor Thomas S. Raffles which became Garut Regency. RAA. Adiwijaya was the first Regent of Garut Regency. He governed from 1813 until 1821. He was well-known for his call of Dalem Cipeujueh.
Administratively, Garut regency consists of 42 sub-districts and 419 rural districts with 2,173,623 people (51% male, 49% female). Garut constitutes the buffer land and hinterland for the development of Bandung Raja's territory. It has a strategic position and acts as the supplier for the needs of Bandung municipality and regency's populations.
Based on topology, Garut Regency is divided into two territories:
- Northern Garut consists highlands which constitute the largest rice fields in Garut
- Southern Garut mostly consists of sloping land and twelve rivers which flow south, emptying into the Indian Ocean
Tourist resorts are present in Garut Regency, popular not only for coastal panorama and the sea but also because of craters and waterfalls. Lakes and a hot springs, supported by fresh, cool air, are much enjoyed by local tourist and foreign tourists. No wonder the Garut Regency was called "Swiss Van Java" in the Dutch Colonial Period.
Land fertility varies greatly because of influence by mountains, rivers and coastal lowlands. As a result, agricultural businesses are primarily plantation-based, as well as subsistence farming and animal husbandry, followed by forest resources.
Some specific and well-known products from Garut are:
- Garut Orange fruits (Jeruk Garut)
- Garut Lamb (Domba Garut)
- Dodol Garut (delicious specific snack from Garut)
- Vetiver Root Oil (Andropogon zizanioides) (Minyak Akar Wangi)
- Batik Tulis Garutan (hand painted clothes)
- Silk clothes
- Leather crafts
- Bamboo crafts