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Encyclopedia > Garrote

A garrote or garrote vil (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, scarf, wire or fishing line used to strangle someone to death. The term especially refers to an execution device, but is sometimes used in assassination because it can be completely silent. In addition, the garrote is used by some military units. It is known that members of the French Foreign Legion are trained in its use. The garrote was allegedly employed by Thuggees. A garrote can be made out of many different materials, including ropes, tie wraps, fishing lines, nylon, and even guitar strings and piano wire. For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... In medicine, a ligature is a device, similar to a tourniquet, usually of thread or string, tied around a limb, blood vessel or similar to restrict blood flow. ... Look up chain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... This article is about the article of clothing. ... A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated strand of drawn metal. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... A drawing of Thug Prisoners published by Illustrated London News, C. 1857 Thuggee (or tuggee) (from Hindi ‘thief’, from Sanskrit ‘scoundrel’, from ‘to conceal’) was an Indian network of secret fraternities who were engaged in murdering and robbing travellers, operating from the 17th century (possibly as early as 13th century... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... Two cable ties, one open and one closed A cable tie ( also strap, rat belt, mouse belt, tie wrap, or zip tie) is a type of fastener, especially for binding several electronic cables or wires together, and to organize cables and wires. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... Piano wire is a specialized type of wire made for use in piano and other musical instrument strings, as well as many other purposes. ...


Some incidents of garroting have involved a stick used to tighten the garrote; the Spanish name actually refers to that very 'rod', so it is a pars pro toto where the eponymous component may actually be absent. One of the reasons possession of a nunchaku is illegal in many jurisdictions is that it can easily be employed as a garrote in some configurations. Look up stick, sticks in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pars pro toto is Latin for (taking) a part for the whole; it is a kind of synecdoche. ... For Nintendos Wii Remote Nunchuk attachment, see Nunchuk. ...


In British criminal law, garrotte also was a defined type of violent robbery using at least physical threat against the victims. The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ...


Use as an execution device

Execution by garrote
Execution by garrote

The garrote particularly refers to the execution device used by the Spaniards until the end of Francisco Franco's dictatorship as recently as 1974. In Spain, it was abolished, as well as the death penalty, in 1978 with the new constitution. Originally, it was an execution where the convict was killed by hitting him with a club ("garrote" in Spanish). Later, it was refined and consisted of a seat to restrain the condemned person while the executioner tightened a metal band around his neck with a crank or a wheel until suffocation of the condemned. Download high resolution version (593x640, 40 KB)Execution by garrote at Bilibid prison, Manila, The Phillippines. ... Download high resolution version (593x640, 40 KB)Execution by garrote at Bilibid prison, Manila, The Phillippines. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some versions of this device incorporated a fixed metal blade or spike directed at the spinal cord, to hasten the breaking of the neck. Such a device can be seen in the James Bond film The World Is Not Enough & From Russia with Love. The spiked version, called the Catalan garrote, was used as late as 1940, and up to 1974 in Cuba (as well as being used by some other colonies until shortly after the 1898 Spanish-American War). A further alternative device involved two metallic squares covered with leather, of which the upper one moved over the bottom one when the executioner turned the lever, breaking the condemned's neck trapped inside. A blade is the flat part of a tool or weapon that normally has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, most recently, steel intentionally used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike an animate or inainimate object. ... Look up spike in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... 007 redirects here. ... For other uses, see The World Is Not Enough (disambiguation). ... A 2002 Penguin Books paperback edition From Russia with Love, published in 1957, is the fifth James Bond novel written by Ian Fleming. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties...


The garrote was not abolished in the Philippines after that Spanish colony was captured by the Americans in 1898. The most notable victims of the garrote in the Philippines was the trio of native priests, the Gomburza, for their alleged participation in the Cavite Mutiny. Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Gomburza stood for Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Apolonio Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, three Filipino priests who were executed on February 17, 1873 by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion coming from the 1872 Cavite mutiny. ... The Cavite Mutiny took place at an arsenal in Cavite, Philippines on January 20, 1872. ...


History

The garotte (latin laqueus) is known to have been used in the first century BC in Rome. It is referred to in accounts of the Catiline conspiracy where conspirators including Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura were strangled with a laqueus in the Tullianum and the implement is shown in some early reliefs eg. Répertoire de Reliefs grecs et romains, tome I, p.341 (1919). See [1]. It was also used in the Middle Ages in Spain and Portugal. It was employed during the conquista of Latin America, as attested by the execution of the Inca emperor Atahualpa. In the 1810s the earliest known metallic versions of garrottes appeared, and started to be used in Spain. On 28 April 1828 they would be declared the single civilian execution method in Spain. The Portuguese Penal Code, in 1851, would include it as an execution method (substituting hanging), but it would never be used under that provision (the death penalty in times of peace was abolished in Portugal in 1867, the last execution there having taken place in 1849). Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic. ... Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Sura, (d. ... The Mamertine Prison (also referred to as the Tullianum) was a prison (Carcer) located in the Forum Romanum in Ancient Rome. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Conquistador (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who achieved the Conquista (this Spanish term is generally accepted by historians), i. ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ...


In May 1897, the last public garrotting was carried out in Spain, in Barcelona. After that, all executions would be held in private inside prisons (even if the press took photos of some of them). 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...

This article is part of the
Capital punishment series
Issues

Capital punishment debate
Religion and capital punishment
Wrongful execution Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is often the subject of controversy. ... Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of capital punishment. ... Capital punishment Wrongful execution is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. The possibility of wrongful executions is one of the arguments presented by the opponents of capital punishment; other arguments include failing to deter crime more than...

By region

Australia Brazil Canada China
Europe France Germany India
Italy Iraq Japan Malaysia
Pakistan Philippines
Russia Taiwan United Kingdom
United States
More... The only countries in Europe that havent abolished the death penalty yet is Albania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Russia. ...

Methods

Decapitation
Electrocution
Firing squad
Gas chamber
Hanging
Lethal injection
More... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... The Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ...

The last civilian executions in Spain were those of Pilar Prades in May 1959 and José María Jarabo in July 1959. Recent legislation had made many crimes belong to military legislation (like robbery-murder); thus, for some years, prosecutors would rarely request civilian executions. Several executions would still be carried out in Spain, 8 of them in the 1970s: the January 1972 firing squad execution of robber-murderer Pedro Martínez Expósito, the March 1974 garrottings of Heinz Ches (real name Georg Michael Welzel) and Salvador Puig Antich, both accused of killing police officers (theirs were the last garrottings in Spain and in the world) and the firing squad executions of five militants from ETA and FRAP in September 1975. In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... Salvador Puig Antich (1948 – March 2, 1974) was a Catalan anarchist, born in Barcelona, and active during the 1960s. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... FRAP: Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching Frap: Frap is a term used to describe movie files recorded from inside 3D computer games. ...


With the 1973 Penal Code, prosecutors once again started requesting execution in civilian cases. If the death penalty had not been abolished in 1978 after dictator Francisco Franco's death, civilian executions would most likely have resumed. The last man to be sentenced to death by garrotting was José Luis Cerveto in October 1977, for a double robbery-murder in May 1974 (he was also a pedophile). He requested that the democratic government execute him, but his sentence was commuted. Another prisoner whose civilian death sentence was commuted by the new government was businessman Juan Ballot, for the hired murder of his wife in Navarra in November 1973. The writer Camilo José Cela requested from the Consejo General del Poder Judicial the garrote that was kept in storage and had been used for Puig Antich. It was displayed for a time in the room [2][3] that the Cela Foundation devoted to his novel La familia de Pascual Duarte, until Puig Antich's family asked for its removal[1] In countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system, the prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... Pedophilia, paedophilia, or pædophilia (see spelling differences), is the paraphilia of being sexually attracted primarily or exclusively to pre-pubescent children. ... Commutation of sentence involves the reduction of legal penalties, especially of terms of imprisonment. ... Navarra is the Spanish name for Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa), an ancient kingdom in the Pyrenees, and now a province and an autonomous community in Spain. ... Spanish writer Camilo José Cela Don Camilo José Cela Trulock, Marquis of Iria Flavia (es: Don Camilo José Cela Trulock, marqués de Iria Flavia) (May 11, 1916 – January 17, 2002) was an influential Spanish writer and member of the Generation of 50. ... The Consejo General del Poder Jucidial (Judicial System General Council) is the governing body of Spanish judicial system. ...


Andorra, in 1990, would become the last country in the world to abolish the death penalty by garrotting, though this method had been unused there since the late 19th century, and the only execution in Andorra in the 20th century, that of Antoni Arenis for double fratricide in 1943, was carried out by firing squad because of the unavailability of a garrotte executioner at that moment.


The garotte was sometimes used in England to execute religious heretics before they were burned at the stake.


Reference

  1. ^ El director de cine Manuel Huerga presenta el libro «Cómo se hizo: Salvador». La voz de Galicia, 21 November 2006.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Garrote - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1114 words)
A garrote (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, scarf, or wire used to strangle someone to death.
Some incidents of garroting have involved a stick used to tighten the garrote; the Spanish name actually refers to that very 'rod', so it is a pars pro toto where the eponymous component may actually be absent.
The garrote particularly refers to the execution device used by the Spaniards until the end of Francisco Franco's dictatorship as recently as 1974.
Garrote - LoveToKnow 1911 (299 words)
GARROTE (Spanish for "cudgel"), an appliance used in Spain and Portugal for the execution of criminals condemned to death.
He is seated on a scaffold fastened to an upright post by an iron collar (the garrote), and a knob worked by a screw or lever dislocates his spinal column, or a small blade severs the spinal column at the base of the brain.
"Garrotting" is the name given in England to a form of robbery with violence which became rather common in the winter of 1862-1863.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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