FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Garrot

A garrote (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, scarf, or wire used to strangle someone to death. The term especially refers to an execution device, but is sometimes used in assassination because it can be completely silent. The garotte was allegedly employed by Thuggees. A garotte can be made out of many different materials, including ropes, tie wraps, fishing lines, nylon and iron wires. Due to its small size, it is easily concealed, and can, if made out of non-iron parts, bypass a metal-detector. The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... In medicine, a ligature is a device, similar to a tourniquet, usually of thread or string, tied around a limb, blood vessel or similar to restrict blood flow. ... Look up chain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... A Scarf joint is a means of joining usually wood, sometimes metal, end to end. ... A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated strand of drawn metal. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Sculpture depicting Kal Bhairab. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... Two cable ties, one open and one closed A cable tie ( also strap, rat belt, mouse belt, tie wrap, or zip tie) is a type of fastener, especially for binding several electronic cables or wires together, and to organize cables and wires. ... Nylon represents a family of synthetic polymers, a thermoplastic material, first produced on February 28, 1935 by Gerard J. Berchet of Wallace Carothers research group at DuPont. ...


Some incidents of garroting have involved a stick used to tighten the garrote; the Spanish name actually refers to that very 'rod', so it is a pars pro toto where the eponymous component may actually be absent. One of the reasons possession of a nunchaku is illegal in many jurisdictions is that it can easily be employed as a garrote in some configurations. Look up stick in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pars pro toto is Latin for (taking) a part for the whole; it is a kind of synecdoche. ... For the Nintendo Wii Remotes Nunchuck attachment, see Wii Remote. ...


In British criminal law, garrotte also was a defined type of violent robbery using at least physical threat against the victims. The imposition of a punishment comprising flagellation in addition to penal servitude was successful in almost eliminating it in the 19th century. Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ...

Contents

Use as an execution device

Execution by garrote
Execution by garrote

The garrote particularly refers to the execution device used by the Spaniards until the end of Francisco Franco's dictatorship as recently as 1974. In Spain, it was abolished, as well as the death penalty, in 1978 with the new constitution. Originally, it was an execution where the convict was killed by hitting him with a club ("garrote" in Spanish). Later, it was refined and consisted of a seat to restrain the condemned person while the executioner tightened a metal band around his neck with a crank or a wheel until suffocation of the executee. Download high resolution version (593x640, 40 KB)Execution by garrote at Bilibid prison, Manila, The Phillippines. ... Download high resolution version (593x640, 40 KB)Execution by garrote at Bilibid prison, Manila, The Phillippines. ... Franco redirects here. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... A judicial executioner is a person who carries out a death sentence ordered by the state or other legal authority, which was known in feudal terminology as high justice. ...


Some versions of this device incorporated a fixed metal blade or spike directed at the spinal cord, to hasten the breaking of the neck. The spiked version, called the Catalan garrote, was used as late as 1897 in Spain but would continue up to 1940 in Cuba (as well as being used by some other colonies until shortly after the 1898 Spanish-American War). A further alternate device involved two metallic squares covered with leather, of which the upper one moved over the bottom one when the executioner turned the lever, breaking the inmate's neck trapped inside. A blade is the flat part of a tool or weapon that normally has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, such as steel used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike. ... // The word spike The word spike can refer to: Look up spike in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba First Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 379 U.S. dead; considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place...


The garrote was not abolished in the Philippines after that Spanish colony became American in 1898. 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Short history

The use of the garotte as a strangling cord started in the Middle Ages in Spain and Portugal. It was already in use during the conquista of Latin America, as attested by the execution of the Inca emperor Atahualpa. In the 1810's the first metallic versions of garrottes appeared, and started to be used in Spain. In 28th of April 1828 they would be declared the single civilian execution method in Spain. The Portuguese Penal Code, in 1851, would include it as an execution method (substituting hanging), but it would never be used under that provision. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Conquistador (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who achieved the Conquista (this Spanish term is generally accepted by historians), i. ... Atahuallpa, the 13th and last true (the last empereor being Tu Pac Sharu) Inca emperor Atahuallpa or Atawallpa (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ...


In May 1897, the last public garrotting was carried out in Spain, in Barcelona. After that, all executions would be held in private inside prisons (even if the press took photos of some of them). 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Postal code 08001-08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


The last civilian executions in Spain were those of Pilar Prades in May 1959 and José María Jarabo in July 1959. Recent legislations made many crimes belong to military legislation (like robbery-murder), thus for several years prosecutors would very sparsely request civilian executions. Several executions would still be carried out in Spain, 8 of them in the 1970s: the January 1972 firing squad execution of robber-murderer Pedro Martínez Expósito, the garrottings of Heinz Ches (real name Georg Michael Welzel) and Salvador Puig Antich, both accused of killing police officers, in March 1974 (the last garrottings in Spain and the world) and the firing squad executions of 5 militants from ETA and FRAP in September 1975. In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... Salvador Puig Antich (1948 – March 2, 1974) was a Spanish anarchist, born in Barcelona, and active during the 1960s. ... ETA symbol or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [) is a paramilitary Basque nationalist organization listed as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, European Union and the United States in their watchlists on the matter. ... FRAP: Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching Frap: Frap is a term used to describe movie files recorded from inside 3D computer games. ...


With the 1973 Penal Code, prosecutors once again started requesting execution in civilian cases. If the death penalty had not been abolished in 1978 after dictator Franco's death, most likely civilian executions would have resumed. The last man to be sentenced to death by garrotting was José Luis Cerveto in October 1977, for a double robbery murder in May 1974 (he was also a pedophile). He requested the democratic government execute him, but his sentence was commuted. Another prisoner whose civilian death sentence was commuted by the new Government was businessman Juan Ballot, for the hire murder of his wife in Navarra in November 1973. The writer Camilo José Cela requested from the Consejo General del Poder Judicial the garrote that was kept in storage and had been used for Puig Antich. It was displayed for a time in the room [1][2] that the Cela Foundation devoted to his novel La familia de Pascual Duarte, until Puig Antich's family asked for its removal[1] In countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system, the prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution. ... The name Franco may refer to: Francisco Franco, Dictator of Spain from 1936 to 1975 Francois Luambo Makiadi, a Congolese musician and founder of the band OK Jazz active from the 1950s to 1980s ... Pedophilia, paedophilia, or pædophilia (see spelling differences), is the paraphilia of being sexually attracted primarily or exclusively to pre-pubescent children. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Commutation of sentence involves the reduction of legal penalties, especially of terms of imprisonment. ... Navarra is the Spanish name for Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa), an ancient kingdom in the Pyrenees, and now a province and an autonomous community in Spain. ... Spanish writer Camilo José Cela Don Camilo José Cela Trulock, Marquis of Iria Flavia (es: Don Camilo José Cela Trulock, marqués de Iria Flavia) (May 11, 1916 – January 17, 2002) was an influential Spanish writer and member of the Generation of 50. ...


Andorra, in 1990, would become the last country in the world to abolish death penalty by garrotting, this method had been unused since the late 19th century, and the only execution in Andorra in the 20th century, that of Antoni Arenis for double fratricide in 1943, was carried out by firing squad because of inavailability of a garrotte executioner at the moment.


The garotte was sometimes used in England to execute religious "heretics" before they were burned at the stake.


Reference

  1. ^ El director de cine Manuel Huerga presenta el libro «Cómo se hizo: Salvador». La voz de Galicia, 21 November 2006.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Garrote - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1114 words)
A garrote (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, scarf, or wire used to strangle someone to death.
Some incidents of garroting have involved a stick used to tighten the garrote; the Spanish name actually refers to that very 'rod', so it is a pars pro toto where the eponymous component may actually be absent.
The garrote particularly refers to the execution device used by the Spaniards until the end of Francisco Franco's dictatorship as recently as 1974.
Garrote - LoveToKnow 1911 (299 words)
GARROTE (Spanish for "cudgel"), an appliance used in Spain and Portugal for the execution of criminals condemned to death.
He is seated on a scaffold fastened to an upright post by an iron collar (the garrote), and a knob worked by a screw or lever dislocates his spinal column, or a small blade severs the spinal column at the base of the brain.
"Garrotting" is the name given in England to a form of robbery with violence which became rather common in the winter of 1862-1863.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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