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Encyclopedia > Garnet
Garnet

General
Category nesosilicates
Chemical formula The general formula X3Y2(SiO4)3
Identification
Color virtually all colors
Crystal habit rhombic dodecahedra or cubic
Crystal system Cubic
Cleavage None
Fracture conchoidal to uneven
Mohs Scale hardness 6.0 - 7.5
Luster vitreous to resinous
Polish luster vitreous to subadamantine [1]
Refractive index 1.72 - 1.94
Optical Properties Single refractive, often anomalous double refractive [1]
Birefringence None
Pleochroism only in certain rare varieties
Streak White
Specific gravity 3.1 - 4.3
Major varieties
Pyrope Mg3Al2Si3O12
Almandine Fe3Al2Si3O12
Spessartite Mn3Al2Si3O12
Andradite Ca3Fe2Si3O12
Grossular Ca3Al2Si3O12
Uvarovite Ca3Cr2Si3O12

Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. Garnets are most often seen in red, but are available in a wide variety of colors spanning the entire spectrum. The name "garnet" comes from the Latin granatus ("grain"), possibly a reference to the Punica granatum ("pomegranate"), a plant with red seeds similar in shape, size, and color to some garnet crystals. Garnet crystal. ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... In mineralogy, shape and size give rise to descriptive terms applied to the typical appearance, or habit of crystals. ... A crystal system is a category of space groups, which characterize symmetry of structures in three dimensions with translational symmetry in three directions, having a discrete class of point groups. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system (or isometric crystal system) is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ... Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer. ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... A calcite crystal laid upon a paper with some letters showing the double refraction Birefringence, or double refraction, is the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays (the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray) when it passes through certain types of material, such as calcite crystals or boron... Pleochroism is an optical phenomenon in which grains of a rock appear to be different colors when observed at different angles,under a petrographic microscope. ... The streak (also called powder color) of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across a unweathered surface. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ...


Six common species of garnet are recognized based on their chemical composition. They are pyrope, almandine, spessartite, grossular (varieties of which are hessonite or cinnamon-stone and tsavorite), uvarovite and andradite. The garnets make up two solid solution series; 1. pyrope-almandine-spessarite and 2. uvarovite-grossular-andradite. The pyrope is a garnet. ... Almandine, or almandite, is a name applied to certain kinds of precious garnet, being apparently a corruption of alabandicus, which is the name applied by Pliny to a stone found or worked at Alabanda, a town in Caria in Asia Minor. ... The Garnet group of minerals show crystals with a habit of rhombic dodecahedrons and trapezohedrons. ... A pale green, pink, brown, or black garnet, Ca3Al2(SiO4)3, occurring alone or as a constituent of the common garnet. ... Cinnamon Stone is a variety of garnet, belonging to the lime-alumina type, known also as essonite or hessonite, from the Greek hēssōn, inferior, in allusion to its being less hard and less dense than most other garnet. ... Tsavorite or tsavolite is a variety of the garnet group species grossular, a calcium-aluminium garnet with the formula Ca3Al2Si3O12)[2] Trace amounts of vanadium or chromium provide the green color. ... Uvarovite is a chromium bearing garnet: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3. ... Andradite is a kind of garnet. ...

Contents

Physical properties

Properties

Garnets species are found in many colors including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, brown, black, pink and colorless. The rarest of these is the blue garnet, discovered in the late 1990s in Bekily, Madagascar. It is also found in parts of the United States, Russia and Turkey. It changes color from blue-green in the daylight to purple in incandescent light, as a result of the relatively high amounts of vanadium (about 1 wt.% V2O3). Other varieties of color-changing garnets exist. In daylight, their color ranges from shades of green, beige, brown, gray, and blue, but in incandescent light, they appear a reddish or purplish/pink color. Because of their color changing quality, this kind of garnet is often mistaken for Alexandrite. Incandescence is the release of electromagnetic radiation from a hot body due to its high temperature. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl, not to be confused with beryl, is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4. ...


Garnet species’s light transmission properties can range from the gemstone-quality transparent specimens to the opaque varieties used for industrial purposes as abrasives. The mineral’s luster is categorized as vitreous (glass-like) or resinous (amber-like). Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... Vitreous refers to a material in an amorphous, glassy state (in contrast to a crystalline state). ...


Crystal structure

Molecular model of garnet.
Molecular model of garnet.

Garnets are nesosilicates having the general formula X3Y2(SiO4)3. The X site is usually occupied by divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+) and the Y site by trivalent cations (Al3+, Fe3+, Cr3+) in an octahedral/tetrahedral framework with [SiO4]4− providing the tetrahedra[2]. Garnets are most often found in the dodecahedral crystal habit, but are also commonly found in the trapezohedron habit. (Note: the word "trapezohedron" as used here and in most mineral texts refers to the shape called a Deltoidal icositetrahedron in solid geometry.) They crystallize in the cubic system, having three axes that are all of equal length and perpendicular to each other. Garnets do not show cleavage, so when they fracture under stress, sharp irregular pieces are formed. Image File history File linksMetadata Garnet_s. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Garnet_s. ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... An octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces. ... For the academic journal, see Tetrahedron (journal). ... A dodecahedron is literally a polyhedron with 12 faces, but usually a regular dodecahedron is meant: a Platonic solid composed of twelve pentagonal faces, with three meeting at each vertex. ... In mineralogy, shape and size give rise to descriptive terms applied to the typical appearance, or habit of crystals. ... A deltoidal icositetrahedron (or trapezoidal icositetrahedron) is a catalan solid which looks a bit like an overinflated cube. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system (or isometric crystal system) is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ...


Hardness

Because the chemical composition of garnet varies, the atomic bonds in some species are stronger than in others. As a result, this mineral group shows a range of hardness on the Mohs Scale of about 6.5 to 7.5. The harder species, like almandine, are often used for abrasive purposes. Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer. ...


Garnet group endmember species

An endmember in mineralogy is a mineral that is at the extreme end of a mineral series. ...

Pyralspite garnets - Aluminium in Y site

Almandine, or almandite, is a name applied to certain kinds of precious garnet, being apparently a corruption of alabandicus, which is the name applied by Pliny to a stone found or worked at Alabanda, a town in Caria in Asia Minor. ... The pyrope is a garnet. ... Spessartine is a kind of garnet. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ...

Almandine

Almandine in gneissic rock
Almandine in gneissic rock

Almandine, sometimes incorrectly called almandite, is the modern gem known as carbuncle (though originally almost any red gemstone was known by this name). The term "carbuncle" is derived from the Latin meaning "little spark." The name Almandine is a corruption of Alabanda, a region in Asia Minor where these stones were cut in ancient times. Chemically, almandine is an iron-aluminium garnet with the formula Fe3Al2(SiO4)3; the deep red transparent stones are often called precious garnet and are used as gemstones (being the most common of the gem garnets). Almandine occurs in metamorphic rocks like mica schists, associated with minerals such as staurolite, kyanite, andalusite, and others. Almandine has nicknames of Oriental garnet, almandine ruby, and carbuncle. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1239x897, 855 KB) Almandine garnet. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1239x897, 855 KB) Almandine garnet. ... Almandine, or almandite, is a name applied to certain kinds of precious garnet, being apparently a corruption of alabandicus, which is the name applied by Pliny to a stone found or worked at Alabanda, a town in Caria in Asia Minor. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Alabanda – also hê Alabanda, ta Alabanda, Alabandeus, Alabandensis, Alabandenus, and for a time, Antiochia of the Chrysaorians – was an ancient city of Caria, Anatolia, the site of which is now located near DoÄŸanyurt (also called Araphisar), Aydin Province, in the Asian part of Turkey. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... Staurolite Staurolite is a red brown to black mostly opaque nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. ... Kyanite, whose name derives from the Greek, kyanos, meaning blue, is a typically blue silicate mineral, commonly found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock. ... Andalusite-cordierite schist (Large brown crystals are Andalusite Andalusite is an aluminium nesosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. ...


Pyrope

Pyrope (from the Greek pyrōpós meaning "fire-eyed") is red in color and chemically a magnesium aluminium silicate with the formula Mg3Al2(SiO4)3, though the magnesium can be replaced in part by calcium and ferrous iron. The color of pyrope varies from deep red to almost black. Transparent pyropes are used as gemstones. The pyrope is a garnet. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ...


A variety of pyrope from Macon County, North Carolina is a violet-red shade and has been called rhodolite, from the Greek meaning "a rose." In chemical composition it may be considered as essentially an isomorphous mixture of pyrope and almandite, in the proportion of two parts pyrope to one part almandite. Pyrope has tradenames some of which are misnomers; Cape ruby, Arizona ruby, California ruby, Rocky Mountain ruby, and Bohemian garnet from the Czech Republic. Another intriguing find is the blue color-changing garnets from Madagascar, a pyrope spessartine mix. The color of these blue garnets is not like sapphire blue in subdued daylight but more reminiscent of the grayish blues and greenish blues sometimes seen in spinel. However, in white LED light the color is equal to the best cornflower blue sapphire, or D block tanzanite; this is due to the blue garnet's ability to absorb the yellow component of the emitted light. Macon County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Look up Misnomer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the colour. ... The spinels are any of a class of minerals which crystallize in the isometric system with an octahedral habit. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... Tanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite discovered in the Meralani Hills of northern Tanzania in 1967, near the city of Arusha. ...


Pyrope is an indicator mineral for high-pressure rocks. The garnets from mantle derived rocks, peridotites and eclogites, commonly contain a pyrope variety. Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Peridotite xenolith from San Carlos, southwestern United States. ... Eclogite is a coarse-grained, mafic-to-ultramafic grouping of metamorphic rocks of special interest on account of the variety of minerals they contain and their microscopic structures and geological relationships. ...


Spessartine

Spessartine (the yellow mineral)
Spessartine (the yellow mineral)

Spessartine or incorrectly spessartite is manganese aluminium garnet, Mn3Al2(SiO4)3. Its name is derived from Spessart in Bavaria. It occurs most often in granite pegmatite and allied rock types and in certain low grade metamorphic phyllites. Spessartine of a beautiful orange-yellow is found in Madagascar (see Mandarin garnet). Violet-red spessartines are found in rhyolites in Colorado and Maine.. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1383x1065, 1110 KB) Spessartine garnet. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1383x1065, 1110 KB) Spessartine garnet. ... Spessartine is a kind of garnet. ... The Spessart is a hill chain in northwestern Bavaria and southern Hesse, Germany. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Phyllite Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz, sericite mica, and chlorite; the rock represents a gradiation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and mica schist. ... See also Orange (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word. ... Mandarin garnet (orange spessartite garnet) Mandarin garnets are naturally occurring stones found primarily in Africa that are known for their orange appearance. ... This page is about a volcanic rock. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Ugrandite group - calcium in X site

Andradite is a kind of garnet. ... A pale green, pink, brown, or black garnet, Ca3Al2(SiO4)3, occurring alone or as a constituent of the common garnet. ... Uvarovite is a chromium bearing garnet: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3. ...

Andradite

Andradite (the black mineral)
Andradite (the black mineral)

Andradite is a calcium-iron garnet, Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3, is of variable composition and may be red, yellow, brown, green or black. The recognized varieties are topazolite (yellow or green), demantoid (green) and melantite (black). Andradite is found both in deep-seated igneous rocks like syenite as well as serpentines, schists, and crystalline limestone. Demantoid has been called the "emerald of the Urals" from its occurrence there, and is one of the most prized of garnet varieties. Topazolite is a golden yellow variety and melanite is a black variety. Image File history File links Granat_(andradyt)_i_diopsydy,_Maroko. ... Image File history File links Granat_(andradyt)_i_diopsydy,_Maroko. ... Andradite is a kind of garnet. ... Demantoid is the green gemstone variety of the mineral andradite, a member of the garnet group of minerals. ... Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Syenite leucocratic variety of nepheline syenite from Sweden (särnaite). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Grossular

Grossular on display at the US National Museum of Natural History.
Grossular on display at the US National Museum of Natural History.

Grossular is a calcium-aluminium garnet with the formula Ca3Al2(SiO4)3, though the calcium may in part be replaced by ferrous iron and the aluminium by ferric iron. The name grossular is derived from the botanical name for the gooseberry, grossularia, in reference to the green garnet of this composition that is found in Siberia. Other shades include cinnamon brown (cinnamon stone variety), red, and yellow. Because of its inferior hardness to zircon, which the yellow crystals resemble, they have also been called hessonite from the Greek meaning inferior. Grossular is found in contact metamorphosed limestones with vesuvianite, diopside, wollastonite and wernerite. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (998x576, 83 KB) Summary Garnet Grossular is available in multiple shades. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (998x576, 83 KB) Summary Garnet Grossular is available in multiple shades. ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... A pale green, pink, brown, or black garnet, Ca3Al2(SiO4)3, occurring alone or as a constituent of the common garnet. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ribes uva-crispa See Physalis peruviana for the tomato-like fruit commonly known as the Cape gooseberry and kiwifruit for the fruit sometimes known as the Chinese gooseberry. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Vesuvianite is a green, brown, yellow, or blue metamorphic silicate mineral, Ca10Mg2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2O7)2(OH)4. ... Diopside Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition MgCaSi2O6. ... Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral (CaSiO3) that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium. ... Scapolite (Gr. ...


One of the most sought after varieties of gem garnet is the fine green grossular garnet from Kenya and Tanzania called tsavorite. This garnet was discovered in the 1960s in the Tsavo area of Kenya, from which the gem takes its name. Tsavorite or tsavolite is a variety of the garnet group species grossular, a calcium-aluminium garnet with the formula Ca3Al2Si3O12)[2] Trace amounts of vanadium or chromium provide the green color. ...


Uvarovite

Uvarovite
Uvarovite

Uvarovite is a calcium chromium garnet with the formula Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3. This is a rather rare garnet, bright green in color, usually found as small crystals associated with chromite in peridotite, serpentinite, and kimberlites. It is found in crystalline marbles and schists in the Ural mountains of Russia and Outokumpu, Finland. Image File history File links Uwarowit,_Rosja. ... Image File history File links Uwarowit,_Rosja. ... Uvarovite is a chromium bearing garnet: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3. ... Chromite, iron magnesium chromium oxide: (Fe,Mg)Cr2O4, is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. ... Peridotite xenolith from San Carlos, southwestern United States. ... A sample of serpentinite rock, partially made up of chrysotile Serpentinite is a rock comprised of one or more serpentine minerals. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Outokumpu is a municipality of Finland. ...


Less common species

  • Calcium in X site
    • Goldmanite: Ca3V2(SiO4)3
    • Kimzeyite: Ca3(Zr,Ti)2[(Si,Al,Fe3+)O4]3
    • Morimotoite: Ca3Ti4+Fe2+(SiO4)3
    • Schorlomite: Ca3(Ti4+,Fe3+)2[(Si,Ti)O4]3
  • Hydroxide bearing - calcium in X site
    • Hydrogrossular: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
      • Hibschite: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x (where x is between 0.2 and 1.5)
      • Katoite: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x (where x is greater than 1.5)
  • Magnesium or manganese in X site
    • Knorringite: Mg3Cr2(SiO4)3
    • Majorite: Mg3(Fe,Al,Si)2(SiO4)3
    • Calderite: Mn3Fe3+2(SiO4)3

General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... Hydrogrossular, is a calcium aluminium garnet Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x, with hydroxide (OH) partially replacing silica (SiO4). ... Knorringite is a mineral species belonging to the garnet group and forms a series with the species pyrope. ... Majorite is a type of mineral found in the upper mantle of the Earth. ... Calderite is a mineral in the garnet group with the chemical formula (Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3. ...

Knorringite

Knorringite is a magnesium chromium garnet species with the formula Mg3Cr2(SiO4)3. Pure endmember knorringite never occurs in nature. Knorringite is only formed under high pressure and is often found in kimberlites. It is used as an indicator mineral in the search for diamonds. Knorringite is a mineral species belonging to the garnet group and forms a series with the species pyrope. ... Hewn kimberlite core sample from the James Bay Lowlands region of Northern Ontario, Canada. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


Synthetic garnets

In yttrium iron garnet (YIG), Y3Fe2(FeO4)3, the five iron(III) ions occupy two octahedral and three tetrahedral sites, with the yttrium(III) ions coordinated by eight oxygen ions in an irregular cube. The iron ions in the two coordination sites exhibit different spins, resulting in magnetic behaviour. YIG is a ferrimagnetic material having a Curie temperature of 550 K. By substituting specific sites with rare earth elements, for example, interesting magnetic properties can be obtained. Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a kind of synthetic garnet, with chemical composition Y3Fe2(FeO4)3, or Y3Fe5O12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... An octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces. ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... In physics, a ferrimagnetic material is one in which the magnetic moment of the atoms on different sublattices oppose as in antiferromagnetism but the opposing moments are unequal and a spontaneous magnetization remains. ... The Curie point is a term in physics and materials science, named after Pierre Curie (1859-1906), and refers to a characteristic property of a ferromagnetic material. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... de;Metalle der Seltenen Erden Categories: Stub | Chemical element groups ...


One example for this is gadolinium gallium garnet, Gd3Ga2(GaO4)3, which is synthesized for use in magnetic bubble memory. Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG, Gd3Ga5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group, with good mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... Bubble memory is a type of non-volatile computer memory that uses a thin film of a magnetic material to hold small magnetized areas, known as bubbles, which each store one bit of data. ...


Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG), Y3Al2(AlO4)3, is used for synthetic gemstone. When doped with neodymium (Nd3+), these YAl-garnets are useful as the lasing medium in lasers. Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group, used as the active laser medium in various solid-state lasers. ... YAG Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Color: Wide range of colors Moh’s hardness: 8. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... Nd:YAG is an acronym for Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, a compound that is used as the lasing medium for certain solid-state lasers. ...


Geological importance of garnet

The Garnet group is a key mineral in interpreting the genesis of many igneous and metamorphic rocks via geothermobarometry. Diffusion of elements is relatively slow in garnet compared to rates in many other minerals, and garnets are also relatively resistant to alteration. Hence, individual garnets commonly preserve compositional zonations that are used to interpret the temperature-time histories of the rocks in which they grew. Garnet grains that lack compositional zonation commonly are interpreted as having been homogenized by diffusion, and the inferred homogenization also has implications for the temperature-time history of the host rock. Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Geothermobarometry is the science of measuring the previous pressure and temperature history of a metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... Metasomatism is the chemical alteration of a rock by hydrothermal and other fluids. ...


Garnets are also useful in defining metamorphic facies of rocks. For instance, eclogite can be defined as a rock of basalt composition, but mainly consisting of garnet and omphacite. Pyrope-rich garnet is restricted to relatively high-pressure metamorphic rocks, such as those in the lower crust and in the Earth's mantle. Peridotite may contain plagioclase, or aluminium-rich spinel, or pyrope-rich garnet, and the presence of each of the three minerals defines a pressure-temperature range in which the mineral could equilibrate with olivine plus pyroxene: the three are listed in order of increasing pressure for stability of the peridotite mineral assemblage. Hence, garnet peridotite must have been formed at great depth in the earth. Xenoliths of garnet peridotite have been carried up from depths of 100 km and greater by kimberlite, and garnets from such disaggegated xenoliths are used as a kimberlite indicator minerals in diamond prospecting. At depths of about 300 to 400 km and greater, a pyroxene component is dissolved in garnet, by the substitution of (Mg,Fe) plus Si for 2Al in the octahedral (Y) site in the garnet structure, creating unusually silica-rich garnets that have solid solution towards majorite. Such silica-rich garnets have been identified as inclusions within diamonds. Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ... Eclogite is a coarse-grained, mafic-to-ultramafic grouping of metamorphic rocks of special interest on account of the variety of minerals they contain and their microscopic structures and geological relationships. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Omphacite is a member of the pyroxene group of silicate minerals with formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al)Si2O6. ... The pyrope is a garnet. ... Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Peridotite xenolith from San Carlos, southwestern United States. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... The spinels are any of a class of minerals which crystallize in the isometric system with an octahedral habit. ... The mineral olivine (also called chrysolite and, when gem-quality, peridot) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. ... Figure 1:Mantle-peridotite xenolith with green peridot olivine and black pyroxene crystals from San Carlos Indian Reservation, Gila Co. ... A xenolith A xenolith (Greek: foreign rock) is a rock fragment which becomes enveloped in a larger rock during the latters development and hardening. ... Hewn kimberlite core sample from the James Bay Lowlands region of Northern Ontario, Canada. ... Hewn kimberlite core sample from the James Bay Lowlands region of Northern Ontario, Canada. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Majorite is a type of mineral found in the upper mantle of the Earth. ...


Uses of garnets

Pendant in uvarovite, a rare bright-green garnet.
Pendant in uvarovite, a rare bright-green garnet.

Pure crystals of garnet are used as gemstones. Garnet sand is a good abrasive, and a common replacement for silica sand in sand blasting. Mixed with very high pressure water, garnet is used to cut steel and other materials in water jets. Garnet sand is also used for water filtration media. Download high resolution version (500x813, 91 KB)Uvarovite pendant. ... Download high resolution version (500x813, 91 KB)Uvarovite pendant. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish (see metal polishing and wood finishing) a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away. ... A diagram of a water jet cutter A water jet cutter is a tool capable of slicing into metal or other materials using a jet of water at high velocity and pressure, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. ... In polluted or even unfiltered mountain water there are lots of parasitic organisms and inorganic chemicals that are dangerous to humans. ...

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References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Garnet
  1. ^ a b c Gemological Institute of America, GIA Gem Reference Guide 1995, ISBN 0-87311-019-6
  2. ^ Smyth, Joe. Mineral Structure Data. Garnet. University of Colorado. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  3. ^ LongLocks HairSticks® Boutique's Birthstones and Anniversary Gemstones Chart; LongLocks HairSticks® Boutique; retrieved on October 4, 2007
  4. ^ State of Connecticut, Sites º Seals º Symbols; Connecticut State Register & Manual; retrieved on January 4, 2007
  5. ^ New York State Gem; State Symbols USA; retrieved on October 12, 2007
  • Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., Wiley, ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  • Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones ISBN 0-442-20333-0

The Gemological Institute of America, or GIA, is a non-profit institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Gemstones - Garnet (1944 words)
Garnet, the January birthstone, derived its name from the Latin word granatus, meaning like a grain, which refers to the mode of occurrence wherein crystals resemble grains or seeds embedded in the matrix.
Garnet is a family of minerals having similar physical and crystalline properties.
The deposit of almandite garnet in Clay County is in a hornblende gneiss at Penland Bald on Buck Creek.
Garnet Mineral,Natural Garnet,Red Garnet,Garnet Suppliers,Garnet Mineral Uses (837 words)
Garnet is a common mineral of metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and schist of all description from basic to acid, crystalline limestone and pegmatites.
Legend has it that garnets protect their owners from nightmares, and garnets were even used as bullets because the shooters thought the red color would increase the intensity of the wound.
Garnet is ground to a variety of sizes to be used as an abrasive.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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