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Encyclopedia > Garlic
Garlic
Allium sativum, known as garlic from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.
Allium sativum, known as garlic from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family: Alliaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. sativum
Binomial name
Allium sativum
L.

Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Its close relatives include the onion, the shallot, and the leek. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. It has a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking.[1]. A bulb of garlic, the most commonly used part of the plant, is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. The cloves are used as seed, for consumption (raw or cooked), and for medicinal purposes. The leaves, stems (scape) and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and most often consumed while immature and still tender. The papery, protective layers of 'skin' over various parts of the plant and the roots attached to the bulb are the only parts not considered palatable. Image File history File links Allium_sativum_Woodwill_1793. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... Families according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Agapanthus Agavaceae Alliaceae Amaryllidaceae Aphyllanthaceae Asparagaceae Asphodelaceae Asteliaceae Blandfordiaceae Boryaceae Doryanthaceae Hemerocallidaceae Hyacinthaceae Hypoxidaceae Iridaceae Ixioliriaceae Lanariaceae Laxmanniaceae Orchidaceae Ruscaceae Tecophilaeaceae Themidaceae Xanthorrhoea Xeronema Asparagales is an order of monocots which includes a number of families of non-woody plants. ... Genera See text Alliaceae is a family of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. ... Species Some important species: Allium acuminatum - tapertip onion Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Genera See text Alliaceae is a family of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Allium oschaninii O. Fedtsch For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Allium ampeloprasum (Linnaeus) J. Gay The Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Food from plant sources Food is any substance normally eaten or drunk by living organisms. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Look up clove in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scape with leaf-like bracts on the St Brunos Lily (Paradisea liliastrum) In botany, scapes are flowering stems, usually leafless, rising from the crown or roots of a plant. ...

Contents

Origin and distribution

Garlic output in 2005
Garlic output in 2005

The ancestry of cultivated garlic, according to Zohary and Hopf, is not definitely established: "a difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars."[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of garlic output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 11,093,500 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of garlic output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 11,093,500 tonnes). ...


Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised; it probably descended from the species Allium longicuspis, which grows wild in south-western Asia.[3] The 'wild garlic', 'crow garlic' and 'field garlic' of Britain are the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale and Aleum oleraceum, respectively. In North America, 'Allium vineale, known as 'wild-' or 'crow garlic', and Allium canadense, known as 'meadow-' or 'wild garlic' and 'wild onion', are common weeds in fields.[4] One of the best known "garlics," the so-called elephant garlic, is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum). Binomial name Allium longicuspis Regel Allium longicuspis is a plant in the Alliaceae family. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Allium ursinum L. Ramsons, buckrams, wood garlic or bears garlic (Allium ursinum) is a wild relative of chives. ... Binomial name Allium vineale L. Allium vineale (Crow Garlic) is a perennial bulbflower in the genus Allium, native to Europe, north Africa and western Asia. ... Binomial name Allium canadense L. Wild Onion (Allium canadense), also known as Meadow Garlic and Canadian Garlic, is a perennial plant native to North America. ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... Species Allium ampeloprasum Elephant Garlic or Russian garlic (Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Allium ampeloprasum, the Broadleaf Wild Leek, has been differentiated into three different cultivated vegetables, leek, Elephant garlic and Kurrat. ...


Cultivation

Garlic growing in a container
Garlic growing in a container

Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. In cold climates, cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes, and harvested in late spring. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. They can suffer from pink root, a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. Garlic plants can be grown close together, leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature, and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. This article is about a botanical term. ...


Production Trends

Garlic is grown globally, but China is by far the largest producer of garlic with approximately 23 billion pounds annually, accounting for over 75% of world output. India (4%) and South Korea (3%) follow, with the United States (2%) in fourth place, where garlic is grown primarily as a cash crop in every state except for Alaska.[1] This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that produce less than 2% of global output. In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ...

Top Ten Garlic Producers — 2005
Country Production (Int $1000) Footnote Production (MT) Footnote
Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China 8,490,020 C 11,093,500 F
Flag of India India 385,910 C 500,000 F
Flag of South Korea Republic of Korea 270,137 C 350,000 F
Flag of the United States United States 182,890 C 236,960 F
Flag of Russia Russia 177,519 C 230,000 *
Flag of Egypt Egypt 125,094 C 162,077
Flag of Spain Spain 112,145 C 145,300
Flag of Argentina Argentina 110,166 C 142,735 F
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 105,739 C 137,000 *
Flag of Myanmar Myanmar 93,390 C 121,000 F
No symbol = official figure,F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure;

Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices
Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ...



Uses

Culinary uses

Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.
Garlic being crushed using a garlic press.
Garlic bulbs and individual cloves, one peeled.
Garlic bulbs and individual cloves, one peeled.
Garlic scapes are often harvested early so that the bulbs will grow bigger.
Garlic scapes are often harvested early so that the bulbs will grow bigger.

Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor, as a seasoning or condiment. The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with cooking methods. It is often paired with onion, tomato, or ginger. The parchment-like skin is much like the skin of an onion, and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb, coat cloves of garlic by dribbling olive oil (or other oil based seasoning) over them and roast them in the oven. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. Image File history File linksMetadata Garlic_Press_and_Garlic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Garlic_Press_and_Garlic. ... A garlic press A garlic press is a kitchen utensil designed to crush garlic cloves efficiently by forcing them through small holes in the device. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2193x1530, 532 KB) Description: This is one full head of garlic beside another with removed cloves (one clove of garlic has been peeled). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2193x1530, 532 KB) Description: This is one full head of garlic beside another with removed cloves (one clove of garlic has been peeled). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (3716 × 2447 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (3716 × 2447 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ...


Oils are often flavored with garlic cloves. Commercially prepared oils are widely available, but when preparing garlic-infused oil at home, there is a risk of botulism if the product is not stored properly. To reduce this risk, the oil should be refrigerated and used within one week. Manufacturers add acids and/or other chemicals to eliminate the risk of botulism in their products.[5] Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ...


In Chinese cuisine, the young bulbs are pickled for 3–6 weeks in a mixture of sugar, salt and spices. In Russia and the Caucasus, the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


It is widely used with kebabs, mezes and various meals in Turkish cuisine. Left to right: Chenjeh Kabab, Kabab Koobideh, Jujeh Kabab in an Afghan restaurant. ... Meze goes well with ouzo/raki   It should be possible to replace this fair use image with a freely licensed one. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek, Armenian and Persian cuisines. ...


Immature scapes are tender and edible. They are also known as 'garlic spears', 'stems', or 'tops'. Scapes generally have a milder taste than cloves. They are often used in stir frying or prepared like asparagus. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia, particularly Chinese, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian and Korean cuisines. The leaves are cut, cleaned and then stir-fried with eggs, meat, or vegetables. Stir frying (爆 bào) in a wok Stir frying is an English umbrella term used to describe two fast Chinese cooking techniques: chǎo (炒) and bào (爆). The term stir-fry was introduced into the English language by Buwei Yang Chao, in her book How to Cook and Eat in... For the botanical genus, see Asparagus (genus). ... LAOS redirects here. ... Stir frying is a common Chinese cooking technique used because of its fast cooking speed. ...


Garlic is essential to several Mediterranean dishes. Mixing garlic with eggs and olive oil produces aioli ("garlic and oil" in Provençal). The Spanish variant does not use eggs. Garlic, oil, and a chunky base produce skordalia (from the Greek and Italian names of garlic). Blending garlic, almond, oil and soaked bread produces ajoblanco (ajo blanco is Spanish for "white garlic"). Le Tourin is a French garlic soup. Aioli of garlic, salt, egg, and olive oil in a mortar Aioli with olives Aioli (Provençal Occitan alhòli[1], Catalan allioli) is a sauce made of garlic, egg and olive oil. ... Skordalia is a Greek mashed potato dip where the potatoes are worked to a smooth texture. ... For other uses, see Almond (disambiguation). ... Ajoblanco is an Andalusian cold, white soup especially typical of Málaga and Cádiz. ... Le Tourin a type of garlic soup, from France. ...


In Asia, garlic is fundamental to Korean and Thai cuisine. In Chinese cuisine, it is usually chopped and stir-fried with chopped ginger and other aromatics in oil as the basis of sauces. Japanese cuisine uses very little garlic.


Garlic along with ginger form the basis for most of the Indian curries and cooked varieties of rice such as pulao, biriyani, coconut rice etc. This article is about the dish. ...


About 1/4 teaspoon of dried powdered garlic is equivalent to one fresh clove. Image:Teaspoon sugar. ...


Storage

Domestically, garlic is stored warm (above 18 °C or 64 °F) and dry, to keep it dormant (so that it does not sprout). It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands called "plaits", or in short plaits. Plaits are sometimes called grappes, following French usage.


Garlic can be frozen in several ways. Freeze garlic stored in oil immediately. The low-acid garlic, exclusion of air (by mixing with oil), and room temperatures can support the growth of Clostridium botulinum, which is deadly. Freeze may refer to: Freeze, a particularly cold spell of weather, a snow storm or an ice storm. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name van Ermengem, 1896 Clostridium botulinum is a bacterium that produces the toxin botulin, the causative agent in botulism. ...

  • Chop the garlic and wrap tightly in plastic. To use, grate or break off sections.
  • Freeze the garlic unpeeled and remove cloves as needed.
  • Peel the cloves and puree them with twice as much oil. The puree will stay soft enough to scrape off parts for cooking.
  • Peel the garlic and cover with oil. Remove cloves as needed.

Garlic can also be dried. Dry only fresh, firm garlic cloves with no bruises. Peel the cloves, cut in half lengthwise, and dry at 140 degrees for 2 hours, then reduce heat to 130 degrees until completely dry or crisp. If desired, powder dried garlic by processing in a blender or food processor until fine. For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Purée and (more rarely) mash are general terms for food, usually vegetables or legumes, that has been ground, pressed, and/or strained to the consistency of a soft paste or thick liquid. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... Dry may refer to: Dry, an album by PJ Harvey. ... A bruise, also called a contusion or ecchymosis, is a kind of injury to biological tissue in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ... Look up blender in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A food processor is a kitchen appliance used to facilitate various repetitive tasks in the process of preparation of food. ...


Peeled cloves may be stored in wine or vinegar in the refrigerator. The mixture can be kept for about 4 months. Discard the whole mixture if you see any mold or yeast growth. [6] For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Fridge redirects here. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ...


Commercially, garlic is stored at 0 °C, also dry. [7]


Historical use

From the earliest times garlic has been used as a food. It formed part of the diet of the Israelites in Egypt (Numbers 11:5) and of the labourers employed by Khufu in constructing the pyramid. Garlic is still grown in Egypt, but the Syrian variety is the kind most esteemed now (see Rawlinson's Herodotus, 2.125). Anthem: Hatikvah (The Hope) Capital  Jerusalem Largest city Jerusalem Official languages Hebrew, Arabic Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Moshe Katsav1  - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert  - Knesset Speaker Dalia Itzik Independence from the League of Nations mandate administered by the United Kingdom   - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)  Area  - Total 20,770... Khufus Cartouche Khufu (in Greek known as Cheops) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts Old Kingdom. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... See Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baron Rawlinson for the British World War I general (the son of Henry Creswicke Rawlinson). ...


It was consumed by the ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors and rural classes (Virgil, Ecologues ii. 11), and, according to Pliny the Elder (Natural History xix. 32), by the African peasantry. Galen eulogizes it as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F Adams's Paulus Aegineta, p. 99), and Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), recommends it as a palliative of the heat of the sun in field labor. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Alexander of Neckam (sometimes spelled Necham or Nequam) (September 8, 1157 – 1217), was an English scholar and teacher. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ...


In his Natural History Pliny gives an exceedingly long list of scenarios in which it was considered beneficial (N.H. xx. 23). Dr. T. Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and, says Cullen (Mat. Med. ii. p. 174, 1789), found some dropsies cured by it alone. Early in the 20th century, it was sometimes used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...

Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale)
Harvesting garlic, from Tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (Bibliothèque nationale)

Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548), and has been a much more common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at cross-roads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. (Pliny also states that garlic de-magnetizes loadstones, which is not factual.)[8] The inhabitants of Pelusium in lower Egypt, who worshipped the onion, are said to have had an aversion to both onions and garlic as food. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness, based on the Taqwin al‑sihha (Tables of Health), an Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan; it exists in several variant Latin versions, the manuscripts of which are profusely illustrated. ... The new buildings of the library. ... British cuisine is shaped by the countrys temperate climate, its island geography and its history. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Magnetite Lodestone or loadstone refers to either: Magnetite, a magnetic mineral form of iron(II), iron(III) oxide Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides. ... Pelusium is a city in the eastern extremes of Egypts Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of Port Said. ...


To prevent the plant from running to leaf, Pliny (N.H. xix. 34) advised bending the stalk downward and covering with earth; seeding, he observes, may be prevented by twisting the stalk (by "seeding", he most likely means the development of small, less potent bulbs).


Medicinal use and health benefits

Garlic, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 150 kcal   620 kJ
Carbohydrates     33.06 g
- Sugars  1.00g
- Dietary fiber  2.1 g  
Fat 0.5 g
Protein 6.36 g
- β-carotene  5 μg  0%
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.2 mg   15%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.11 mg   7%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.7 mg   5%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.596 mg  12%
Vitamin B6  1.235 mg 95%
Folate (Vit. B9)  3 μg  1%
Vitamin C  31.2 mg 52%
Calcium  181 mg 18%
Iron  1.7 mg 14%
Magnesium  25 mg 7% 
Phosphorus  153 mg 22%
Potassium  401 mg   9%
Sodium  17 mg 1%
Zinc  1.16 mg 12%
Manganese 1.672 mg
selenium 14.2 mcg
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database


Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating as far back as the time that the Egyptian pyramids were built. Garlic is claimed to help prevent heart disease including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and cancer.[9] Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... For the similarly spelled pyrimidine, see Thymine Thiamin or thiamine, also known as vitamin B1 and aneurine hydrochloride, is one of the B vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on vascular walls of animals.[10] Another study had similar results, with garlic supplementation significantly reducing the plaque in the aortas of cholesterol-fed rabbits.[11] Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol.[12] The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells, a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell signaling molecule.[13] Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that contributes to growth. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


However, a NIH-funded randomized clinical trial published in Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 found that consumption of garlic, in any form, did not reduce cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline levels.[14][15] National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ... A randomised controlled trial (RCT), also known as randomised clinical trial, is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... The Archives of Internal Medicine is a bi-monthly professional medical journal published by the American Medical Association. ...


With regard to this clinical trial, theheart.org reports:

Despite decades of research suggesting that garlic can improve cholesterol profiles, a new NIH-funded trial found absolutely no effects of raw garlic or garlic supplements on LDL, HDL, or triglycerides... The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small, flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies.[16]

In 2007 a BBC news story reported that Allium sativum may have beneficial properties, such as preventing and fighting the common cold.[17] This assertion has the backing of long tradition. Traditional British herbalism used garlic for hoarseness and coughs, both as a syrup and in a salve made of garlic and lard, which was rubbed on the chest and back.[18] The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup.[19] This page contains special characters. ... A cough medicine or antitussive is a medication given to people to help them stop coughing. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ...


Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation and hyperlipidemia.[20][21] A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ...


Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels, and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus.[22][23] People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ...


Allium sativum may also possess cancer-fighting properties due to the presence of allylic sulfur compounds such as diallyl disulfide (DADs), believed to be an anticarcinogen.[24] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Diallyl disulfide (4,5-dithia-1,7-octadiene) is an organosulfur compound found in plants of the genus Allium. ...


In 1858, Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II.[25] More recently it has been found from a clinical trial that a mouthwash containing 2.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity, although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis.[26] Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not. ...


In modern naturopathy, garlic is used as a treatment for intestinal worms and other intestinal parasites, both orally and as an anal suppository. Garlic cloves are used as a remedy for infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.[2][3] Naturopathic medicine is the practice of assisting in the health of patients through the application of natural remedies. ... Intestinal parasites are parasites that populate the gastro-intestinal tract. ... Suppository casting mould A suppository is a drug delivery system that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository) or urethra (urethral suppository) where it dissolves. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. ...


Garlic has been reasonably successfully used in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China.[27] It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis, another protozoal disease.[28] For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ...


Garlic supplementation in rats along with a high protein diet has been shown to boost testosterone levels.[29] Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ...


To maximise health benefits from consuming cooked garlic, it has been suggested to allow crushed or chopped garlic to rest for 15 minutes before use to allow enzyme reactions to occur.[30] However the primary compound of interest from this reaction, allicin, is generally deactivated during cooking due to its instability, and may be more beneficial consumed raw. Allicin is a powerful antibiotic and anti-fungal compound obtained from garlic. ...


Properties

When crushed, Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and anti-fungal compound (phytoncide). However due to poor bioavailability it is of limited use for oral consumption. It also contains alliin, ajoene, enzymes, vitamin B, minerals, and flavonoids. Allicin is a powerful antibiotic and anti-fungal compound obtained from garlic. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Phytoncides are antimicrobial volatile organic compounds derived from plants. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Alliin is an organic compound that is a natural constituent of fresh garlic. ... Ajoene (pronounced ah-khoe-ene) is a chemical compound available from garlic (Allium sativum). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ...


The percentage composition of the bulbs is given by E. Solly (Trans. Hon. Soc. Loud., new ser., iii. p. 60) as water 84.09%, organic matter 13.38%, and inorganic matter 1.53% - that of the leaves being water 87.14%, organic matter 11.27% and inorganic matter 1.59%.

Garlic flowerhead

The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. When a cell is broken by chopping, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored in cell vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored in the cell fluids. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to evolve over time. Among the members of the onion family, garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products, making garlic much more potent than onions, shallots, or leeks.[31] Although people have come to enjoy the taste of garlic, these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism, deterring animals like birds, insects, and worms from eating the plant.[32] PD photo This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components: (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (6) Golgi apparatus (7) Cytoskeleton (8) smooth ER (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytoplasm (12) lysosome (13) centrioles Vacuoles are found in the cytoplasm of most plant cells and... This article is about the chemical element. ... Binomial name Allium ampeloprasum (Linnaeus) J. Gay The Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... For other uses, see Worm (disambiguation). ...


A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. Diallyl disulfide is believed to be an important odour component. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. This chemical opens thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. The process of cooking garlic removes allicin, thus mellowing its spiciness.[33] Diallyl disulfide (4,5-dithia-1,7-octadiene) is an organosulfur compound found in plants of the genus Allium. ... Allicin is a powerful antibiotic and anti-fungal compound obtained from garlic. ... There is a real need to make clear to what transient refers in a transient receptor potential, and the advice of the wider community is solicited to fill this need. ...


When eaten in quantity, garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and breath the following day. This is because garlic's strong smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized forming allyl methyl sulfide. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. It is carried to the lungs and the skin where it is excreted. Since digestion takes several hours, and release of AMS several hours more, the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ...


This well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is alleged to be alleviated by eating fresh parsley. The herb is, therefore, included in many garlic recipes, such as Pistou, Persillade and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. However, since the odour results mainly from digestive processes placing compounds such as AMS in the blood, and AMS is then released through the lungs over the course of many hours, eating parsley provides only a temporary masking. One way of accelerating the release of AMS from the body is the use of a sauna. Due to its strong odor, garlic is sometimes called the "stinking rose". This article is about the herb. ... Soup au Pistou at Chez Leon St. ... Persillade [pehr-see-YAHD] is the culinary term for a chopped mixture of garlic and parsley, usually in equal parts by volume. ... Garlic bread is a kind of bread that contains garlic. ... For the music festival in Finland, see Sauna Open Air Metal Festival. ...


Because of the AMS in the bloodstream, it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. However there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose.[34]


Superstition and mythology

Garlic has been regarded as a force for both good and evil. A Christian myth considers that after Satan left the Garden of Eden, garlic arose in his left footprint, and onion in the right.[35] In Europe, many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic, perhaps owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine.[36] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons, werewolves, and vampires.[36] To ward off vampires, garlic could be worn, hung in windows or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes.[37] Christian mythology is the body of traditional narrative associated with Christianity. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ...


Colloidal silver is often used as antibacterial agent. As with silver, the association of garlic to evil spirits may be based on the antibacterial, antiparasitic value of garlic, which could prevent infections that lead to delusions, and other related mental illness symptoms.[38][39] --210. ...


In Northeastern India, it is believed that garlic mixed with water spread around the home will keep snakes from entering.[citation needed]


Cautions

  • Garlic can thin the blood similar to the effect of aspirin.[41]
  • Cases of botulism have been caused by consuming garlic-in-oil preparations. It is important to freeze them or add acid and keep them refrigerated to retard bacterial growth.[42]
  • While culinary quantities are considered safe for consumption, very high quantities of garlic and garlic supplements have been linked with an increased risk of bleeding, particularly during pregnancy and after surgery and child birth.[43][40] Some breastfeeding mothers have found their babies slow to feed and have noted a garlic odour coming from their baby when they have consumed garlic.[44][40] The safety of garlic supplements had not been determined for children.[45]
  • The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation, if any exist, are largely unknown and no FDA-approved study has been performed. However, garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects, suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose, at worst, minimal risks to normal individuals. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort, sweating, dizziness, allergic reactions, bleeding, and menstrual irregularities.[46]
  • Some degree of liver toxicity has been demonstrated in rats, particularly in large quantities[47]
  • There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes, including naturopathic uses and acne treatment.[48] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns, including burns to children, topical use of raw garlic, as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities is discouraged. In particular, topical application of raw garlic to young children is not advisable.[49]
  • Garlic and onions may be toxic to cats and dogs.[50]

Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not. ... Indigestion is a condition that is frequently caused by eating too fast, especially by eating high-fat foods quickly. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... An antiplatelet drug is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. ... Saquinavir (Fortovase®, Roche) is a protease inhibitor, used as a component of HIV therapy. ... In medicine and pharmacology, antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in the treatment of arterial hypertension. ... Hypoglycemia is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced and usually defined by a lower than normal amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Childbirth in a hospital. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Gernot Katzer (2005-02-23). Spice Pages: Garlic (Allium sativum, garlick). Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  2. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 197
  3. ^ Salunkhe and Kadam p. 397
  4. ^ McGee p. 112
  5. ^ It's Your Health - Garlic-In-Oil
  6. ^ GARLIC: Safe Methods to Store, Preserve and Enjoy
  7. ^ Garlic Produce Facts
  8. ^ Lehoux, Daryn (2003). "Tropes, Facts, and Empiricism". Perspectives on Science 11: 326-345. 
  9. ^ University of Maryland Garlic
  10. ^ Sovova M, Sova P. Pharmaceutical importance of Allium sativum L. 5. Hypolipemic effects in vitro and in vivo. Ceska Slov Farm. 2004 May;53(3):117-23.]
  11. ^ Durak A, Ozturk HS, Olcay E, Guven C. Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process of cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Herb Pharmcother. 2002;2(2):19-32.
  12. ^ Durak I, Kavutcu M, Aytac B, et al. Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol. J Nutr Biochem. 2004 Jun;15(6):373-7.
  13. ^ Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic.
  14. ^ Garlic - What We Know and What We Don't Know Retrieved 27 February 2007
  15. ^ Effect of Raw Garlic vs Commercial Garlic Supplements on Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Adults With Moderate Hypercholesterolemia - A Randomized Clinical Trial Retrieved 26 February 2007
  16. ^ Goodbye, garlic? Randomized controlled trial of raw garlic and supplements finds no effect on lipids Retrieved 27 February 2007
  17. ^ Garlic 'prevents common cold' 2007
  18. ^ [Grieve, Maud. (Mrs.). Garlic. A Modern Herbal. Hypertext version of the 1931 edition. Accessed: December 18, 2006. http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/garlic06.html]
  19. ^ Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (p. 35)
  20. ^ NCBI
  21. ^ NCBI
  22. ^ People with diabetes should say 'yes' to garlic by Patricia Andersen-Parrado, Better Nutrition, Sept 1996
  23. ^ Garlic - University of Maryland Medical Center
  24. ^ Abstract NCBI
  25. ^ Health effects of garlic American Family Physician by Ellen Tattelman, July 1, 2005
  26. ^ Groppo, F.; Ramacciato, J.; Motta, R.; Ferraresi, P.; Sartoratto, A. (2007) "Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci." Int. J. Dent. Hyg., 5:109–115.
  27. ^ Fareed G, Scolaro M, Jordan W, Sanders N, Chesson C, Slattery M, Long D, Castro C. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea. NLM Gateway. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
  28. ^ John S. James. Treatment Leads on Cryptosporisiosis: Preliminary Report on Opportunistic Infection, AIDS TREATMENT NEWS No. 049 - January 29, 1988. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
  29. ^ Oi Y, Imafuku M, Shishido C, Kominato Y, Nishimura S, Iwai K. (2001). "Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet.". Journal of Nutrition 131 (8): 2150–6. PMID 11481410. 
  30. ^ Tara Parker-Pope. "Unlocking the Benefits of Garlic," New York Times, October 15, 2007. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
  31. ^ McGee p. 310–311
  32. ^ Macpherson et al. section "Conclusion"
  33. ^ Macpherson et al.
  34. ^ Mosquito Repellents
  35. ^ Pickering, David (2003). Cassell's Dictionary of Superstitions. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 0-304-36561-0.  p. 211
  36. ^ a b McNally, Raymond T (1994). In Search of Dracula. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-65783-0.  p. 120.
  37. ^ McNally p. 122; Pickering p. 211.
  38. ^ University of Maryland Garlic
  39. ^ Neurodegenerative diseases
  40. ^ a b c d Hogg, Jennifer (2002-12-13). Garlic Supplements. Complementary Medicines Summary. UK Medicines Information, National Health Service. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  41. ^ Garlic - Allium sativum [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance]
  42. ^ CSU SafeFood Newsletter Menu
  43. ^ MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
  44. ^ Mayo Clinic, garlic advisory
  45. ^ Mayo Clinic, garlic advisory
  46. ^ MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
  47. ^ Histopathological effects of garlic on liver and l...[Toxicol Lett. 1996] - PubMed Result
  48. ^ Abstract
  49. ^ Garty, B.-Z. (1993) Garlic burns. Pediatrics, 91: 658–659.
  50. ^ Pets By Nature Garlic Toxic to Pets

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Bibliography

  • McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.  pp 310–313: The Onion Family: Onions, Garlic, Leeks.
  • Salunkhe, D.K.; Kadam, S.S. (1998). Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-0105-4. 
  • Koch, H. P.; Lawson, L. D. (1996). Garlic. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. and Related Species (Second Edition). Williams & Wilkens. ISBN 0-683-18147-5. 
  • James Mellgren (2003).
  • Hamilton, Andy (2004). Selfsufficientish - Garlic. Retrieved 1 May 2005.
  • R. Kamenetsky, I. L. Shafir, H. Zemah, A. Barzilay, and H. D. Rabinowitch (2004). Environmental Control of Garlic Growth and Florogenesis. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 129: 144–151.
  • Lindsey J. Macpherson, Bernhard H. Geierstanger, Veena Viswanath, Michael Bandell, Samer R. Eid, SunWook Hwang, and Ardem Patapoutian (2005). "The pungency of garlic: Activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin". Current Biology 15 (May 24): 929–934. 
  • Balch, P. A. (2000). Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 3rd ed. New York: Avery.
  • Block, E. (1985). The chemistry of garlic and onions. Scientific American 252 (March): 114–119.
  • Block, E. (1992). The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium — implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 104: 1158–1203.
  • Breithaupt-Grogler, K., et al. (1997). Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly. Circulation 96: 2649–2655. Abstract.
  • Efendy, J. L., et al. (1997). The effect of the aged garlic extract, 'Kyolic', on the development of experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 132: 37–42. Abstract.
  • Japanese garlic.にんにく.
  • Gardner, C. D.; Lawson, L. D.; Block, E.; Chatterjee, L. M.; Kiazand, A.; Balise, R. R.; Kraemer, H. C. (2007) The effect of raw garlic vs. garlic supplements on plasma lipids concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A clinical trial. "Archives of Internal Medicine" 167: 346–353.
  • Garty, B.-Z. (1993) Garlic burns. "Pediatrics" 91: 658–659.
  • Hile, A. G.; Shan, Z.; Zhang, S.-Z.; Block, E. (2004). Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 2192–2196.
  • Jain, A. K. (1993). Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study. American Journal of Medicine 94: 632–635.
  • Lawson, L. D.; Wang, Z. J. (2001). Low allicin release from garlic supplements: a major problem due to sensitivities of alliinase activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2592–2599.]
  • Lemar, K.M.; Turner, M.P.; Lloyd, D. (2002) Garlic (Allium sativum) as an anti-Candida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93 (3), 398–405 Abstract
  • Mader, F. H. (1990). Treatment of hyperlipidemia with garlic-powder tablets. Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research 40 (2): 3–8. Abstract.
  • Shufford, J.A.; Steckelberg, J.M.; Patel, R. (2005) Antimicrob Agents Chemother. January; 49(1): 473.Effects of Fresh Garlic Extract on Candida albicans Biofilms Letter
  • Silagy, C., and Neil, A. (1994). Garlic as a lipid-lowering agent - a meta-analysis. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians 28 (1): 2–8.
  • Steiner, M., and Lin, R.S. (1998). Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 31: 904–908.
  • Yeh, Y-Y., et al. (1999). Garlic extract reduces plasma concentration of homocysteine in rats rendered folic acid deficient. FASEB Journal 13(4): Abstract 209.12.
  • Yeh, Y-Y., et al. (1997). Garlic reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. In: Ohigashi, H., et al. (eds). Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. Abstract.

is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Films

Garlic Is As Good As Ten Mothers is a 1980 documentary film about garlic directed by Les Blank. ... Les Blank (b. ...

External links

Look up garlic in
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  • PROTAbase on Allium sativum
  • Garlic: Plants For a Future database
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Garlic
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Angelica archangelica L. Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial plant from the umbelliferous family Apiaceae. ... For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. Ocimum tenuifolium (known as Holy basil in English, and Tulasi in Sanskrit), is a well known aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae. ... Thai Basil is a cultivar of basil and is a major ingredient in many Thai dishes. ... bay leaves Bay leaf in Greek Daphni (plural bay leaves) is the aromatic leaf of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ... Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) is a plant native to the coastal region of Chile. ... Binomial name Porophyllum ruderale Bolivian Coriander or Quillquiña (also spelled Quirquiña/Quilquiña) or Killi is an herb plant whose leaves can be used as a seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Borage (Borago officinalis L.), also known as starflower (Ú¯Ù„ گاوزبان in Persian) is an annual herb originating in Syria, but naturalized throughout the Mediterranean region, as well as most of Europe, North Africa, and Iran. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Binomial name Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum L. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), is the smallest species of the onion family[1] Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and North America[2]. They are referred to only in the plural, because they grow in clumps rather than as individual plants. ... Cicely (Myrrhis odorata) is a plant belonging to the Apiaceae, or parsley, family. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lepidium sativum L. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum) is a fast-growing, edible plant botanically related to watercress and mustard and sharing their peppery, tangy flavor and aroma. ... Binomial name Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel The Curry Tree or Curry-leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii; syn. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Epazote, Wormseed, Jesuits Tea, Mexican Tea, or Herba Sancti Mariæ (Chenopodium ambrosioides) is an herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico. ... Binomial name L. Eryngium foetidum (also known as Bhandhanya, Chandon benit, Culantro, Culantro Coyote, (Fitweed, Long coriander, Mexican coriander, Wild coriander, Recao, Shado beni (English-speaking Caribbean), Spiritweed, (Ngò gai (Vietnam), Sawtooth), )Saw-leaf herb, or Cilantro cimarron) is a tropical perennial and annual herb in the family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name Piper auritum Kunth Hoja santa (Piper auritum, synonymous with Piper sanctum[1]) is an aromatic herb with a heart shaped leaf which grows in tropic Mesoamerica. ... Genera See text. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... Binomial name Lavandula officinalis Mill. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... Binomial name Aloysia triphylla (LHér. ... Binomial name Limnophila aromatica (Lam. ... Binomial name Levisticum officinale L. Koch. ... Binomial name L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavours. ... “Mint” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ... This article is about the herb. ... Perilla is a genus of annual herb that is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ruta graveolens L. The Common Rue (Ruta graveolens), also known as Herb-of-grace, is a species of rue grown as a herb. ... Binomial name L. Painting from Koehlers Medicinal Plants (1887) Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 30, see text Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa L. The common sorrel, or spinach dock, Ambada bhaji is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name Persicaria odorata Lour. ... This article is about a type of plant. ... Ajwain seeds Ajwain (also known as carom seeds or bishops weed), is an uncommon spice except in certain areas of Asia. ... The Aleppo Pepper is a variety of Capsicum annuum named after the town Aleppo in northern Syria. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Binomial name (Linn. ... Binomial name L. Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida, family Apiaceae), alternative spelling asafetida (also known as devils dung, stinking gum, asant, food of the gods, hing, and giant fennel) is a species of Ferula native to Iran. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. ... Categories: | | | | ... This article is about the herbs. ... Binomial name Amomum subulatum Roxb. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ... A large red cayenne The Cayenne is a red, hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Piper cubeba L. Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. ... Geerah redirects here. ... Binomial name Bunium persicum (Boiss. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Binomial name L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) or menthya (Kannada)or Venthayam (Tamil) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... Binomial name (L.) Mansf. ... Binomial name Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. ... This article lacks an appropriate taxobox. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. ... The term Grains of Selim refers to the seeds of a shrubby tree, Xylopia aethiopica, found in Africa. ... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... Juniper berries, here still attached to a branch, are actually modified conifer cones. ... Binomial name L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (IPA: , or ) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Mahlab, Mahleb, or Mahlepi, is an aromatic spice from the puverized pit of the black cherry, Cerasus mahaleb or (Prunus mahaleb). ... Malabathrum, also known as Malabar leaf is the name used in classical and medieval texts for the leaf of the plant Cinnamomum tamala. ... Binomial name Brassica nigra L. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice. ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Binomial name Sinapis alba White mustard (Sinapis alba) is a plant of the family Cruciferae. ... Binomial name L. Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Piper longum Long pepper (Piper longum), sometimes called Javanese Long Pepper or Indian Long Pepper, is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. ... Binomial name Schinus molle Raddi Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle, also known as California pepper tree, molle, pepper tree, pepperina, Peruvian mastictree and Peruvian peppertree) is a tree or shrub that grows to between 5 and 18 m tall. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... This article is about the plant. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Binomial name Killip & Morton Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii and other closely related species of Smilax) is a plant that comes in vine and, in the case of Aralia nudicaulis L., bush variants that bears roots with many useful properties. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Species (not a complete list) Tasmannia is a genus of woody, evergreen flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. ... Binomial name L. This article refers to the tree. ... The tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx odorata, a legume tree in the neotropics, of the Fabaceae family. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Matsum. ... Binomial name Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. ...

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Garlic (2770 words)
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating as far back as the time that the Egyptian pyramids were built.
Today garlic is used to help prevent heart disease, including atherosclerosis (plaque buildup in the arteries that can block the flow of blood and possibly lead to heart attack or stroke), high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and to improve the immune system.
Garlic supplements are made from whole fresh garlic, dried, or freeze-dried garlic, garlic oil, and aged garlic extracts.
Garlic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2690 words)
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a perennial plant in the family Alliaceae and genus Allium, closely related to the onion, shallot, and leek.
Garlic cloves continue to be used by aficionados as a remedy for infections (especially chest problems), digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush.
Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at cross-roads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man); and according to Pliny, garlic and onions were invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths.
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