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Encyclopedia > Gardening
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Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. Residential gardening most often takes place in or about a residence, in a space referred to as the garden. Although a garden typically is located on the land near a residence, it may also be located in a roof, in an atrium, on a balcony, in a windowbox, or on a patio or vivarium. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 688 KB) Summary Gardener Gardening Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 688 KB) Summary Gardener Gardening Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A residential garden is the most common form of garden and is found adjacent to, around or near to a residence. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A roof garden is any garden on the roof of a building. ... Looking up inside the 32-story atrium of the Shanghai Grand Hyatt, part of the Jin Mao Building. ... A balcony comprising a balustrade supported at either end by plinths. ... A windowbox is a box for growing plants. ... A patio garden is an outdoor garden space generally used for dining or recreation that often adjoins a residence and is typically paved. ... Two glass terrariums with plants Vivarium is an area, usually enclosed, for keeping and raising animals or plants for observation or research. ...

Gardening also takes place in non-residential green areas, such as parks, public or semi-public gardens (botanical gardens or zoological gardens), amusement and theme parks, along transportation corridors, and around tourist attractions and hotels. In these situations, a staff of gardeners or groundskeepers maintains the gardens. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Inside the Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden (Brazil), 1890 Botanical gardens (in Latin, hortus botanicus) grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes, but also for the enjoyment and education of visitors, a consideration that has become essential to... A zoo. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Theme Park is a simulation computer game designed by Bullfrog Productions, released in 1994, in which the player designs and operates an amusement park. ... Tourists on Oahu, Hawaii Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel. ... Garden hotels Many hotels have gardens designed by famous garden designers. ... A gardener is any person involved in the growing and maintenance of plants, notably in a garden. ... A groundskeeper is a person who maintains landscaping, gardens or golf courses and their vegetation for appearance and functionality. ...

Indoor gardening is concerned with the growing of houseplants within a residence or building, in a conservatory, or in a greenhouse. Indoor gardens are sometimes incorporated as part of air conditioning or heating systems. A houseplant is usually a tropical or semi-tropical plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices. ... A traditional conservatory at the Horniman Museum in London A modern Conservatory. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of nature. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC is an initialism that stands for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning. This is sometimes referred to as climate control. ...

Water gardening is concerned with growing plants adapted to pools and ponds. Bog gardens are also considered a type of water garden. These all require special conditions and considerations. A simple water garden may consist solely of a tub containing the water and plant(s). This water garden features water lilies and elephant ear. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

Container gardening is concerned with growing plants in any type of container either indoors or outdoors. Common containers are pots, hanging baskets, and planters. Container gardening is usually used in atriums and on balconies, patios, and roof tops. A Container Garden is a garden made up entirely of plants growing in pots or other growing containers. ...


Gardening compared to farming

In respect to its food producing purpose, gardening is distinguished from farming chiefly by scale and intent. Farming occurs on a larger scale, and with the production of saleable goods as a major motivation. Gardening is done on a smaller scale, primarily for pleasure and to produce goods for the gardener's own family or community. There is some overlap between the terms, particularly in that some moderate-sized vegetable growing concerns, often called market gardening, can fit in either category. Agriculture (encompasses farming, ranching, and the tending of orchards and vineyards) is the production of food, feed, fiber, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. ... In agriculture, market gardening is the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants. ...

The key distinction between gardening and farming is essentially one of scale: gardening can be a hobby or an income supplement, but farming is generally understood as a full-time or commercial activity, usually involving more land and quite different practices. One distinction is that gardening is labor-intensive and employs very little infrastructural capital, typically no more than a few tools, e.g. a spade, hoe, basket and watering can. By contrast, larger-scale farming often involves irrigation systems, chemical fertilizers and harvesters or at least ladders, e.g. to reach up into fruit trees. However, this distinction is becoming blurred with the increasing use of power tools in even small gardens. Infrastructural capital refers to any physical means of production or means of protection beyond that which can be gathered or found directly in nature, i. ... Rusty spade small spade for clay soil; the other one for sandy soil and loamy soil A spade is a tool fit for digging, or something resembling that. ... Agricultural square bladed hoe. ... Four styles of household basket. ... A watering can is a portable container, usually with a handle and a spout, used to hand water plants. ... Irrigating cotton fields Irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A postage stamp of a combine honors Russian agriculture. ... For other uses, see Ladder (disambiguation). ... A plum tree Flowering almond tree A fruit tree is a tree bearing fruit — the structures formed by the ripened ovary of a flower containing one or more seeds. ...

In part because of labor intensity and aesthetic motivations, gardening is very often much more productive per unit of land than farming. In the Soviet Union, half the food supply came from small peasants' garden plots on the huge government-run collective farms, although they were tiny patches of land. Some argue this as evidence of superiority of capitalism, since the peasants were generally able to sell their produce. Others consider it to be evidence of a tragedy of the commons, since the large collective plots were often neglected, or fertilizers or water redirected to the private gardens. Food distribution is a vital factor in public nutrition. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... It has been suggested that Tyranny of the Commons be merged into this article or section. ...

The term precision agriculture is sometimes used to describe gardening using intermediate technology (more than tools, less than harvesters), especially of organic varieties. Gardening is effectively scaled up to feed entire villages of over 100 people from specialized plots. A variant is the community garden which offers plots to urban dwellers; see further in allotment (gardening). Precision farming or precision agriculture is an agricultural concept relying on the existence of in-field variability. ... Intermediate technology is infrastructural capital that is at least an order of magnitude more expensive than that prevalent in a developing nation but also at least an order of magnitude less expensive than that prevalent in a developed nation offering aid. ... Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables in Capay, California. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Community gardens are small plots of land allocated to groups of people by some organization that holds title or lease to the land, sometimes for rent, sometimes simply as a grant of land. ... A typical allotment plot, Essex, England Allotment gardens are characterized by a concentration in one place of a few or up to several hundreds of land parcels that are assigned to individual families. ...

Gardens as art

Garden design is considered to be an art in most cultures, distinguished from gardening, which generally means garden maintenance. In Japan, for instance, Samurai and Zen monks were often required to build decorative gardens or practice related skills like flower arrangement known as ikebana. In 18th century Europe, country estates were refashioned by landscape gardeners into formal gardens or landscaped parklands, such as at Versailles, France or Stowe, England. Today, landscape architects and garden designers continue to produce artistically creative designs for private garden spaces. Garden design is the art and process of designing the layout and planting of domestic gardens and landscapes. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... Ikebana (Japanese: 生花, literally living flowers) is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kado (華道 or 花道)--the way of flowers. ... Ikebana arrangement A Japanese hanging scroll (kakemono) and Ikebana Ikebana arranged flower),[1] is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kadō , the way of flowers) In contrast to the decorative form of flower arranging in western countries, Japanese flower arrangement emphasizes the linear aspects. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... The south or garden front of Stowe from Jones Views of the Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen (1819). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Landscape architecture. ... Garden designer The term garden designer can refer either to an amateur or a professional. ...

See also:

Central Park, like all parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... See also subsistence gardening, the art and craft of growing plants, considered as a circumscribed form of individual agriculture. ...

Social aspect

The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

In modern Europe and North America, people often express their political or social views in gardens, intentionally or not. The lawn vs. garden issue is played out in urban planning as the debate over the "land ethic" that is to determine urban land use and whether hyperhygienist bylaws (e.g. weed control) should apply, or whether land should generally be allowed to exist in its natural wild state. In a famous Canadian Charter of Rights case, "Sandra Bell vs. City of Toronto", 1997, the right to cultivate all native species, even most varieties deemed noxious or allergenic, was upheld as part of the right of free expression, at least in Canada. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Environmental ethics is theory and practice about appropriate concern for, values in, and duties to the natural world. ... Hyperhygienist is a pejorative adjective applied to certain agricultural policies, laws, food regulations, wholesale food buying rules, and tax, tariff and trade measures by advocates of organic farming. ... A bylaw (sometimes also seen as by-law or Byelaw) was originally the Viking town law in the Danelaw. ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ...

In the British Isles (i.e. United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and the Isle of Man people surround their house and garden with a hedge, often of Privet (Ligustrum). The idea of open gardens without hedges is distasteful to many, they like privacy. Beech (Fagus) is also used as a hedge. This has the advantage to the wildlife that there is a habitat for the birds and other wild plants. The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Species About 50 species, including: Ligustrum lucidum - Chinese or Glossy Privet Ligustrum ovalifolium - Japanese Privet Ligustrum sinense - Chinese Privet Ligustrum vulgare - Common Privet Privet was originally the name for the European semi-evergreen shrub Ligustrum vulgare, and later also for the more reliably evergreen Ligustrum ovalifolium (Japanese privet), used extensively... The Genus of certain trees ... Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ...

Gardening is thus not only a food source and art, but also a right. The Slow Food movement has sought in some countries to add an edible schoolyard and garden classrooms to schools, e.g. in Fergus, Ontario, where these were added to a public school to augment the kitchen classroom. The Slow Food movement was created to combat fast food and claims to preserve the cultural cuisine and the associated food plants and seeds, domestic animals, and farming within an ecoregion. ... Fergus ( ) is a town of 10,017 (2006) people located in Centre Wellington, a Township within Wellington County in Ontario, Canada. ...

In US and British usage, the production of ornamental plantings around buildings is called landscaping, landscape maintenance or groundskeeping, while international usage uses the term gardening for these same activities. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including but not limited to: living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as Gardening efforts in the gestalt, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of...

Garden pests

  • A garden pest is what one considers a pest. The beautiful Tropaeolum speciosum can be considered a pest if it seeds and starts to grow where it is not wanted. As the root is well below ground, pulling it up does not remove it: it simply grows again and becomes what may be considered a pest.
  • In lawns, moss can become dominant and be impossible to eradicate. In some lawns, lichens, especially very damp lawn lichens such as Peltigera lactucfolia and P. membranacea, can become difficult and be considered pests.
  • Other garden pests include insects. According to Expert On That, there are several ways to remove these unwanted pests from your garden.

First and foremost, pest control must be done with utmost consideration to safety; safety in terms of the plants, animals and humans. This holds especially true for those with vegetable and organic gardens. This writeup is about biological seeds; for other meanings see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other things named Lichen, see: Lichen (disambiguation). ... Lichens of the genus Peltigera (Willd. ...

The main purpose of growing vegetables organically will be defeated if they become tainted with pest control chemicals.

The following long-term maintenance tips will make pest control less damaging and more environmentally friendly:

1. Use the physical pest control process.

This may be accomplished through picking grubs off by hand, creating barriers and traps and plugging holes. Snails can be found hiding in damp places under rocks and towards the base of those plants with straplike foliage.

2. Apply biological pest control.

Encourage predatory insects such as green lacewings and dragonflies to feed on aphids and other pests that attack your plants. You can do this by placing a shallow bowl of water in the garden. Dragonflies especially will hover around water. Bacterial insecticides such as B. thuringiensis could also be used against caterpillars.

3. Only as a last resort should we turn to chemical pest control.

Organic pest control methods can be successful and the ingredients for many of the recipes can be found in the kitchen cupboards. If chemical sprays are really necessary, try and find the least-toxic. These include insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils, dehydrating dusts, etc.

4. Consider the use of safer pest control substitutes.

Recipes for alternative pest control include the following:

Against Green Aphids and Mites - Mix 1 tablespoon of liquid soap and a cup of vegetable oil. Dilute a teaspoon of this solution in a cup of water and spray on aphids and mites.

Against Cockroaches - Dusts of boric acid can be applied to cracks or entry points of these insects. Bay leaves on pantry shelves could also help in warding off these critters.

Before you use any pest control product on your garden, make sure that the chemicals you're using are made specifically for the insects you are targeting.


Governments of most countries are restricting imports of plant material. In the past, someone could send such things as lily seeds and bulbs to friends in any country. Today, most of those avenues are closed, due to the threat of invasive species. Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...


Main article: History of gardening

Gardening for food extends far back into prehistory. Ornamental gardens were known in ancient times, a famous example being the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, while ancient Rome had dozens of gardens. See also subsistence gardening, the art and craft of growing plants, considered as a circumscribed form of individual agriculture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prehistoric man. ... Annuals at Ornamental Gardens The Ornamental Gardens are located at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canadas Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, Ontario Canada. ... Gardens of Semiramis, 20th century interpretation Hanging Garden, Assyrian interpretation The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (also known as Hanging Gardens of Semiramis) and the walls of Babylon (near present-day Al Hillah in Iraq) are considered one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...

See also

Wikibooks has more information about gardening in A Wikimanual of Gardening.

Image File history File linksMetadata Gymnaster_savatieri1_flower. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Biodynamic agriculture, or biodynamics is an organic farming system (but predates the term). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Garden design is the art and process of designing the layout and planting of domestic gardens and landscapes. ... A gardener is any person involved in the growing and maintenance of plants, notably in a garden. ... Planting design The art of design with plant material is related to the art of garden design but has a different emphasis and a different approach. ... small spade for clay soil; the other one for sandy soil and loamy soil A garden tool is any one of many tools made for gardens and gardening and overlaps with the range of tools made for agriculture and horticulture. ... This is a list of gardening topics Allotment Arboretum Bonsai Botanical gardens Community garden Compost Flowerbed Fountains Gardener List of garden tasks by month List of gardens in fiction Guerrilla gardening Herbaceous border List of notable historical gardens Home economics Horticulture Landscape architecture Lawn Lawnmower List of garden plants Local... A rock garden, also known as a rockery or an alpine garden, is a type of garden that features extensive use of rocks or stones, along with plants native to rocky or alpine environments. ...


Alfred Pink, (born 1853 in Portsmouth, Hampshire in England) was a well-known cricket athlete. ... Liberty Hyde Bailey. ... The University of Arizona (UA or U of A) is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. ...

Further reading

  Results from FactBites:
Organic Gardening - Home Page (222 words)
Meet the folks who test different varieties of seeds and plants in their gardens, ready to dish the dirt on what works and what won't on their new blog!
Watch a video of one of the water cisterns being installed in a Vancouver community garden.
I'm afraid to plant anything for fall with the drought & heat we are having.
  More results at FactBites »



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