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Encyclopedia > Ganja
For the city in Tajikistan, see Panj.
Ganja
Image:Azerbaijan-Ganja.png
Municipality: Ganja
Area: 1000 km²
Altitude: 408 m
Population: 308,461 census 2007 [1]
Postal Code: AZ1000
Area code: 016
Municipality code: GA
Latitude: 40° 40' 58 N
Longitude: 46° 21' 38 E
Mayor: Eldar Azizov

Ganja IPA: [gæn'ʤæ] (Azerbaijani: Gəncə, Persian: گنجه pronounced Ganj-ja) is Azerbaijan's second largest city. Ganja may refer to: Ganja, a city in Azerbaijan Ganja, a Hindi term for cannabis often associated with the Rastafari movement of Jamaica. ... The Amu Darya (also Amudarya, Amudarya, in Persian آمودریا; Darya means sea in Persian) is a river in Central Asia. ... Image File history File links Azerbaijan-Ganja. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... Area codes in Azerbaijan. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ...

Contents

Foundation of the city

According to medieval Arab sources, the city of Ganja was founded in 859-60 by Mohammad b. Khaled b. Yazid b. Mazyad, the Arab governor of the region in the reign of the caliph Al-Mutawakkil, and so-called because of a treasure unearthed there. According to the legend, the Arab governor had a dream where a voice told him that there was a treasure hidden under one of the three hills around the area where he camped. The voice told him to unearth it and use the money to found a city. He did so and informed the caliph about the money and the city. Caliph made Mohammad the hereditary governor of the city on a condition that he would give the money he found to the caliph.[1] Al-Mutawakkil Ala Allah Jafar bin al-Mutasim (821–861) (Arabic: المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861. ...


Foundation of the city by Arabs is confirmed by the medieval historian Movses Kagankatvatsi, who mentions that the city of Ganja was founded in 846-47 in the canton of Arshakashen by the son of Khazr Patgos, “a furious and merciless man”.[2] Khazr is believed to be a corrupted form of the name of “Khaled”, while “Patgos” stands for Persian “patgospan”, i.e. governor.[3] Arshakashen was of one the cantons of the province of Utik, which was part of Caucasian Albania at the time. Movses Kagankatvatsi (Kalankatuatsi) (VII or X century) - Armenian historian, author or editor The History of the Country of Aluank – composition or, most likely, compilation, assigned to him or to Movses Daskhurantsi. ... Utik (Armenian: also known as Uti, Utiq, or Outi, or Otena in Latin sources) was a historic province of the Kingdom of Armenia and Caucasian Albania. ...


However, modern historians believe that the Persian name Ganja ("Ganja" derives from the New Persian ganj (گنج: "treasure, treasury")) suggests that the city existed in pre-Islamic times and was likely to be founded in the fifth century A.D.[4] Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and in Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


History

Historically an important city of Caucasian Albania and Arran region, Ganja was part of Sassanid empire, Great Seljuk Empire, Atabegs of Azerbaijan, Il-Khans [5], Timurids [6], Jalayirids[7], Qara Qoyunlu[8], Ak Koyunlu[9][2], and the Ganja Khanate, Ganja is also the birthplace of the famous poet Nizami. People of Ganja experienced a temporary cultural decline after an earthquake in 1139 and then again after the Mongol invasion in 1231. The city was revived after the Safavids came to power. For a short period of time, Ganja was renamed Abbasabad by Shah Abbas I.[10] During the Safavid rule, it was the capital of the Karabakh (Ganja) beylerbey[11], one of the four such administrative units and principalities.[12] In 1747, Ganja became the capital of the independent Ganja Khanate. According to the October 1813 Gulistan Treaty, Ganja khanate and city, together with most of Azerbaijan and Georgia, was recognized as part of Russian Empire after Persia's defeat in the Persia-Russia wars.[13] It was renamed Elizavetpol after the wife of Alexander I of Russia, Elizabeth. Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Arran can refer to: arran is the term for a boy with a fat body, a small dick, and a craving to have sexual intercourse with parrots. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turkic descent[1][2][3][4] that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timurids Map The Timurids were a Turkic-Mongol dynasty of Iran established by the Mongol Timur (Tamerlane). ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... The Qara Qoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Turkmen: Garagoýunly; Azeri: Qaraqoyunlu; Turkish: Karakoyunlu; Persian: قراقویونلو), were a tribal federation of Turkoman origin that ruled in what is today Eastern Anatolia, Armenia, Iranian Azerbaijan, and northern Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Ağqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Ganja khanate was an independent principality that existed in the territory of Azerbaijan in 1747-1805. ... External links The Legend of Leyli and Majnun Nizami, Jamal al-Din Ilyas. ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun palace; Isfahan Shah Abbas King of the Persians Copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. ... Beylerbey or (Turkish for Bey of beys, Leader of leaders, Polish: bejlerbej) is the Ottoman title used for the most important person in the hierarchy of provincial leaders (a governor over several vilayet), second only to the Vizier. ... Ganja khanate was an independent principality that existed in the territory of Azerbaijan in 1747-1805. ... Gulistan Treaty of 1813 (also written Golestan, Gulestan, and Golistan), was a peace treaty between imperial Russia and Persia, signed on October 24 (November 5) in a village of Gulestan in Karabakh at the end of the first Russo-Persian Wars (1804-1813). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Empress Elisabeth Alexeievna of Russia (in Russian, Elisaveta Alexeievna), born Louise Marie Auguste, Princess of Baden of the House of Zähringen (24 January 1779 - 4 May (O.S.) = 16 May (N.S.), 1826) was a daughter of Prince Karl Ludwig of Baden and Amalia of Hesse-Darmstadt. ...


In 1918, Ganja became the temporary capital of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, at which point it was renamed Ganja again, until Baku was recaptured from the British backed Centrocaspian Dictatorship. In 1920, the Red Army occupied Azerbaijan and in 1935 Joseph Stalin renamed the city Kirovabad after Sergei Kirov. In 1991, Azerbaijan re-established its independence, and the ancient name of the city was given back. Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Flag Capital Baku Government Dictatorship Historical era World War I  - Established August 1, 1918  - Battle of Baku August 26-September 14  - Fall of Baku September 15, 1918  - Armistice of Mudros November 30, 1918 The Centrocaspian Dictatorship (Russian: , Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya) was a British-backed anti-Soviet government founded in Baku on... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Sergei Mironovich Kirov (Серге́й Миро́нович Ки́ров) (March 15 O.S. = March 27 N.S., 1886 - December 1, 1934) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet communist. ...


Today Ganja is the second largest city in Azerbaijan. [3] According to the official government data, at the beginning of 2006, the population of Ganja was 305,600.[14][15] It has an international airport, and is home to the Nizami Mausoleum, re-built in 1991. The Nezami Mausoleum, built in 1991, stands just outside the city of Ganja, Azerbaijan. ...


Historic Armenian community

In addition to Azeris, the city has had a numerically, economically and culturally significant Armenian community.[16] Among the Armenians, the city is known as Gandzak (Գանձակ). The word Gandzak is likewise associated with the concept of treasure or riches - gandz (Arm. - գանձ). The city’s Armenian population left in 1989, in the process of forced population exchanges that defined the Karabakh conflict.


The city's historically important Christian figures include Kirakos Gandzaketsi (Կիրակոս Գանձակեցի, 1201-1271, author of the History of the Armenians [17]), Mkhitar Gosh (Մխիթար Գոշ, c. 1130–1213) author of the Code of Laws that was used in Armenia, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia and Armenian diasporan groups in Europe, and Grigor Paron-Ter (Գրիգոր Պարոն Տեր, 1560-1645) - Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem. Kirakos Gandzaketsi (1200?-1271) is an Armenian historian of the 13th century. ... Mkhitar Gosh (1130-1213) was an Armenian scholar and priest. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Grigor Paron-Ter (also known as Krikor Baronder - Ô³Ö€Õ«Õ£Õ¸Ö€ ÕŠÕ¡Ö€Õ¸Õ¶-Տեր), was the Armenian Patricarch of Jerusalem. ...


Education

Ganja is home to four major institutes for post-secondary education.

Ganja State University is a public university located in Ganja, Azerbaijan. ... Azerbaijan State Agricultural Academy (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Kənd Təsərrüfat Akademiyası, literally Azerbaijan Village Agriculture Academy), also referred to as the Azerbaijan Agricultural Academy (Az. ...

Famous people

Ganja is known for its famous people:

Nezami is pictured on a rug in a museum in Ganja, Azerbaijan Nezami Ganjavi (نظامی گنجوی in Persian, Nizami Gəncəvi in Azerbaijani)‎ (1140? – 1217?), with the complete name of Nezam al-Din Abu Mohammad Elyas Ibn... Mahsati Ganjavi was a 12th century Persian-language poetess. ... Javad khan Ziyad oghlu Qajar (?-1804) was khan of Ganja khanate. ... Kirakos Gandzaketsi (1200?-1271) is an Armenian historian of the 13th century. ... Mkhitar Gosh (1130-1213) was an Armenian scholar and priest. ... Grigor Paron-Ter (also known as Krikor Baronder - Ô³Ö€Õ«Õ£Õ¸Ö€ ÕŠÕ¡Ö€Õ¸Õ¶-Տեր), was the Armenian Patricarch of Jerusalem. ... Mirza-Shafi Vazeh, 1794-1852 also known as the sage from Ganje. Vazeh was one of the best-known Azerbaijanian poets, who worthily continued the classical traditions of the Azerbaijanian poetry in 14th century. ... Israfil Mamedov Israfil Maharram oglu Mamedov (or Mammadov, Azeri: Ä°srafil MÉ™hÉ™rrÉ™m oÄŸlu MÉ™mmÉ™dov, Azeri Cyrillic: Исрафил MÉ™həррəм oғлу Мəммəдов, Russian: Исрафил Магеррам оглы Мамедов; May 30, 1919, Çaparlı settlement, Shamkir—1946) was an Azeri military commander (junior-lieutenant and senior sergeant) and the assistant commander of a platoon commander... Fikret Amirov Fikret Meshedi Jamil oglu Amirov (November 22, 1922, Ganja - February 20, 1984, Baku) was a prominent Azerbaijani composer. ...

Etnhic groups

Azeris 99.28% ,other 0.72% Azerbaijanis or Azerbaijani Turks, are a Muslim people who number more than 25 million worldwide. ...


Pictures of Ganja

Image File history File links Nizami_Ganjavi_statue_fragment. ... Image File history File links Nizami_Ganjavi_statue_fragment_2. ... Image File history File links Nizami_Ganjavi_statue_fragment_3. ...

References

  1. ^ V.Minorsky. A History of Shirvan and Derbent.
  2. ^ History of the Caucasian Albanians by Movses Dasxuranci, C.J.F. Dowsett trans. (London 1961), chapter 21.
  3. ^ C. J. F. Dowsett. A Neglected Passage in the "History of the Caucasian Albanians". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 19, No. 3. (1957), pp. 456-468.
  4. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, "Ganja", C. Edmund Bosworth
  5. ^ Iran. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
  6. ^ Timurid Dynasty. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 16, 2007
  7. ^ Jalayirid. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
  8. ^ Kara Koyunlu. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 15, 2007
  9. ^ Ak Koyunlu. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
  10. ^ Seyyaf Sednik oqli Pashayev. The Monuments of Ganja Khanate of the Period form 1606 - 1804. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  11. ^ "Beglerbeg" in Cyclopædia dictionary, (ed. Ephraim Chambers), First Volume, London: Printed for J. and J. Knapton (and 18 others), 1728, p. 95 (accessed March 17, 2007)
  12. ^ I.Petrushevskiy. Ocherki po istorii feodal'nikh otnosheniy d Azerbaijane i Armenii v XVI - nach. XIX vv., Leningrad, 1949, p. 122, in Russian
  13. ^ John F. Baddeley, "The Russian conquest of the Caucasus", London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908, p. 67, citing "Tsitsianoff's report to the Emperor: Akti, ix (supplement), p. 920".
  14. ^ The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan, "Population by economic regions at the beginning of the 2006"
  15. ^ Census table for Azerbaijani cities
  16. ^ Soviet Census in 1926-1979, Newspaper Pravda Press, Moscow, 1983
  17. ^ Kirakos, Gandzaketsi, History of the Armenians, New York: Sources of the Armenian Tradition, 1986.

is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ganja
  • Ganja - The memories of stones
  • Ganja Automobile Factory
  • Ganja at the Azerbaijan Development Gateway
  • Historical Monuments of Ganja

Coordinates: 40°40′58″N 46°21′38″E / 40.68278, 46.36056 Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ganja mothers, ganja babies (3097 words)
Male-dominated rural ganja culture stipulates that most women should not smoke marijuana because it allegedly addles women's minds, but women are allowed to utilize marijuana medicinally by concocting tinctures and teas which they administer to themselves and their families.
Ganja infusions are often prescribed for colds, fevers, diarrhea, anorexia, colic, asthma, bronchial wheezing, croup, teething discomfort, and hyperactivity.
Ganja does this by increasing children's ability to concentrate on schoolwork, to pay attention to what the teacher is saying, not to be distracted by school mates or the activities of other classes, to sit quietly in class, to complete homework even when tired, and to handle the stress of examinations.
city of Ganja (558 words)
Ganja is the second largest city of the Azerbaijan Republic or North Azerbaijan and the fourth largest one in Transcaucasus, the motherland of the Great Poet Nizami Ganjavi.
Ganja is an ancient city of Azerbaijan which is settled in the fifth century.
After the awful earthquake Ganja regenerated soon and in the 11th and 13th centuries Ganja became again the prosper and richest city known everywhere in the east.
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