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Encyclopedia > Gang of Four

The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: 四人帮; Traditional Chinese: 四人幫; Hanyu Pinyin: Sì rén bāng) was a group of Communist Party of China leaders in the People's Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were primarily blamed for the events of the Cultural Revolution. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (216x1119, 69 KB) A vertical version of Image:Gang of Four at trial. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) was a period of social chaos and political anarchy in the Peoples...

Contents

Membership

The group consisted of Mao's widow Jiang Qing and three of her close associates, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. Two other men who were already dead in 1976, Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi, were named as having been part of the "Gang". Chen Boda was also considered one of the Gang's closer associates. Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ ShÅ«méng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of... Zhang Chunqiao (Simplified Chinese: 张春桥; Traditional Chinese: 張春橋; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Chun-chiao) (1917–April 21, 2005) was a member of the Gang of Four. ... Yao Wenyuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1931 – 23 December 2005) was a Chinese literary critic and politician and a member of the Gang of Four during Chinas Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). ... Wang Hongwen (Chinese: 王洪文, pinyin Wáng Hóngwén, Wade-Giles: Wang Hung-wen) (1933/1935–August 3, 1992) was the youngest member of the Gang of Four. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Kang Sheng (Chinese: 康生) (1898–December 16, 1975), Chinese Communist Party (CCP) official, was the head of the Peoples Republic of Chinas security and intelligence apparatus at various points until his death, and was subsequently accused along with the Gang of Four of being responsible for persecutions during the... Xie Fuzhi (also rendered as Hsieh Fu-shih; fl. ... Chén Bódá (陈伯达) was born 1904 in Huian (China) and died September 20, 1989 in Beijing. ...


Most Western accounts consider that the actual leadership of the Cultural Revolution was a rather wider group, the members of the Central Cultural Revolution Group. Most prominent was Lin Biao, until his flight from China and death in a plane crash in 1971. Chen Boda is often classed as a member of Lin's faction rather than Jiang Qing's. [1] An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ Shūméng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of...


Role

The removal of this group from power is sometimes considered to have marked the end of the Cultural Revolution, which had been launched by Mao in 1966 as part of his power struggle with leaders such as Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping and Peng Zhen. Mao placed Jiang Qing, who before 1966 had not taken a public political role, in charge of the country’s cultural apparatus. Zhang, Yao and Wang were party leaders in Shanghai who had played leading roles in securing that city for Mao during the Cultural Revolution. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) was a period of social chaos and political anarchy in the Peoples... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... Peng Zhen (Chinese: 彭真; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Peng Chen) (October 12, 1902–April 26, 1997) was a leading member of the Communist Party of China. ... Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ ShÅ«méng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Around Lin's death, the Cultural Revolution began to lose impetus. The new commanders of the People's Liberation Army demanded that order be restored in light of the dangerous situation along the border with the Soviet Union (see Sino-Soviet split). The Premier, Zhou Enlai, who had accepted the Cultural Revolution but never fully supported it, regained his authority, and used it to bring Deng Xiaoping back into the Party leadership at the 10th Party Congress in 1973. Liu Shaoqi had meanwhile died in prison in 1969. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949 to... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


Near the end of Mao's life, a power struggle occurred between the Gang of Four and the alliance of Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai, and Ye Jianying. Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949 to... Bo Gu, Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai in Xian Ye Jianying (simplified Chinese: 叶剑英) (Wade-Giles:Yeh Chien-ying) (April 28, 1897-October 22, 1986) was a Chinese Communist general and the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress from 1978 to 1983. ...


Fall

It is now officially claimed by Chinese propaganda agencies that Mao in his last year turned against Jiang Qing and her associates, and that after his death on 9 September 1976 they attempted to seize power (the same allegation made against Lin Biao in 1971). Even decades later, it is impossible to know the full truth of these events. Soviet Propaganda Poster during the Great Patriotic War. ... Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ Shūméng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


It does appear that their influence was in decline before Mao's death: when Zhou Enlai died in January 1976, he was succeeded not by one of the radicals but by the unknown Hua Guofeng. In April 1976, Hua was officially appointed Premier of the State Council. Upon Mao's death Hua was named Communist Party chairman as well. Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Huà Guófēng; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The "Gang" had arranged for Deng Xiaoping's purge in April 1976 (however, he would return and by 1978 become the real power of the Party) and hoped that the key military leaders Wang Dongxing and Chen Xilian would support them, but Hua seems to have won the Army over to his side. On 6 October 1976, Hua had the four leading radicals and a number of their lesser associates arrested. A massive media campaign was then launched against them, dubbing them the Gang of Four and blaming them for all the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. In history and political science, to purge is to remove undesirable people from a government, political party, profession, or from community/society as a whole, usually by violent means. ... Wang Dongxing (born 1916) was Mao Zedongs bodyguard during the Cultural Revolution. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Han Suyin gives a detailed account of their overthrow: Han Suyin (Chinese: 韩素音; pinyin: Hán Sùyīn) (born September 12, 1917), is the pen name of Elizabeth Comber, born Rosalie Elisabeth Kuanghu Chow (Chinese: 周光湖, pinyin: Zhōu Guānghú). She is a Chinese-born author of several books on modern China, novels set in East Asia, and autobiographical...

An emergency session of the Politburo was to take place in the Great Hall of the People that evening. Their presence was required. Since Wang Dongxing had been their ally, they did not suspect him... As they passed through the swinging doors into the entrance lobby, they were apprehended and led off in handcuffs. A special 8431 unit then went to Madam Mao's residence at No. 17 Fisherman's Terrace and arrested her. That night Mao Yuanxin was arrested in Manchuria, and the propagandists of the Gang of Four in Peking University and in newspaper offices were taken into custody. All was done with quiet and superb efficiency. In Shanghai, the Gang's supporters received a message to come to Beijing 'for a meeting'. They came and were arrested. Thus, without shedding a drop of blood, the plans of the Gang of Four to wield supreme power were ended. [2]
A government poster calling for the "Immediate overthrow of the anti-Communist" Gang of Four (Individuals listed in the center by surname).

Wang Dongxing (born 1916) was Mao Zedongs bodyguard during the Cultural Revolution. ... Mao Yuanxin, a nephew of Mao Zedong who was important in Maos last years. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The text is: Resolutely overthrow the anti-Party clique of Wang (Hongwen), Zhang (Chunqiao), Jiang (Qing) and Yao (Wenyuan). This image is from the IISH Stefan R. Landsberger Collection (http://www. ... The text is: Resolutely overthrow the anti-Party clique of Wang (Hongwen), Zhang (Chunqiao), Jiang (Qing) and Yao (Wenyuan). This image is from the IISH Stefan R. Landsberger Collection (http://www. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ...

Trial

In 1981, the four deposed leaders were subjected to a show trial and convicted of anti-party activities. During the trial, Jiang Qing in particular was extremely defiant, protesting loudly and bursting into tears at some points. Zhang Chunqiao refused to admit any wrong as well. Yao Wenyan and Wang Hongwen expressed repentance and confessed their supposed crimes. 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term show trial serves most commonly to label a type of public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the accused: the actual trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as an impressive example and...


Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao received death sentences that were later commuted to life imprisonment, while Wang Hongwen and Yao Wenyuan were given lifetime and twenty years in prison, respectively. They were all released later. All members of the "Gang of Four" have since died; Jiang Qing supposedly committed suicide in 1991, Wang Hongwen died in 1992, and Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan died in 2005.


Supporters of the Gang of Four, including Chen Boda and Mao Yuanxin, were also sentenced. Chén Bódá (陈伯达) was born 1904 in Huian (China) and died September 20, 1989 in Beijing. ... Mao Yuanxin, a nephew of Mao Zedong who was important in Maos last years. ...


See also

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) was a period of social chaos and political anarchy in the Peoples...

References

  1. ^ Glossary of Names and Identities in Mao's Last Revolution, by Roderick MacFarquhar and Michael Schoenhals, Harvard University Press 2006.
  2. ^ Eldest Son: Zhou Enlai and the Making of Modern China, Han Suyin, 1994. page 413.

Roderick Lemonde MacFarquhar (born December 2, 1930) is a Harvard University professor and China specialist, British politician, newspaper and television journalist and academic orientalist. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Han Suyin (Chinese: 韩素音; pinyin: Hán Sùyīn) (born September 12, 1917), is the pen name of Elizabeth Comber, born Rosalie Elisabeth Kuanghu Chow (Chinese: 周光湖, pinyin: Zhōu Guānghú). She is a Chinese-born author of several books on modern China, novels set in East Asia, and autobiographical...

External links

  • The Story Of The Gang Of 4 in mini-tofu#4

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gang of Four - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (777 words)
The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: 四人帮, Traditional Chinese: 四人幫; pinyin: Sì rén bāng) was a group of Communist Party of China leaders in the People's Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the events of the Cultural Revolution.
In 1981, the four deposed leaders were subjected to a show trial and convicted of anti-party activities.
All members of the "Gang of four" have since died; Jiang Qing died soon after her release, though some allege she committed suicide, Wang Hongwen died in 1992, Zhang Chunqiao died in April 2005 and Yao Wenyuan died in December 2005.
Gang of Four (band) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (827 words)
Gang of Four's later albums (Songs of the Free and Hard) found them softening some of their more jarring qualities, and drifting towards dance-funk and disco.
Gang of Four went on to influence a number of successful funk-tinged alternative rock acts throughout the 80s and 90s, (even, arguably, many rap-rock and nu metal groups "not in touch with their ancestry enough to realize it" [2]), although few of their followers were as arty or political.
Gang of Four can also be credited as one of the early influences on techno or electronic music; they released dance remixes of several later singles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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