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Encyclopedia > Gandhian economics

Gandhian economics is a school of economic thought based on the socio-economic principles expounded by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. It is largely characterised by its affinity to the principles and objectives of socialism, but with a rejection of class war and promotion of socio-economic harmony. Gandhi's economic ideas also aim to promote spiritual development and harmony with a rejection of materialism. The term "Gandhian economics" was coined by J. C. Kumarappa, a close supporter of Gandhi. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of valuable goods and services. ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... This article is about the organisation and newspaper Class War. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. ...

Contents

Gandhi's economic ideas

Gandhi's thinking on socio-economics issues was greatly influenced by the American writer Henry David Thoreau. Throughout his life, Gandhi sought to develop ways to fight India's extreme poverty, backwardness and socio-economic challenges as a part of his wider involvement in the Indian independence movement. Gandhi's championing of Swadeshi and non-cooperation were centred on the principles of economic self-sufficiency. Gandhi sought to target European-made clothing and other products as not only a symbol of British colonialism but also the source of mass unemployment and poverty, as European industrial goods had left many millions of India's workers, craftsmen and women without a means of living. By championing homespun khadi clothing and Indian-made goods, Gandhi sought to incorporate peaceful civil resistance as a means of promoting national self-sufficiency. Gandhi led farmers of Champaran and Kheda in a satyagraha (civil disobedience and tax resistance) against the mill owners and landlords supported by the British government in an effort to end oppressive taxation and other policies that forced the farmers and workers and defend their economic rights. A major part of this rebellion was a commitment from the farmers to end caste discrimination and oppressive social practices against women while launch a co-operative effort to promote education, health care and self-sufficiency by producing their own clothes and food. Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is most well-known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance... The Indian independence movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Swadeshi is the Indian term for the boycott of British goods. ... The Non-Cooperation Movement was the first-ever series of nationwide peoples movements of nonviolent resistance, led by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress. ... The British Empire at its zenith in 1919. ... khadi simply means cotton Khadi is Indian handspun and hand-woven cloth. ... The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1918 and 1919. ... Mohandas Karamchand Mahatma Gandhi, who is credited with creating the concept of Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is the philosophy of nonviolent resistance most famously employed by Mohandas Gandhi in forcing an end to the British Raj in India and also during his struggles in South Africa. ... It has been suggested that Civil and social disobedience be merged into this article or section. ... A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ... The Indian caste system is the traditional system of social division in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by a number of endogamous groups often termed as Jātis. ...


Gandhi and his followers also founded numerous ashrams in India (Gandhi had pioneered the ashram settlement in South Africa). The concept of an ashram has been compared with the commune, where its inhabitants would seek to produce their own food, clothing and means of living, while promoting a lifestyle of self-sufficiency, personal and spiritual development and working for wider social development. The ashrams included small farms and houses constructed by the inhabitants themselves. All inhabitants were expected to help in any task necessary, promoting the values of equality. Gandhi also espoused the notion of "trusteeship," which centred around denying material pursuits and coveting of wealth, with practitioners acting as "trustees" of other individuals and the community in their management of economic resources and property. Contrary to many Indian socialists and communists, Gandhi was averse to all notions of class warfare and concepts of class-based revolution, which he saw as causes of social violence and disharmony. Gandhi's concept of egalitarianism was centred around the preservation of human dignity rather than material development. Some of Gandhi's closest supporters and admirers included industrialists such as Ghanshyamdas Birla, Ambalal Sarabhai, Jamnalal Bajaj and J. R. D. Tata, who adopted several of Gandhi's progressive ideas in managing labour relations while also personally participating in Gandhi's ashrams and socio-political work. An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ... Commune can refer to various things: commune (subnational entity) of various European and African countries Commune in France. ... Egalitarianism can refer to moral as well as factual theories. ... Birla Family The Birla family is one of the foremost business houses in India. ... The Sarabhai family was a major business family of India. ... Jamnalal Bajaj (1886 – 1942) was an industrialist, a philanthropist, and Indian freedom fighter. ... Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (July 29, 1904–November 29, 1993) was a pioneer aviator and important businessman of India. ...


Implementation in India

During India's freedom struggle as well as after India's independence in 1947, Gandhi's advocacy of homespun khadi clothing, the khadi attire (which included the Gandhi cap) developed into popular symbols of nationalism and patriotism. India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru was a socialist as well as a close supporter of Gandhi. While Nehru was influenced by Gandhi's aversion to the brand of socialism practised in the Soviet Union, he was also an exponent of industralisation and critical of Gandhi's focus on rural economics. The Gandhi cap as worn by Jawaharlal Nehru. ... Map of India. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: ) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a senior political leader of the Indian National Congress, was a pivotal figure during the Indian independence movement and served as the first Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ...


Gandhian activists such as Vinoba Bhave and Jayaprakash Narayan were involved in the Sarvodaya movement, which sought to promote self-sufficiency amidst India's rural population by encouraging land redistribution, socio-economic reforms and promoting cottage industries. The movement sought to combat the problems of class conflict, unemployment and poverty while attempting to preserve the lifestyle and values of rural Indians, which were eroding with industrialisation and modernisation. Sarvodaya also included Bhoodan, or the gifting of land and agricultural resources by the landlords (called zamindars) to their tenant farmers in a bid to end the medieval system of zamindari. Bhave and others promoted Bhoodan as a just and peaceful method of land redistribution in order to create economic equality, land ownership and opportunity without creating class-based conflicts. Bhoodan and Sarvodaya enjoyed notable successes in many parts of India, including Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Bhave would become a major exponent of discipline and productivity amongst India's farmers, labourers and working classes, which was a major reason for his support of the controversial Indian Emergency (1975-77). Jayaprakash Narayan also sought to use Gandhian methods to combat organised crime, alcoholism and other social problems. Vinoba Bhave, born Vinayak Narahari Bhave (September 11, 1895 - November 15, 1982) often called Acharya (In Sanskrit and Hindi means teacher), is considered as a National Teacher of India and the spiritual successor of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Cover of the book Jayaprakash by Lakshminarayan Lal. ... Sarvodaya (Sanskrit and Hindi: सर्वोदय) is a term meaning universal uplift or progress of all. It was coined by the Indian nonviolent activist Vinoba Bhave to refer to the struggle of post-independence Gandhians to ensure that self-determination and equality reached the masses and the downtrodden. ... Property redistribution is a term applied to various political policies involving taxation or expropriation of property from some in order to finance payments to others. ... A cottage industry is an industry – primarily manufacturing – which includes many producers, working from their homes, typically part time. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capital is low) to an industrial state (see... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ... Property redistribution is a term applied to various political policies involving taxation or expropriation of property from some in order to finance payments to others. ... Maharashtra   (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , English: , IPA: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P. It is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


Modern interpretations

Gandhi's ideas have inspired socio-economic policies in post-colonial Africa and Asia, but have also been criticised as impractical and idealistic, especially on the macroeconomic scale. Main attempts at implementation have centred around microeconomic initiatives. The proximity of Gandhian economic thought to socialism has also evoked criticism from the advocates of free-market economics. To many, Gandhian economics represent an alternative to mainstream economic ideologies as a ways to promote economic productivity without emphasis on material pursuits or compromising human development. Gandhi's emphasis on peace, "trusteeship" and co-operation has been touted as an alternative to competition as well as conflict between different economic and income classes in societies. Gandhian focus on human development is also seen as an effective emphasis on the eradication of poverty, social conflict and backwardness in developing nations. Gandhian socio-economic ideas have gained the interest and attention of an increasing number of people across the world. A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources [1] , typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... A free market is an idealized market system, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an...


See also

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Kasturba Gandhi Kastürbā Gāndhi (April 11, 1869 – 22 February 1944), affectionately called Ba, was the wife of Mohandas Gandhi, whom she married at the age of 13. ... Harilal Mohandas Gandhi (1888 - June 1948) was the first son of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Manilal Gandhi (October 28, 1892-1956) was the second son of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Ramdas Gandhi (1897 - 1969) was the third son of Mahatma Gandhi. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Samaldas Gandhi was an Indian freedom fighter who headed the Arzi Hukumat or Peoples Government of the erstwhile princely state of Junagadh. ... Arun Gandhi Arun Manilal Gandhi (born April 14, 1934, Durban, South Africa) is the fifth grandson of Mahatma Gandhi through his second son Manilal. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Tushar Gandhi is a great-grandson of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the Indian who helped India gain independence. ... Gopalkrishna Gandhi (born April 22, 1945), the youngest grandson of Mahatma Gandhi, was appointed in 2004 as the governor as the West Bengal. ... Kasturba Gandhi Kastürbā Gāndhi (April 11, 1869 – 22 February 1944), affectionately called Ba, was the wife of Mohandas Gandhi, whom she married at the age of 13. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1918 and 1919. ... The Non-Cooperation Movement was the first-ever series of nationwide peoples movements of nonviolent resistance, led by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress. ... Chauri Chaura is a town near Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, where, in February 1922, an occupied police chowki (small hut) was set fire by a nationalist mob, killing 22 of the police occupants. ... The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War. ... Scenes on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhis famous 240 mile march on foot to the sea at Dandi. ... Vaikom Satyagraha (1924 - 25) was a satyagraha (movement) in Travancore now part of Kerala against untouchability in Hindu society. ... Poona Pact (1932) is the popular name of a resolution taken by the Indian National Congress leaders in Pune (now in Maharashtra), India in order to reach a compromise between several factions of the leaders who were not uninamious regarding the proposed seperate electorate of different castes of Hindu populace... The Quit India Movement (Bharat chhodo) was a call for immediate independence of India from British rule. ... Raj Ghat - Memorial marking the cremation spot of Mahatma Gandhi Followers of Mahatma Gandhi claim that there were five unsuccessful attempts to assassinate him. ... Gandhism (or Gandhi-ism) is an informal reference to the vision, core inspirations, principles, beliefs and philosophy of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian Independence Movement. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming meat, with or without the use of other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs. ... Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food and in some cases drink, for a period of time. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jaina redirects here. ... Mohandas Karamchand Mahatma Gandhi, who is credited with creating the concept of Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is the philosophy of nonviolent resistance most famously employed by Mohandas Gandhi in forcing an end to the British Raj in India and also during his struggles in South Africa. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... It has been suggested that Civil and social disobedience be merged into this article or section. ... Sarvodaya (Sanskrit and Hindi: सर्वोदय) is a term meaning universal uplift or progress of all. It was coined by the Indian nonviolent activist Vinoba Bhave to refer to the struggle of post-independence Gandhians to ensure that self-determination and equality reached the masses and the downtrodden. ... An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ... Swadeshi is the Indian term for the boycott of British goods. ... Mahatma Gandhi drafting a document at Birla House, Mumbai, Aug 1942. ... The Bardoli Satyagraha of 1925 in the state of Gujarat, India during the British Raj was a major episode of civil disobedience and revolt in the Indian Independence Movement. ... Sarvodaya (Sanskrit and Hindi: सर्वोदय) is a term meaning universal uplift or progress of all. It was coined by the Indian nonviolent activist Vinoba Bhave to refer to the struggle of post-independence Gandhians to ensure that self-determination and equality reached the masses and the downtrodden. ... The Gujarat Vidyapith is a major university located in Ahmedabad, in the state of Gujarat in India. ... The Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapeeth is a deemed and chartered university located in the city of Varanasi, in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Jamia Milia Islamia (Urdu: جامعہ ملیہ اسلامیہ) National Islamic University is an Indian Central University located in New Delhi. ... Vinoba Bhave, born Vinayak Narahari Bhave (September 11, 1895 - November 15, 1982) often called Acharya (In Sanskrit and Hindi means teacher), is considered as a National Teacher of India and the spiritual successor of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Vallabhbhāī Paṭel (Gujarati: , Devanāgarī: ; IPA: ) (October 31, 1875 – December 15, 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ... Formerly Miss Slade, Mirabhen admired Gandhi so much that she dropped everything in London to come stay with him. ... Charles Freer Andrews (1871 - 1940) was an English priest who admired the philosophy of Mohandas Gandhi and worked with him in the Indian civil rights struggle in South Africa and in the Indian Independence Movement. ... Narhari Parikh was an Indian freedom fighter and social reformer, who was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi and the chief architect of the Indian Independence Movement in Gujarat. ... Ravi Shankar Vyas was an Indian freedom fighter and social reformer, hailing from and working in the state of Gujarat. ... Mohanlal Pandya was an Indian freedom fighter, social reformer and one of the earliest followers of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Mahadev Desai was the personal secretary of Mohandas K. Gandhi for 25 years, from 1917 to Desais death in 1942. ... Abbas Tyabji was an Indian freedom fighter from Gujarat, who was a key ally and supporter of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel during the 1918 Kheda Satyagraha, and the 1928 Bardoli Satyagraha. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pashto/Arabic: خان عبد الغفار خان) (b. ... Shankar Trimbak Dharmadhikari (b. ... The MAHATMA GANDHI PEACE PRIZE is an official honour granted in the name of Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of the Indian Independence Movement by the Government of India. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી, Devanāgarī: मोहन दास करमचन्द गान्धी, Romanized: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of the Indian independence movement. ... Gandhi, taken in 1931. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Gandhi_studio_1931. ...

References

  • Pani, Narendar (2002). Inclusive Economics: Gandhian Method and Contemporary Policy. Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd.. ISBN 978-0761995807. 
  • Sharma, R. (1997). Gandhian economics. Deep and Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd.. ISBN 978-8171009862. 
  • Narayan, Shriman (1970). Relevance of Gandhian economics. Navajivan Publishing House. ASIN B0006CDLA8. 

External links

  • Gandhian Trusteeship as an "Instrument of Human Dignity"
  • Review of "Gandhian economics"
  • Gandhian economics is relevant

 
 

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