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Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau (see Taxila) and on the northern side of the Kabul River. Its main cities were Purushapura (modern Peshawar) and Takshashila (modern Taxila). [1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x655, 35 KB) Summary This map of the Mahajanapadas was made by me. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... (اردو) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to Indo-European family of languages. ... Ancient India may refer to: the ancient History of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent the legendary Kingdoms of Ancient India in Sanskrit literature the Iron Age Mahajanapadas the Middle kingdoms of India of Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages Category: ... Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya and Culla-Niddesa frequently mention sixteen great nations (solasa Mahajanapadas), which existed before the time of the Buddha. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) (commonly known as Sarhad; سرحد) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns and various other groups. ... The Punjab or Panjab   (Punjabi/Urdu: پنجاب) province of Pakistan is the countrys most populous region and is home to the Punjabis and various other groups. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... AHSAN AND ADNAN :::::AHSAN AND ADNAN::::::: WE ARE HERE NOW SO TALK ABOUT SOMETHING ADNAN AND AHSAN ADNAN:YEAH..AHSAN I WANA TALK ABOUT SOMETHING BUT I DONT KNOW ABOUT WHAT..UMMM ABOUT A GOOD SITE AHSAN:YEAH ITS A GOOD QUESTION???I M THINKIN ABOUT SOME GOOD SITE YOU... The city of Taxila ()[1] was an important early Hindu[2][3] and Buddhist[4] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE[5] to the 2nd century CE[6]. UNESCO has listed 18 locations at Taxila as World Heritage Sites. ... The Kabul River is a river than originates Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan and flows 700km to join the Indus River in Pakistan. ... Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... The city of Taxila ()[1] was an important early Hindu[2][3] and Buddhist[4] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE[5] to the 2nd century CE[6]. UNESCO has listed 18 locations at Taxila as World Heritage Sites. ...


The Kingdom of Gandhara lasted from the 6th century BC to the 11th century AD. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century AD under Buddhist Kushan Kings. After it was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 AD, the name Gandhara disappeared. During the Muslim period the area was administered from Lahore or from Kabul. During Mughal time the area was part of Kabul province. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and the second most populated city in Pakistan, also known as the Gardens of the Mughals or City of Gardens, after the significant rich heritage of the Mughal Empire. ... Kabul, Kâbl (locally: کابل), is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population of approximately 3 million people. ...

Contents

Geography

Female spouted figure, terracotta, Charsadda, Gandhara, 3rd-1st century BCE. Victoria and Albert Museum.
Female spouted figure, terracotta, Charsadda, Gandhara, 3rd-1st century BCE. Victoria and Albert Museum.

The Gandharas were settled since the Vedic times on the banks of Kabul River (river Kubha or Kabol) up to its mouth into Indus. The region is known as Peshawar Valley. Later the Gandharas crossed the Indus and included parts of north-west Punjab of Pakistan. Gandhara was located on the grand northern high road (Uttarapatha) and was a centre of international commercial activities. It was an important channel of communication with ancient Iran and Central Asia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (725x1085, 327 KB) Female spouted figure. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (725x1085, 327 KB) Female spouted figure. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum viewed from Thurloe Square. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


The boundaries of Gandhara varied throughout history. Sometime the Peshawar valley and Taxila collectively referred to as Gandhara. The Swat valley was also sometimes included. However, the heart of Gandhara was always the Peshawar valley. The kingdom was ruled from capitals at Pushkalavati (Charsadda), Taxila, Purushapura (Peshawar) and in its final days from Udabhandapura (Hund) on the Indus.


Ancient Gandhara

Pre Historic Period

Evidence of Stone Age human inhabitants of Ghandhara, including stone tools and burnt bones, was discovered at Sanghao near Mardan in area caves. The artifacts are approximately 15,000 years old.


To date no evidence of Harappan Culture of Indus Valley Civilization has been found in Gandhara. The Aryans moved into Gandhara and the rest of North Western Pakistan around 1500BC. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ...


The region shows an influx of southern Central Asian culture in the Bronze Age with the Gandhara grave culture, likely corresponding to immigration of Indo-Aryan speakers and the nucleus of Vedic civilization. This culture survived till 600 BC. Its evidence has been discovered in the Hilly regions of Swat and Dir, and even at Taxila. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Gandhara grave culture emerges from ca. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Lower Swat Valley has been occupied for the last 3000 years. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The name of the Gandharis is attested from the Rigveda (RV 1.120.1). The Gandharis, along with the Mujavantas, Angas and the Magadhas, are also mentioned in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.22.14), but apparently as a despised people. Gandharas are included in the Uttarapatha division of Puranic and Buddhistic traditions. Aitareya Brahmana refers to king Naganajit of Gandhara who was contemporary of Janaka, king of Videha. The word Gāndhārī can mean more than one thing: Gāndhārī is a character in the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... The first Mandala (book) of the Rigveda has 191 hymns. ... Earliest reference to Angas occurs in Atharava Veda (V.22. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... The Aitareya Brahmana is the Brahmana associated with the Rigveda in the Shakala school. ...


Gandharas and their king figure prominently as strong allies of the Kurus against the Pandavas in Mahabharata war. The Gandharas were a furious people, well trained in the art of war. According to Puranic traditions, this Janapada was founded by Gandhara, son of Aruddha, a descendant of Yayati. The princes of this country are said to have come from the line of Druhyu who was a famous king of Rigvedic period. The river Indus watered the lands of Gandhara. According to Vayu Purana (II.36.107), the Gandharas were destroyed by Pramiti aka Kalika, at the end of Kalyuga. Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... ...

Mother Goddess (fertility divinity), derived from the Indus Valley tradition, terracotta, Sar Dheri, Gandhara, 1st century BCE. Victoria and Albert Museum.
Mother Goddess (fertility divinity), derived from the Indus Valley tradition, terracotta, Sar Dheri, Gandhara, 1st century BCE. Victoria and Albert Museum.

The Gandhara kingdom sometimes also included Kashmira (Jataka No 406). Hecataeus of Miletus (549-468) refers to Kaspapyros (Kasyapura i.e. Kashmira) as Gandaric city. According to Gandhara Jataka, at one time, Gandhara formed a part of the kingdom of Kashmir. Jataka also gives another name Chandahara for Gandhara. Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya refer to sixteen great nations (solas Mahajanapadas) which flourished in Indian sub-continent during Buddha's time, only two of which viz. the Gandhara and the Kamboja were located in the Uttarapatha or the north-western division. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (757x1600, 156 KB) Gandhara Mother Goddess. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (757x1600, 156 KB) Gandhara Mother Goddess. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum viewed from Thurloe Square. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means Great kingdoms (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). ... A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... Media:Example. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ...


Gandhāra is also thought to be the location of the mystical Lake Dhanakosha, birthplace of Padmasambhava, founder of Tibetan Buddhism. The bKa' brgyud (Kagyu) sect of Tibetan Buddhism identifies the lake with Andan Dheri stupa, located near the tiny village of Uchh near Chakdara in the lower Swat Valley. A spring was said to flow from the base of the stupa to form the lake. Archaeologists have found the stupa but no spring or lake can be identified. Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kulu Padmasambhava (also Padmakara or Padma Raja) (Ch: 蓮華生上師; Tib: Padma Jungne), in Sanskrit meaning lotus-born, founded the Tibetan or Tantric school of Buddhism in the 8th century. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་; Wylie: Bka-brgyud) school, also known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school, is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ... Chakdara town is located in Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan. ... Swat is a former state in the northwest frontier province of Pakistan. ...


The primary cities of Gandhara were Purushpura (now Peshawar), Takshashila (Prakrit Taxila) and Pushklavati. Last two cities are said to have been named after Taksa and Pushkara, the two sons of Bharata, a prince of Ayodhya. Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... The city of Taxila ()[1] was an important early Hindu[2][3] and Buddhist[4] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE[5] to the 2nd century CE[6]. UNESCO has listed 18 locations at Taxila as World Heritage Sites. ... Bharata is the name of three different persons in Hindu mythology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Pushkalavati & Prayag

Pushkalavati remained the capital of Gandhara from the 6th century BC to the 2nd century AD, when the capital moved to Peshawar. An important Buddhist shrine kept the city as a centre of pilgrimage until 7th century AD. Pushkalavati had some significance for earlier Aryans. This city in Peshawar Valley is situated at the confluence of Swat and Kabul rivers. Three different branches of the River Kabul meet there. That specific place is still called Prang and considered sacred. The local people still bring their dead for burial. Aryans found similar geographical characteristics at the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna and founded a sacred city by the name of Prayag near Benares. This is one of the ancient pilgrim centres of India. Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... Swat River flows from Karakorum Mountains to flows into Kabul River in Swat, Sarhad, Pakistan. ... The Kabul River is a river than originates Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan and flows 700km to join the Indus River in Pakistan. ... This article is about the river. ... The Triveni Sangam, or the intersection of Yamuna River and Ganges River. ... Map of India. ... VārāṇasÄ«   (HindÄ«: वाराणसी, UrdÅ«: وارانسی, IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (HindÄ«: बनारस, UrdÅ«: بنارس, ; IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (काशी کاشی ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Taxila

Main article: Taxila

The Gandharan city of Taxila was an important Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE[3] to the 2nd century CE. The city of Taxila ()[1] was an important early Hindu[2][3] and Buddhist[4] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE[5] to the 2nd century CE[6]. UNESCO has listed 18 locations at Taxila as World Heritage Sites. ...


Persian rule

Cyrus the Great (558-530 BCE) built first universal empire of the world stretching from Greece to the Indus River. Both Gandhara and Kamboja soon fell a prey to the Achaemenian Dynasty of Persia during the reign of Cyrus the Great or in the first year of Darius I. The Gandhara and Kamboja had constituted the seventh satrapys (upper Indus) of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: Kuruš,[1] modern Persian: کوروش - Kuruš; ca. ... Missing image Achaemenid empire in its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing some parts of today... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: Kuruš,[1] modern Persian: کوروش - Kuruš; ca. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...


When Achamenian took control of this kingdom, Pushkra-sakti a contemporary of king Bimbisara of Magadha was the king of Gandhara. He was in power struggle against kingdoms of Avanti and Pandavas. Bimbisara (ruled 544-491 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ...


The inscription on Darius’ (521-486 BC) tomb at Naqsh-i-Rustam near Persepolis recorded GADARA (Gandhara) along with HINDUSH (West Punjab) in the list of satrapies. The Greek historian Herodotus (490-420 ? BC) in his book The Histories gave list of twenty provinces of Persian Empire. He reported Gandhara as Paktuike (3:93) and in another passage identified this territory with Peshawar Valley (4:44). The word Paktuike is interesting since present inhabitants of Gandhara are known as Pakhtun. NæqÅ¡-e Rostæm, near Shiraz A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I over three Roman Emperors Valerian, Gordian III and Philip the Arab. ...


Under Persian rule system of centralized administration and bureaucratic system introduced to the region. Influenced by the Persians and access to Western Asians civilization, the great scholars like Panini and Kautaliya born in this cosmopolitan environment. Kharosti alphabet derived from Aramaic (official language of Achaemenians) alphabet developed here and remained national script of Gandhara until third century AD.


By about 380 BC Persian hold weakened. Many small kingdoms sprang in Gandhara. Around 327 BC Alexander the Great invaded Gandhara and Indian Satrapies of Persian Empire. His stay in this area was merely less than a year. This did not have any immediate administrative or cultural effect. The expeditions of Alexander were recorded by Arrian (around 175 AD) in Anabasis and other chroniclers many centuries after the event. The names of places and personalities described in these chronicles are difficult to identify.


The companions of Alexander the Great did not record the names of Kamboja and Gandhara and rather located a dozen small political units in their territories. Alexander conquered most of these political units of the former Gandhara and Kamboja Mahajanapadas. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ...


According to Greek chroniclers, at the time of Alexander's invasion, hyparchs Kubhesha, Hastin (Astes) and Ambhi (Omphes) were ruling lower Kabul valley, Puskalavati (modern Charasadda) and Taxila respectively, while Ashvajit (chief of Aspasios or Ashvayanas) and Assakenos (chief of Assakenois or Ashvakayanas) (both being sub-units of the Kambojas) were ruling upper Kabul valley and Mazaga (Mashkavati) respectively. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Kabul, Kâbl (locally: کابل), is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population of approximately 3 million people. ... The city of Taxila ()[1] was an important early Hindu[2][3] and Buddhist[4] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE[5] to the 2nd century CE[6]. UNESCO has listed 18 locations at Taxila as World Heritage Sites. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...


Gandhara under the Mauryas

Chandragupta, the founder of Mauryan dynasty was living in Taxila when Alexander captured this city. Here he met Kautilya, who remained his chief adviser throughout his career. Gandhara was won back from the Greeks by Chandragupta Maurya. Having defeated Seleucus Nicator (Alexander's successor in Asia) in 305 BCE, the Mauryan Emperor extended his domains up to and including Southern Afghanistan. Using this Gandhara as his base Chandragupta led a rebellion against Magadha Empire and ascended to the throne at Pataliputra in 321 BC. [comment: There is very little known about the sequence of events leading to Chandragupta's defeat of the Nanda emperors of Magadha. There are no contemporary Indian records of Chandragupta Maurya and almost all that is known is based on the diaries of Megasthenes, the ambassador from Seleucus.] He was the first ruler of Mauryan dynasty. Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: India Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Greek: Sandrakottos) (born c. ... Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ...


Maurya inherited and incorporated many Iranian traditions of Achaemenid Empire, which later, became the basis of Kautaliya’s book on statecraft. [Another made-up statement. There is no evidence, either internal or external, that the Mauryan empire incorporated anything from the Achaemenids, or that Kautilya's book used any such traditions. Kautilya's book, of which decent translations are available, extensively quotes and comments on past experts on statecraft, with no reference to any external references or practices.] With the completion of the Empire's Grand Trunk Road, the region presumably prospered as a center of trade. Gandhara remained a part of the Mauryan Empire for close to a century and a half.


Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta was the one of the greatest rulers the world has ever known. Like his grandfather, Ashoka also started his career from Gandhara as a governor. Later he became Buddhist and promoted this religion in his empire. He built many stupas in Gandhara. Mauryan control over northern frontagers including the Yonas, Kambojas and the Gandharas is attested from the Rock Edicts left by Ashoka, who shows special solicitude for these frontier highlanders. His successors, however, failed to cast such imperial shadows throughout the sub-continent. Yona (also sometimes Yonaka) is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate ancient Greek people. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...


It is also held by some scholars that the Gandharas and the Kambojas were one people. Based on time and space contiguity, this view does not seem to be wide off the mark. Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ...


Gandhara under Graeco-Bactrians, Sakas and Indo-Parthians

Standing Buddha, Gandhara (1st-2nd century). Tokyo National Museum.
Standing Buddha, Gandhara (1st-2nd century). Tokyo National Museum.

The decline of the Empire left the sub-continent open to Greco-Bactrian expansion. Southern Afghanistan was absorbed by Demetrius of Bactria in 180 BCE. Around about 185 BCE, Demetrius, King of Bactria invaded and conquered Gandhara and the Punjab. Later, wars between different groups of Greek settlers of Bactria, resulted in the independence of Gandhara from Bactria and the formation of the Indo-Greek kingdom. Menander was the most famous king. He ruled from Taxila and later from Sagala (Sialkot). He rebuilt Taxila (Sirkap) and Pushkalavati. He became Buddhist and remembered in Buddhists records due to his discussions with a great Buddhist philosopher in the book Milinda Panha. Download high resolution version (973x1600, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (973x1600, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Tokyo National Museum. ... A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Demetrius (from Greek — Δημήτριος, male form of Demeter) is the name of several notable people from classical antiquity and other eras. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... (Redirected from 180 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 185 BC 184 BC 183 BC 182 BC 181 BC - 180 BC... (Redirected from 185 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC - 185 BC... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ... Sagala, today Sialkot, was a city of northern Pakistan in the Punjab region. ... The main road at Sirkap Sirkap is the name of an archeological site on the bank opposite to the city of Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan. ... The Milinda Pañha (Pali. ...


Around the time of Menander’s death in 140 BCE, Kushans overran Bactria and ended Greek rule there. Around 80 BCE, Sakas, diverted by their Parthian cousins from Iran moved into Gandhara and other parts of Pakistan and Western India. The most famous king of Sakas was Maues who established himself in Gandhara. The Pashtu (or Pakhtu) now spoken in North Western Pakistan and Afghanistan is said to be based on Saka’s language. Silver tetradrachm of Maues. ...


By 90 BCE Parthians took control of eastern Iran and around 50 BCE put an end to last remnants of Greek rule in Afghanistan. By around 7 CE an Indo-Parthian dynasty succeeded in taking control of Gandhara. Parthians continued to support Greek artistic traditions in Gandhara. The start of the Gandharan Greco-Buddhist art is dated to the period between 50 BCE and 75 CE. Around 40 CE Thomas the Apostle visited India and encountered the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares. Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Thomas, also called Judas Thomas Didymus or Jude Thomas Didymus, was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first king of the Indo-Parthians. ...


The Golden Age of Kushans Rule

The Parthian dynasty fell about 75 AD to another horde from Central Asia. Kushans, known as Yueh-Chih in China moved from Central Asia to Bactria, where they stayed for a century. Around 75 AD, one of the tribe Kushan under the leadership of Kujula Kadphises gained control of Gandhara and other part of present Pakistan. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 BCE to 30 CE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) The Great Clan of Yue, is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ...


The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Gandhara. Peshawar Valley and Taxila are littered with ruins of stupas and monasteries of this period. Gandharan art flourished and produced some of the best pieces of sculpture of all time. Many monuments were created to commemorate the Jataka tales.


Gandhara civilization peaked during the reign of the great Kushan king Kanishka (128-151-AD). This was the golden period of Gandhara. Cities of Taxila at Sirsukh, and Peshawar were built. Peshawar became the capital of a great empire stretching from Bengal to Central Asia. Kanishka was a great patron of the faith and Buddhism spread to Central Asia and the Far East over the Pamir where his empire met the Han Empire of China.


Kanishka Empire was known as the Kingdom of Gandhara and under his leadership it became the center of civilization. The Buddhist art spread outward from Gandhara to other parts of Asia. He greatly encouraged Buddhism. Before Kanishka Buddha was not represented in human form. In Gandhara Mahayana Buddhism flourished and Buddha was represented in human form.


Kanishka created big monuments of Arts. He built a great tower to a height of 400 feet at Peshawar. This tower was reported by Fa-Hsien, Sun-Yun and Hsuan-Tsang. This structure was destroyed and rebuilt many times and remained in semi ruins until it was finally destroyed by Mahmood in 11th century. Under him Gandhara became a holy land of Buddhism and attracted Chinese pilgrimage to visit Gandhara to see monuments associated with many Jataka tales. Fǎxiǎn (pinyin, Chinese characters: 法顯, also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... See also: Xuanzang (fictional character) A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: 玄奘; Pinyin: Xuán Zàng; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; Cantonese IPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jyun4zong1) (602-644/664) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ...


After Kanishka, the empire started losing territories in the east. In the west it came under Sassanian (who took power from Parthians in Iran) suzerainty and became their vassal from 241-450AD. Under these Kushan chiefs new Buddhists stupas continued to appear and old ones were enlarged. Huge statues of the Buddha were erected in monasteries and carved into the hillsides.


Gandhara after Huns Invasion

Huns captured Gandhara around 450 AD, and did not adopt Buddhism. During their rule, Hinduism revived and Gandharan Civilization declined. Sassanians aided by Turks destroyed the Huns' power base in Central Asia and Gandhara once again came under Persian suzerainty in 568 AD. When the Sassanians were defeated by Muslim Arabs in 644 AD, Gandhara along with Kabul was ruled by Buddhist Turks.


The travel records of many Chinese Buddhists pilgrims record that Gandhara was going through a transformation during these centuries. Buddhism was declining and Hinduism was rising. Fa-Hien travelled around 400 AD, when Prakrit was the language of the people and Buddhism was flourishing. 100 years later, when Sung-Yun visited in 520 AD, a different picture is described: the area had been destroyed by Huns and was ruled by Lae-Lih who did not practice law of Buddha. Hiun-Tsang visited around 644 and found Buddhism on the wane and Hinduism in the ascendant. Gandhara was ruled by a king from Kabul, who respected Buddha law, but Taxila was in ruins and Buddhist monasteries were deserted. Instead, Hindu temples were numerous and Hinduism was popular.


Gandhara under Turkshahi & Hindushahi

After the fall of the Sassnian Empire to Arabs in 644 AD Afghanistan and Gandhara came under pressure from Muslims. But they failed to extend their empire to Gandhara. Gandhara was first ruled from Kabul and then from Udabhandapura (Hind).


In 665 AD Kabul was put under siege by Arabs, but they never tried to cross Hindu Kush. Arabs never fully subdued Kabul and Gandhara was ruled from there by Turkshahi for next 200 years. Sometime in 9th century Hindushahi replaced Turkshahi. The date of Hindushahi takeover from Turkshahi (Also recorded as Kabulshahi) is not certain. Based on various Muslim records the estimated date is 870 AD. Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ...


According to Al-Biruni (973-1048 AD), Kallar a Brahmin minister of Turkshahi founded Hindushahi dynasty in 843 AD. The dynasty ruled from Kabul, later moved capital to Udabhandapura. They build great temples all over their kingdoms. Some of these buildings are still in good conditions in the Salt Range of the Punjab. A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ...


End of Gandhara

Jayapala was the last great king of this dynasty. His empire extended from west of Kabul to the River Sutlej. However, timing of this expansion of Gandhara kingdom coincided with the rising of a powerful Ghaznavid Empire under Sabuktigin. Defeated twice by Sabuktigin and then by Mahmud of Ghazni in Kabul valley. Jayapala committed suicide. Son of Jaypala, Anandpala moved his capital near Nandana in Salt Range. In 1021 AD the last king of this dynasty Trilocanpala assassinated by his own troops. Name of Gandhara was forgotten for ever. Jayapala Shahi Son of Asatapala, succeeded the last Brahmin Hindu Shahi Bhima and thus began the start of the Janjua Shahi phase. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (ca 942 - August 997) was the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire and dynasty in todays Afghanistan. ... Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (ca 942 - August 997) was the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire and dynasty in todays Afghanistan. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ...


Kandhar in Afghanistan was probably named after Gandhara. According to H.W. Bellow, emigrant from Gandhara in fifth century AD brought this name to modern Kandhar. Fa-Hien reported Buddha’s alms-bowl in Peshawar Valley when he visited around 400 AD. (Chapter-XII) In 1872 Bellow saw this huge begging bowl 7 feet in diameter preserved in the shrine of Sultan Wais outside Kandhar, which was probably brought there by refuge Buddhists monks. When Caroe wrote his book in 1958 (Caroe, pp170-171), this relic was reported to be at Kabul Museum Present status of this bowl is not known due to the war in Afghanistan since last couple of decades.


Discovery of Gandhara

By the time Gandhara absorbed in to Mahmood of Ghazni Empire, Buddhist buildings were already in ruins and Gandhara Art had been forgetton. After Al-Biruni, Kashmiri writer Kahana wrote his book Rajatarangini in 1148AD. He recorded events about Gandhara, its last royal dynasty and capital Udabhandapura. The history and art of the Gandhara remained unknown to the inhabitants of the area and rest of the world until 19th century.


In 19th Century AD, British soldiers and administrators started taking interest in the ancient history of the Indian Subcontinent. In the 1830s coins of the post Ashoka period were discovered and in the same period Chinese travelogues were translated. Charles Masson, James Prinsep and Cunningham deciphered the Kharosthi script in 1838. James Prinsep (20 August 1799 - 22 April 1840) was an Anglo-Indian scholar and antiquary. ...


Chinese records provided locations and site plans of Buddhists shrines. Along with the discovery of coins, these records provided necessary clues to piece together the history of Gandhara.


In 1848 Cunningham found Gandhara sculptures north of Peshawar. He also identified the site of Taxila in the 1860s. From then on a large number of Buddhist statues were being discovered in the Peshawar valley.


Marshal performed an excavation of Taxila from 1912 to 1934. He discovered Greek, Parthian, and Kushan cities and large number of stupas and monastries. These discoveries helped to piece together much more of the chronology of the history of Gandhara and its art.


After 1947 Ahmed Hassan Dani and the Archaeology Department of Peshawar University made a number of discoveries in the Peshawar and Swat Valleys. Excavation on many sites of the Gandhara Civilzation are being done by researchers from many universities around the world.


Language

Portraits from the site of Hadda, Gandhara, 3rd century. Guimet Museum.
Portraits from the site of Hadda, Gandhara, 3rd century. Guimet Museum.

The Gandharan Buddhist texts are both the earliest Buddhist and Indian manuscripts ever discovered. Most are composed on birch bark and were found in labeled clay pots. Panini has mentioned both Vedic form Gandhari as well as the later form Gandhari in his Ashtadhyayi. Portraits from Hadda , 3rd century CE. Musee Guimet, Paris. ... Portraits from Hadda , 3rd century CE. Musee Guimet, Paris. ... Head of the Buddha, Hadda, 1st-2nd century CE Hadda is a Greco-Buddhist archeological site located in the ancient area of Gandhara, inside the Khyber Pass, six miles south of the city of Jalalabad in todays eastern Afghanistan. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Guimet in his museum. ... The Gandhāran Buddhist Texts are the earliest Buddhist manuscripts yet discovered, and indeed the earliest Indian manuscripts yet discovered. ... There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... Panini can refer to: Pāṇini, the 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian Panini (sandwich), a type of Italian sandwich Panini (stickers), a brand of collectible stickers Giovanni Paolo Panini, an Italian artist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... The Ashtadhyayi (Ạṣtādhyāyī, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ...


Gandhara's language was a collection of related Prakrit or "Middle Indo-Aryan" dialects. They were written right-to-left in the Kharoṣṭhī script, which was ultimately adapted from the Aramaic alphabet. At the time of its adoption, Gandhāra was controlled by the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian empire, which used a similar script to write the related Iranian languages of the Empire. Semitic scripts were not used to write Indian languages again until the arrival of Islam and subsequent adoption of the Persian-style Arabic alphabet for New Indo-Aryan languages like Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi and Kashmiri. Kharosthi script died out about the 4th century, though Hindko and Kohistani, dialects of the ancient Indo-Aryan Prakrit language Siraiki are the dialects which are still spoken today. Prakrit (Sanskrit prāká¹›ta प्राकृत (from pra-ká¹›ti प्रकृति), original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... (اردو) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to Indo-European family of languages. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Sindhi (سنڌي، سندھی ØŒ सिन्धी sindhÄ«) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prāká¹›ta प्राकृत (from pra-ká¹›ti प्रकृति), original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Saraiki is an old language spoken in central Pakistan. ...


Gandhara was a Indo-Aryan country, but Achamenian influence brought about the birth of the Pakhtu language. The Afridi, Dilazak and Khattak tribes were the prominent Pashtun tribes of ancient Gandhara (called by them "Qandahar". This name was later given by refugees from here, who founded the present day Afghan city of the same name). They were Buddhist and pagan rather than Hindu as the Hindko speakers were, which is implied in the name of that language. Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Men from the Afridi tribe in battle Afridi (Urdu: آفریدی ) (Pashto: اپريدي ) is a Pashtun tribe. ... Khattak or Khatak (Urdu: خٹک ) is a Pashtun tribe. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Gandharan proselytism

The Kushan Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan), first translator of a Mahayana sutra into Chinese.
The Kushan Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan), first translator of a Mahayana sutra into Chinese.

Gandharan Buddhist missionaries were active, with other monks from Central Asia, from the 2nd century CE in the Chinese capital of Liaoyang, and particularly distinguished themselves by their translation work. They promoted both Theravada and Mahayana scriptures. Yuezhi Buddhist monk Lokaksema (c. ... Yuezhi Buddhist monk Lokaksema (c. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... Liaoyang (Simplified Chinese: 辽阳; Traditional Chinese: 遼陽; Pinyin: Liáoyáng) is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the beautiful and rich Liaodong Peninsula. ...

  • Lokaksema, a Kushan and the first to translate Mahayana scriptures into Chinese (167-186).
  • Zhi Yao (c. 185), a Kushan monk, second generation of translators after Lokaksema.
  • Zhi Qian (220-252), a Kushan monk whose grandfather had settled in China during 168-190.
  • Zhi Yueh (c.230), a Kushan monk who worked at Nanjing.
  • Dharmaraksa (265-313), a Kushan whose family had lived for generations at Dunhuang.
  • Jnanagupta (561-592), a monk and tranlator from Gandhara.
  • Shikshananda (652-710), a monk and translator from Udyana, Gandhara.
  • Prajna (c. 810). A monk and translator from Kabul, who educated the Japanese Kukai in Sanskrit texts.

See also: Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan). ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Zhi Yao (Ch:支曜) was a Kushan Buddhist monk of Yuezhi ethnicity who was involved with the translation of Buddhist texts into Chinese around 185. ... Zhi Qian (Ch:支谦). Zhi Qian (Ch:支谦) was a Kushan Buddhist monk of Yuezhi ethnicity who translated around thirty-six Buddhist sutras into Chinese between 222 and 253. ...   (Chinese: 南京; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin), Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal map spelling)) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... Dharmaraksa (Ch: 竺法护, Zhu Fahu) was one of the greatest translators of Mahayana Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. ... Jnanagupta (Sanskrit; Chinese 闍那崛多 or 志德) was a Buddhist monk from Gandhara who travelled to China and was recognised by Emperor Wen of the Sui dynasty. ... Udyāna (Sanskrit, meaning garden or orchard; Chinese pinyin: wu chang, also romanized as Woo-chang) was a Buddhist region in northern India, delimited in part by the Indus river and to the south by a region known as Soo-ho-to. ... Prajñā (Sanskrit; Ch:般若三藏, sometimes abbreviated in 般若, Banruo), was an important 9th century Buddhist monk from Gandhara, born in the area of modern Kabul, Afghanistan. ... Kabul, Kâbl (locally: کابل), is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population of approximately 3 million people. ... Painting of Kukai (774-835). ... Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ...


Gandharan art

Gandhāra is noted for the distinctive Gandhāra style of Buddhist art, a consequence of merger of Greek, Syrian, Persian and Indian art traditions. The development of this form of art started in Parthian Period (50BC – 75AD). Gandhāran style flourished and achieved its peak during the Kushan period from 1st Century to 5th Century. It declined and suffered destruction after invasion of the White Huns in the 5th century. It has been suggested that Buddhist symbolism be merged into this article or section. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ...


See also: Greco-Buddhist art Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century...

Timeline

  • c.2300-c.1700 BCE Indus Valley civilization
  • c.1700-c.520 BCE No records
  • c.520-c.400 BCE Persian Empire
  • c.329-c.316 BCE Occupied by Alexander the Great and Macedonian generals
  • c.316-c.180 BCE Controlled by the Maurya dynasty, founded by Chandragupta. Converted to Buddhism under King Asoka (273-232 BCE)
  • c.185-c.97 BCE Under control of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, with some incursions of the Indo-Scythians from around 100 BCE.
  • c.97 BCE-c.07 CE (Common Era) Saka (Scythian) Rule
  • c.07-c.75 Parthian invasion and Indo-Parthian Kingdom. Rule of Commander Aspavarman?
  • c.75- c.230 Kushan Empire
  • c.230-c.440 Kushanshahi under Persian Sassanian suzerainty.
  • c.450-c.565 White Huns (Hephthalites)
  • c.565-c.644 Local control under Sassanian suzerainty
  • c.650-c.870 Turkshahi, ruled from Kabul
  • c.870- 1021 Hindushahi, ruled from Udabhandapura.

Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The Mauryan dynasty ruled the Mauryan empire, the first unified empire of India, from 322 BCE to 183 BCE. The rulers of the Mauryan dynasty were: Chandragupta Maurya (322 - 298 BCE) - founder of the Mauryan empire. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Commander Aspavarman is known from inscriptions and coins to have ruled in Gandhara in the early part of the first century. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ...

References

  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1911. The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an account of the Works of I-Tsing. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Edition.[4]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [5]
  • Legge, James. Trans. and ed. 1886. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: being an account by the Chinese monk Fâ-hsien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Reprint: Dover Publications, New York. 1965.
  • Watters, Thomas. 1904-5. On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India (A.D. 629-645). Reprint: Mushiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Caroe, Sir Olaf, The Pathans, Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1958.
  • Herodotous, The Histories, Translated by Aubrey De Selincourt, Penguin Books, 1954.
  • Hussain, J. An Illustrated History of Pakistan, Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1983.
  • Isobel Shaw,Pakistan Handbook, The Guidebook Co., Hong Kong, 1989

See also

Mahajanapadas, Kambojas, Kashmir Smast, Ghandari

Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means Great kingdoms (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... // Kashmir Smast, Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan The Kashmir Smast caves are a series of natural limestone caves, artificially expanded from the Kushan to the Shahi periods, situated in the Babozai mountains in the Mardan Valley in Northern Pakistan. ... The Gandharis are a tribe attested from the Rigveda (RV 1. ...

Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Foreign Kingdoms

 6th century BCE
 5th century BCE
 4th century BCE

 3rd century BCE
 2nd century BCE

 1st century BCE
 1st century


 2nd century
 3rd century
 4th century
 5th century
 6th century
 7th century
 8th century
 9th century
10th century
11th century Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...






Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ...







The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chola dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: Chola pronounced Sola) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century CE. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர் Malayalam: േചര ) were one of the ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day... The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years. ...


(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... Pallavas were a South Indian dynasty. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks



(Islamic invasion of India)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires in India) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...



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Art of Gandhara

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Gandhara (1480 words)
Gandhara is the name of an ancient province and kingdom, which in classical times, was limited to a small region in ancient India.
In the sixth to fourth centuries BCE Gandhara was dominated under the Achaemenid Dynasty of Iran.
The Gandhara schools is probably credited with the first representation of the Buddha in human form, the portrayal of Sakyamuni in his human shape, rather than shown as a symbol.
Greco-Buddhist art - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4922 words)
Under the Indo-Greeks and then the Kushans, the interaction of Greek and Buddhist culture flourished in the area of Gandhara, in today’s northern Pakistan, before spreading further into India, influencing the art of Mathura, and then the Buddhist art of the Gupta empire, which was to extend to the rest of South-East Asia.
The motif was adopted extensively throughout the Indian sub-continent, Atlas being substituted for the Indian Yaksa in the monuments of the Sunga around the 2nd century BCE.
The earliest Hellenistic statues of the Buddha portray him in a style reminiscent of a king, where the traditional Buddhist symbols (the Dharma wheel, the empty throne, the Bodhi tree, the lions) are absent.
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