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Encyclopedia > Gamla Uppsala
Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. The building beyond the mounds is the church and to its right is the low Ting-mound and then the museum.
Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. The building beyond the mounds is the church and to its right is the low Ting-mound and then the museum.

Gamla Uppsala ("Old Uppsala") is a parish and a town outside Uppsala in Sweden. It had 16,231 inhabitants in 1991. It was the seat of the Swedish kings before the Middle Ages and figures extensively in Norse mythology and legends. Download high resolution version (837x368, 68 KB)Gamla Uppsala From Swedish Wikipedia[1] (no copyright tag there, either) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (837x368, 68 KB)Gamla Uppsala From Swedish Wikipedia[1] (no copyright tag there, either) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Grave has multiple meanings: A grave (IPA: ) is a place for the dead, see tomb, burial, grave (burial) A grave accent (IPA: ) is a type of diacritical mark (as in French crème de la crème). ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow-in-Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... poopthing (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... This article is about the modern city of Uppsala. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Norse mythology, Viking mythology or Scandinavian mythology refer to the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ...

Contents


Geographical description

Gamla Uppsala lies on a cultivated plain in the valley of the River Fyris (the plain was formerly called Fyrisvellir) which is densely populated in its southern part, while the northern part consists of farms. FyrisÃ¥n is a river in the Swedish province of Uppland, which passes the city of Uppsala and ends in lake Mälaren. ... Hrolf Kraki fleeing the Swedish king Adils on the Fýrisvellir Fyrisvellir, Fyris Wolds or Fyrisvallarna was the marshy plain (vellir) south of Gamla Uppsala where travellers had to leave the ships and walk to the Temple at Uppsala and the hall of the Swedish king. ...


History

Early written sources relate that in prehistoric times Gamla Uppsala was famous all over Northern Europe and the seat of the Swedish kings of the legendary House of Ynglings. During the Middle Ages, it was the largest village of Uppland and its eastern part formed the core of the network of royal estates, the Uppsala öd. Northern Europe (marked in purple) Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... The Ynglings (Heimskringla), Scylfings (Beowulf) or Sons of Frey (Gesta Danorum and Ynglingatal) were the oldest known Scandinavian dynasty. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Uppland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden, which can refer to: Uplandia, or Uppland - a historical Province of Sweden Uppsala County, or Uppsala län - a current County of Sweden Part of Stockholm County, or Stockholms län - a current County of Sweden Part of Västmanland County or Västmanlands... Uppsala öd, Old Norse: Uppsala auðr or Uppsala øðr (Uppsala domains or wealth of Uppsala) referred to the network of royal estates that were the property of the Swedish crown. ...


Adam of Bremen relates of the Uppsala of the 1070s and describes it as a pagan cult centre with the enormous Temple at Uppsala with wooden statues of Odin, Thor and Freyr. Gamla Uppsala also had a large Ting, the Ting of all Swedes and a large fair, the Disting (a fair which is still held every year). Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a Temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ... Odin is considered to be the supreme god of late Germanic and Norse mythology. ... Thor carries his hammer and wears his belt of strength in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Freyr is a very important god in Old Norse religion; not so much in Norse mythology as one might suppose, for there he actually appears in only one surviving story, but very much in the cult. ... Ting is a carbonated beverage popular in the Caribbean and difficult to find most other places. ...


Other sources relate of a pagan renaissance in the late 11th century under king Blot-Sweyn. It is a testimony of Gamla Uppsala's great importance in Swedish tradition, that when Sweden received its Archbishopric in 1164, it was located in Gamla Uppsala. In practice, it had, however, lost its strategic importance due to the constant elevation of the land. (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Blot-Sven (king 1084-1087) ousted his brother-in-law Inge from Svealand, when he had refused to administer the sacrifices at the Temple at Uppsala, in ca 1080. ... // Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ...


In 2000, Sveriges Asatrosamfund [1] restarted the tradition of holding blóts at Gamla Uppsala. This was the first public blót at the place for more than 900 years. About 90-100 people attended the event. The event made frontpage news in the local newspaper Uppsala Nya Tidning as well as a full page in Expressen. This article is about the year 2000. ... The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ... Upsala Nya Tidning or UNT is a regional daily newspaper published in the Swedish university town of Uppsala (older spelling Upsala). ... Expressen is a Swedish right leaning newspaper founded in 1944. ...


Archaeology

People have been buried in Gamla Uppsala for 2000 years, since the area rose above water. originally there were between 2000 and 3000 mounds in the area but most have become farmland, gardens and quarries. Today only 250 barrows remain.


In the parish there are more than 1 000 preserved archaeological remains, but many more have been removed by agriculture. There are cairns of splintered stone that reveal that the area was settled during the Nordic Bronze Age, but most of the grave fields are from the Iron Age and the Viking Age. Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1700 BC -500 BC, with sites that reached as far east as Estonia [1] // General characteristics Petroglyphs from Scandinavia... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Viking Age is the name of the period between 793 A.D and 1066 A.D in Scandinavia. ...


The great grave field south of the Royal Mounds is from the Roman Iron Age and the Germanic Iron Age. Near the vicarage, a few unburnt graves from the Viking Age have been excavated. Roman Bronze figurine, Öland, Sweden The Roman Iron Age (1-400) is the name that Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius gave to a part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, Northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... The Germanic Iron Age is the name given to the period 400 AD–800 AD in Northern Europe, and it is part of the continental Age of Migrations. ... The Viking Age is the name of the period between 793 A.D and 1066 A.D in Scandinavia. ...


Adjacent to the church there is a plateau of clay, the Plateau of the Royal Estate (Kungsgårdsplatån), on which archaeologists have found the remains of a large hall. Hall has several meanings. ...


Under the Church have been found the remains of one or several large wooden buildings, which are probably the remains of the Temple at Uppsala. Churches were usually built on previous pagan temples. The Temple at Uppsala was a Temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ...


The Royal Mounds

The Royal mounds (Swedish Kungshögarna) is the name for the three large barrows which are located in Gamla Uppsala. They are dated to the 5th and 6th centuries. As Sweden's oldest national symbols they are even depicted on the covers of books about the Swedish national identity. Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow_in_Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ...


In the 6th century, Gamla Uppsala was the location of royal burials. The location was chosen carefully and in order to make them majestic, they were constructed on top of the ridge. They were built as symbols the divine origins and powers of the Swedish kings of the House of Yngling. Hundreds of people worked for thousands of days in order to realize such mounds. Only a powerful dynasty, such as the Ynglings could muster such a workforce. (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... The Ynglings (Heimskringla), Scylfings (Beowulf) or Sons of Frey (Gesta Danorum and Ynglingatal) were the oldest known Scandinavian dynasty. ...


By burning the dead king and his armour, he was moved to Valhalla by the consuming force of the fire. The fire could reach temperatures of 1500 °C. The remains were covered with cobblestones and then a layer of gravel and sand and finally a thin layer of turf. In this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript Heimdallr is shown guarding the gate of Valhalla. ...

Thus he (Odin) established by law that all dead men should be burned, and their belongings laid with them upon the pile, and the ashes be cast into the sea or buried in the earth. Thus, said he, every one will come to Valhalla with the riches he had with him upon the pile; and he would also enjoy whatever he himself had buried in the earth. For men of consequence a mound should be raised to their memory, and for all other warriors who had been distinguished for manhood a standing stone; which custom remained long after Odin's time. [...] It was their faith that the higher the smoke arose in the air, the higher he would be raised whose pile it was; and the richer he would be, the more property that was consumed with him. (Ynglinga saga)

Odin is considered to be the supreme god of late Germanic and Norse mythology. ... The Ynglinga saga or Ynglingesaga, was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225 CE. He based it on an earlier Ynglingatal which is attributed to the Norwegian 10th century skald Tjodolf of Hvin, and which also appears in Historia Norwegiae. ...

An old controversy and its solution

In the 1830s, some scholars claimed that the mounds were pure natural formations and not barrows. This affront to ancient Swedish national symbols could not be accepted by the future Swedish king Karl XV and in order to remove any doubt, he decided to start an excavation. 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... King Charles XV of Sweden, Charles IV of Norway, Carl Ludvig Eugén (May 3, 1826 - August 19, 1872), was the eldest son of King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway, and Josephine of Leuchtenberg. ...


The task was given to Bror Emil Hildebrand, the director-general of the National Archives. In 1846, he undertook the excavation of the nine metres tall Eastern mound with the hope of finding the grave of a Swedish king of old. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The Eastern Mound (or Aun's mound)

The excavation was complex and made a lot of publicity. A 25 metres long tunnel was dug into the cairn, where they found a pot of clay filled with burnt bones and around it there were the remains of the charred grave offerings. Ane, On, One, Auchun or Aun the Old (Audhun, the same name as the A-S name Edwin) was the son of Jorund and one of the Swedish kings of the House of Yngling, the ancestors of Norways first king, Harald Fairhair. ...


Among the most important finds in the Eastern mound were many fragments of a decorated bronze panels with a dancing warrior carrying a spear. These panels have probably adorned a helmet of the Vendel Age type, common in Uppland (the only foreign example being the one in Sutton Hoo). There were also finds of gold which probably had adorned a scramasax, but according to another interpretation, they were part of a belt. The dead was also given several glass beakers, a tafl, a comb and a hone. The Vendel Age (550-793) was the name of a Swedish part of the Germanic Iron Age (or, more generally, the Age of Migrations). ... Uppland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden, which can refer to: Uplandia, or Uppland - a historical Province of Sweden Uppsala County, or Uppsala län - a current County of Sweden Part of Stockholm County, or Stockholms län - a current County of Sweden Part of Västmanland County or Västmanlands... Sutton Hoo parade helmet (British Museum, restored). ... King or Chief of Franks armed with the Scramasax, from a Miniature of the Ninth Century, drawn by H. de Vielcastel. ... Tafl games are a family of ancient Germanic board games played on a checkered board with two teams of uneven strength. ... A modern plastic comb with a handle A comb is a device made of solid material, generally flat, always toothed, used for staightening and cleaning hair or other fibers. ...


Most scholars agree that the mound was either raised for a woman or for a young man and a woman, but as Hildrebrand reburied most of the remains, a new excavation would have to be undertaken before the controversy can be settled. What is quite certain is that the dead belonged to a royal dynasty.


The Western Mound (or Adils' Mound)

In 1874, Hildebrand started an excavation of the Western mound and opened an enormous shaft right into the cairn in the centre of the mound. Under the cobble stones, there were the charred remains of the funeral fire. Adils pursuing Hrolf Kraki on the Fýrisvellir Eadgils (Beowulf), Adils the Great, or Athisl (Saxo Grammaticus) (all forms are based an older Aðgils, the Anglo-Saxon form is not etymologically identical but it was the only corresponding name used by the Anglo-Saxons) was a Swedish king of... 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


In the western mound were found the remains of a man and animals, probably for food during the journey. The remains of a typically male warrior equipment were found. Luxurious weapons and other objects, both domestic and imported, show that the buried man was very powerful. These remains include a Frankish sword adorned with gold and garnets and a board game with Roman pawns of ivory. He was dressed in a costly suit made of Frankish cloth with golden threads, and he wore a belt with a sumptuous buckle. There were four cameos from the Middle East which were probably part of a casket. The finds show the distant contacts of the House of Yngling in the 6th century. Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Ivory is a hard, white, opaque substance that is the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals such as the elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, mammoth, etc. ... 2002 Lincoln cent, Obverse, proof with cameo Cameo is a method of carving; or an item of jewelry made in this manner. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Ynglings (Heimskringla), Scylfings (Beowulf) or Sons of Frey (Gesta Danorum and Ynglingatal) were the oldest known Scandinavian dynasty. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ...


Etymology

The name Uppsala meant "high dwellings" and referred to the halls of the Swedish kings.


The Church

The church was the Archbishopric of Sweden prior to 1273, when the archbishopric was moved to Östra Aros (Östra Aros was then renamed Uppsala due to a papal request). The old cathedral was probably built in the 11th century, but finished in the 12th century. The stone building may have been preceded by a wooden church and probably by the large Temple at Uppsala. After a fire in 1240, a part of the cathedral was removed but the sacristy and the porch were added. In the 15th century, vaults were added as well as chalk paintings. Among the medieval wooden sculptures, there are three triumph crucifixes from the 12th century, the 13th century and the 15th century. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... Events St. ... This article is about the modern city of Uppsala. ... (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a Temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


See also:

Hrolf Kraki fleeing the Swedish king Adils on the Fýrisvellir Fyrisvellir, Fyris Wolds or Fyrisvallarna was the marshy plain (vellir) south of Gamla Uppsala where travellers had to leave the ships and walk to the Temple at Uppsala and the hall of the Swedish king. ...

External links

  • Archeological information Gamla Uppsala, by the Swedish National Heritage Board.
  • Uppsala official site.

Source

  • Klingmark, Elisabeth: Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59, Riksantikvarieämbetet.
  • Nationalencyklopedin


The Nationalencyklopedin is the most comprehensive contemporary Swedish language encyclopedia, initiated by a government grant. ...

Norse mythology Variant of Image:Mjollnir. ... Norse mythology, Viking mythology or Scandinavian mythology refer to the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ...

List of Norse gods | Æsir | Vanir | Giants | Elves | Dwarves | Valkyries | Einherjar | Norns
Odin | Thor | Freyr | Freya | Loki | Baldr | Tyr | Yggdrasil | Ginnungagap | Ragnarök
Sources:
Poetic Edda | Prose Edda | The Sagas | Volsung Cycle | Tyrfing Cycle
Rune stones | Old Norse language | Orthography | Later influence
Society:
Viking Age | Skald | Kenning | Blót | Seid | Numbers
The nine worlds of Norse mythology | People, places and things

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Uppsala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (724 words)
Uppsala is the capital of Uppsala County (Uppsala län), and Sweden's ecclesiastical centre, being the seat of Sweden's archbishop since 1164.
Uppsala Cathedral is built in the Gothic style and is one of the largest in northern Europe, with towers reaching 118 metres.
Uppsala is one of the 134 towns with a historical City status in Sweden.
Gamla Uppsala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1432 words)
Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds.
Gamla Uppsala lies on a cultivated plain in the valley of the River Fyris (the plain was formerly called Fyrisvellir) which is densely populated in its southern part, while the northern part consists of farms.
Klingmark, Elisabeth: Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59, Riksantikvarieämbetet.
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