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Encyclopedia > Gamelan
Javanese gamelan ensamble with two female sinden (choral singer) during traditional Javanese wedding at Sasono Utomo, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta, Indonesia
Javanese gamelan ensamble with two female sinden (choral singer) during traditional Javanese wedding at Sasono Utomo, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta, Indonesia

A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. The term refers more to the set of instruments than the players of those instruments. A gamelan as a set of instruments is a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together — instruments from different gamelan are not interchangeable. Nitra, the mascot of TMII Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (TMII) or Beautiful Indonesia Miniature Park (literally translated) is a culture-based recreational area located in East Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


The word "gamelan" comes from the Javanese word "gamel", meaning to strike or hammer, and the suffix "an", which makes the root a collective noun.

Contents

History

Musicians performing musical ensemble, probably the ancient form of gamelan, bas-relief of Borobudur.
Musicians performing musical ensemble, probably the ancient form of gamelan, bas-relief of Borobudur.

The has an old and mysterious origin. Apparently it predates the Hindu-Buddhist culture that dominated Indonesia in its earliest records, and instead represents a native art form. The instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire.[1] In contrast to the heavy Indian influence in other art forms, the only obvious Indian influence in gamelan music is in the Javanese style of singing.[2] Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. ...


In Javanese mythology, the gamelan was created by Sang Hyang Guru in Saka era 167 (c. AD 230), the god who ruled as king of all Java from a palace on the Maendra mountains in Medangkamulan (now Mount Lawu). He needed a signal to summon the gods, and thus invented the gong. For more complex messages, he invented two other Gongs, thus forming the original gamelan set.[3] Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Events Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures. ... Mount Lawu, or Gunung Lawu, is a massive compound stratovolcano on Java island, Indonesia. ...


In the palaces of Java are the oldest known ensembles, the Munggang and Kodokngorek gamelans, apparently from the 12th century. These formed the basis of a "loud style." A different, "soft style" developed out of the kemanak tradition and is related to the traditions of singing Javanese poetry, in a manner which is often believed to be similar to performance of modern bedhaya dance. In the 17th century, these loud and soft styles mixed, and to a large extent the variety of modern gamelan styles of Bali, Java, and Sunda resulted from different ways of mixing these elements. Thus, despite the seeming diversity of styles, many of the same theoretical concepts, instruments, and techniques are shared between the styles.[4] Kemanak is a banana-shaped idiophone used in Javanese gamelan, made of bronze. ... Javanese poetry (poetry in the Javanese or especially the Kawi language; Low Javanese: tembang; High Javanese: sekar) is traditionally recited in song form. ... The bedhaya (also written as bedoyo, beḍaya, and various other transliterations) is a sacred ritualized dance of Java, Indonesia, associated with the royal palaces of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. ...


Varieties of gamelan ensembles

See also: List of gamelan varieties
The all-bamboo Gamelan jegog from Bali
The all-bamboo Gamelan jegog from Bali

There are a wide variety of gamelan ensembles, distinguished by their collection of instruments and use of voice, tunings, repertoire, style, and cultural context. In general, no two gamelan ensembles are the same, and those that arose in prestigious courts are often considered to have their own style. Certain styles may also be shared by nearby ensembles, leading to a regional style. This is a list of gamelan varieties. ... Map showing the location of the Sundanese in Java The Sundanese are an ethnic group in the western part of the island of Java in Indonesia, numbering approximately 31 million. ... Gamelan Degung is a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1049x676, 244 KB)A performance of Gamelan jegog performed in Peliatan, Bali circa 1989. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1049x676, 244 KB)A performance of Gamelan jegog performed in Peliatan, Bali circa 1989. ... Jegog is a form of gamelan music indigenous to Bali, Indonesia played on instruments made of Bamboo. ...


The varieties are generally grouped geographically, with the principal division between the styles favored by the Balinese, Javanese, and Sundanese peoples. Sundanese gamelan often associated with Gamelan Degung, a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. Balinese gamelan is often associated with the virtuosity and rapid changes of tempo and dynamics of Gamelan gong kebyar, its best-known style. Other popular Balinese styles include Gamelan angklung and kecak, also known as the "monkey chant." Javanese gamelan was largely dominated by the courts of the 19th century central Javanese rulers, each with its own style, but overall is known for a slower, more meditative style than that of Bali. The Balinese population of 3. ... Javanese redirects here. ... Map showing the location of the Sundanese in Java The Sundanese are an ethnic group in the western part of the island of Java in Indonesia, numbering approximately 31 million. ... Gamelan Degung is a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. ... --84. ... Angklung is a style of gamelan found primarily in Bali, Indonesia. ... A Kecak dance being performed at Uluwatu, in Bali Kecak (pronounced: KEH-chahk, alternate spellings: Ketjak, Ketjack, and Ketiak), a form of Balinese music drama, originated in the 1930s and is performed primarily by men. ...


Outside of the main core on Java and Bali, gamelans have spread through migration and cultural interest, new styles sometimes result as well. Malay gamelans are designed in ways that are similar to the Javanese gamelan except that the tune is higher. The gamelans were traditionally played in Riau. Gamelan is also related to the Philippine kulintang ensemble. There is also a wide variety of gamelan in the West, including both traditional and experimental ensembles. See gamelan outside Indonesia for more information on these styles. Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... Kulintang is a term for various musical instruments and musical genres which are indigenous to the South-East Asian islands presently known as Indonesia and the Philippines. ... There is an increasing amount of gamelan outside Indonesia. ...


Cultural context

In Indonesia, gamelan usually accompanies dance, wayang puppet performances, or rituals or ceremonies. Typically players in the gamelan will be familiar with dance moves and poetry, while dancers are able to play in the ensemble. In wayang, the dalang (puppeteer) must have a thorough knowledge of gamelan, as he gives the cues for the music. Gamelan can be performed by itself - in "klenengan" style, or for radio broadcasts - but concerts in the Western style are not traditional.[5] Wayang is an Indonesian/Malay word for theater. ... A dalang manipulating puppets - The Indonesian Embassy in Australia The dalang (Javanese: dhalang) is the puppeteer in wayang kulit performance of Indonesia. ...


Gamelan's role in rituals is so important that there is a Javanese saying that "It's not official until the gong is hung."[6] Some performances are associated with royalty, such as visits by the sultan of Yogyakarta. Certain gamelans are associated with specific rituals, such as the Gamelan Sekaten, which is used in celebration of Mawlid an-Nabi (Muhammad's birthday). In Bali, almost all religious rituals include gamelan performance. Gamelan is also used in the ceremonies of the Catholic church in Indonesia.[7] Certain pieces are designated for starting and ending performances or ceremonies. When a "leaving" piece (such as "Udan Mas") is begun, the audience will know that the event is nearly finished and will begin to leave. Certain pieces are also believed to possess magic powers, and can be used to ward off evil spirits.[6] Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono is the title of The Sultan that rules Yogyakarta Sultanate in Yogyakarta Special Region province of Indonesia. ... Sarons of the Gamelan Sekati in Yogyakarta The Gamelan Sekaten (or Sekati) is a ceremonial gamelan (musical ensemble) from central Java, Indonesia. ... Mawlid, Mawlid an-Nabi or Milad al-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam; also known as The Seal of the Prophets. Sunni Muslims celebrate this day on the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal in the Islamic calendar; whereas Twelver Shia... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Catholicism in Indonesia refers to Roman Catholicism in Indonesia, where it is one of the five approved religions. ... Udan Mas (sometimes written Hudan Mas, the name means Golden Rain) is a composition for gamelan which is popular in Central Java, especially Yogyakarta. ...


Gamelan is frequently played on the radio. For example, the Pura Pakualaman gamelan performs live on the radio every Minggu Pon (a day in the 35-day cycle of the Javanese calendar).[6] In major towns, the Radio Republik Indonesia employs professional musicians and actors, and broadcast programs of a wide variety of gamelan music and drama.[8] The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) is the state radio network of Indonesia. ...


In the court tradition of central Java, gamelan is often played in the pendopo, an open pavilion with a cavernous, double-pitched roof, no side walls, and a hard marble or tile floor. The instruments are placed on a platform to one side, which allows the sound to reverberate in the roof space and enhances the acoustics.[9] A pendopo is a fundamental element of Javanese architecture; a large pavilion-like structure built on columns. ...


In Bali, the Gamelan instruments are all kept together in the balai banjar, a community meeting hall which has a large open space with a roof over top of it with several open sides. The instruments are all kept here together because they believe that all of the instruments belong to the community as a whole and no one person has ownership over an instrument. Not only is this where the instruments are stored, but this is also the practice space for the sekaha (Gamelan orchestra). The open walls allow for the music to flow out into the community where the rest of the people can enjoy it.


The sekaha is led by a single instructor whose job it is in the community to lead this group and to come up with new songs. When they are working on a new song, the instructor will lead the group in practice and help the group form the new piece of music as they are practicing. When the instructor creates a new song, he leaves enough open for interpretation that the group can improvise and as a group they will be writing the music as they are practicing it.


The Balinese Gamelan groups are constantly changing their music by taking older pieces they know and mixing them together as well as trying new variations on their music. Their music is always constantly changing because they believe that music should grow and change; the only exception to this is with their most sacred songs which they will not change. A single new piece of music can take several months before it is completed.


Men and women usually perform in separate groups, with the exception of the pesindhen, the female singer who performs with male groups.[8] A sindhen (or, more properly, pesindhen; also called waranggono) is a female solo singer who sings with a gamelan. ...


In the West, gamelan is often performed in a concert context, but may also incorporate dance or wayang.


Tuning

Celempung - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.
Celempung - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.

The tuning and construction of a gamelan orchestra is a complex process. Javanese gamelans use two tuning systems: sléndro and pélog. There are other tuning systems such as degung (exclusive to Sunda, or West Java), and madenda (also known as diatonis, similar to a European natural minor scale). In central Javanese gamelan, sléndro is a system with five notes to the diapason (octave), fairly evenly spaced, while pélog has seven notes to the octave, with uneven intervals, usually played in five note subsets of the seven-tone collection. This results in sound quite different from music played in a western tuning system. Many gamelan orchestras will include instruments in each tuning, but each individual instrument will only be able to play notes in one. The precise tuning used differs from ensemble to ensemble, and give each ensemble its own particular flavour. The intervals between notes in a scale are very close to identical for different instruments within each gamelan, but the intervals vary from one gamelan to the next. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 262 KB) Traditional Indonesian stringed instrument - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Gamelan Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 262 KB) Traditional Indonesian stringed instrument - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Gamelan Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... In music, there are two common meanings for tuning: Tuning practice, the act of tuning an instrument or voice. ... Slendro (called salendro by the Sundanese) is a pentatonic (five tone) scale, one of the two most common scales used in Indonesian gamelan music. ... Pelog is one of the two essential scales of Gamelan music native to Bali and Java, in Indonesia. ... Gamelan Degung is a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ... The intervals of Pythagorean tuning are just intervals involving only powers of two and three. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ...


Colin McPhee remarked, "Deviations in what is considered the same scale are so large that one might with reason state that there are as many scales as there are gamelans."[10] However, this view is contested by some teachers of gamelan, and there have been efforts to combine multiple ensembles and tuning structures into one gamelan to ease transportation at festival time. One such ensemble is gamelan Manikasanti, which can play the repertoire of many different ensembles. Colin McPhee photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Colin McPhee (February 15, 1900 in Montreal or Toronto, Canada - January 7, 1964 in Los Angeles, CA) was a Canadian composer and musicologist. ...


Balinese gamelan instruments are commonly played in pairs which are tuned slightly apart to produce interference beats, ideally at a consistent speed for all pairs of notes in all registers. It is thought that this contributes to the very "busy" and "shimmering" sound of gamelan ensembles. In the religious ceremonies that contain gamelan, these interference beats are meant to give the listener a feeling of a god's presence or a stepping stone to a meditative state. For other uses, see Interference (disambiguation). ... In acoustics, a beat is an interference between two sounds of slightly different frequencies, perceived as periodic variations in volume whose rate is the difference between the two frequencies. ...


Notation

Traditionally gamelan music is not notated, and began as an oral tradition. However, in the 19th century the kratons of Yogyakarta and Surakarta developed distinct notations for transcribing the reportoire. These were not used to read the music, which was memorized, but to preserve pieces in the court records. The Yogyanese notation is a checkerboard notation, which uses six vertical lines to represent notes of higher pitch in the balungan (core melody), and horizontal lines which represent the series of beats, read downward with time. The fourth vertical line and every fourth horizontal line (completing a gatra) are darkened for legibility. Symbols on the left indicate the colotomic structure of gongs and so forth, while specific drum features are notated in symbols to the right. The Solonese notation reads horizontally, like Western notation, but does not use barlines. Instead, note values and rests are squiggled between the notes.[11] Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... The balungan (Javanese: skeleton, frame) is sometimes called the core melody of a gamelan composition. ... The Greater Attleboro Taunton Regional Transit Authority (GATRA) is a privately-owned bus company providing regional bus service to the Greater Taunton Area, Greater Attleboro Area, and beyond, in southeastern Massachusetts. ... Colotomy is a term coined by the ethnomusicologist Jaap Kunst to describe the rhythmic patterns of the gamelan. ...


Today this notation is relatively rare, and has been replaced by kepatihan notation, which is a cipher system. Kepatihan notation developed around 1900 at the kepatihan in Surakarta. The pitches are numbered (see the articles on the scales slendro and pélog for an explanation of how), and are read across with dots and lines indicating the register and time values. Like the palace notations, however, they record only the balungan part, and to a large extent what is heard relies on memorized patterns the performers call upon during performance. However, teachers have also devised certain notations, generally using kepatihan principles, for the cengkok (melodic patterns) of each elaborating instrument. In ethnomusicological studies, transcriptions are often made onto a Western staff, sometimes with unusual clefs.[12] Kepatihan is a type of cipher musical notation that was devised for notation of the Indonesian gamelan. ... Kepatihan is a type of cipher musical notation that was devised for notation of the Indonesian gamelan. ... Slendro (called salendro by the Sundanese) is a pentatonic (five tone) scale, one of the two most common scales used in Indonesian gamelan music. ... Pelog is one of the two essential scales of Gamelan music native to Bali and Java, in Indonesia. ... Cengkok (old orthography: chengkok) are patterns played by the elaborating instruments in the Javanese gamelan. ... The panerusan instruments or elaborating instruments are one of the divisions of instruments used in the gamelan. ... For other senses of this word, see clef (disambiguation). ...


Influence on Western music

The gamelan has been appreciated by several western composers of classical music, most famously Claude Debussy who heard a Javanese gamelan play at the Paris Exposition of 1889 (World's Fair). (The gamelan Debussy heard was in the slendro scale and was played by Central Javanese musicians.[13]) Despite his enthusiasm, direct citations of gamelan scales, melodies, rhythms, or ensemble textures have not been located in any of Debussy's own compositions. However, the equal-tempered whole tone scale appears in his music of this time and afterward,[14] and a Javanese gamelan-like heterophonic texture is emulated on occasion, particularly in "Pagodes", from Estampes (solo piano, 1903), in which the great gong's cyclic punctuation is symbolized by a prominent perfect fifth. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France from May 5, to October 31, 1889. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... The musical interval of a major second — also called a whole-tone — is the relationship between the first note (the root or tonic) and the second note in a major scale (and also a minor scale). ... Two gong rails; the two sets (on unconnected stands) are pélog and sléndro. ... Colotomy is a term coined by the ethnomusicologist Jaap Kunst to describe the rhythmic patterns of the gamelan. ...


Direct homages to gamelan music are to be found in works for western instruments by Béla Bartók, Francis Poulenc, Olivier Messiaen, Colin McPhee, Benjamin Britten, Pat Metheny, and Steve Reich. In more recent times, American composers such as Barbara Benary, Philip Glass, Lou Harrison, Dennis Murphy, Loren Nerell, Michael Tenzer, Evan Ziporyn, Daniel James Wolf and Jody Diamond as well as Australian composers such as Peter Sculthorpe, Andrew Schultz and Ross Edwards have written several works with parts for gamelan instruments or full gamelan ensembles. I Nyoman Windha is among contemporary Indonesian composers that have written compositions using western instruments along with Gamelan. Hungarian composer György Ligeti wrote a piano étude called Galamb Borong influenced by gamelan. American folk guitarist John Fahey included elements of gamelan in many of his late-60s sound collages, and again in his 1997 collaboration with Cul de Sac, The Epiphany of Glenn Jones. The experimental art-rock band King Crimson, while not using gamelan instruments, used interlocking rhythmic paired guitars that were influenced by gamelan.[15] Experimental pop groups The Residents, Mouse on Mars, His Name Is Alive, Xiu Xiu, Macha and the Sun City Girls have used gamelan percussion. The gamelan has also been used by British multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield at least three times, "Woodhenge" (1979), "The Wind Chimes (Part II)" (1987) and "Nightshade" (2005). Bartok redirects here. ... Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (IPA: ) (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer and a member of the French group Les Six. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... Colin McPhee photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Colin McPhee (February 15, 1900 in Montreal or Toronto, Canada - January 7, 1964 in Los Angeles, CA) was a Canadian composer and musicologist. ... Britten redirects here. ... Patrick Bruce Metheny (born August 12, 1954 in Lees Summit, Missouri) is an American jazz guitarist and composer. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Barbara Benary is an American composer and ethnomusicologist specializing in Indonesian and Indian music. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Lou Silver Harrison (May 14, 1917 - February 2, 2003) was an American composer. ... Dennis Murphy (born January 19, 1934) is a composer, musician, instrument maker and artist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Michael Tenzer (born 1957) is a composer, performer, educator and scholar. ... Evan Ziporyn Evan Ziporyn (b. ... Daniel James Wolf (born September 13, 1961 in Upland, California) is an American composer of serious music and a music scholar. ... Jody Diamond is an American composer, performer, writer, publisher, editor, and educator. ... Peter Horace Sculthorpe AO OBE (born April 29, 1943) is a noted British composer . ... ((d)) Andrew Schultz is a student at Niagara University. ... Ross Edwards (b. ... I Nyoman Windha is one of the leading musicians and contemporary composers of Balinese Gamelan Music. ... “Ligeti” redirects here. ... John Fahey (February 28, 1939 – February 22, 2001) was an American fingerstyle guitarist and composer who pioneered the steel-string guitar as a solo instrument. ... Cul de Sac are a rock music group formed in 1990 in Boston, Massachusetts and led by guitarist Glenn Jones. ... This article is about the musical group. ... For other uses, see Resident. ... Mouse on Mars is a duo from Germany (Jan St. ... His Name Is Alive is an experimental rock band/ project from Livonia, Michigan. ... This article concerns Xiu Xiu, the California-based rock band. ... The Sun City Girls were a United States experimental rock band formed in Phoenix, Arizona in 1982. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ...


Recently, many Americans were first introduced to the sounds of gamelan by the popular anime film Akira. Gamelan elements are used in this film to punctuate several exciting fight scenes, as well as to symbolize the emerging psychic powers of the tragic hero, Tetsuo. The gamelan in the film's score was performed by the members of the Japanese musical collective Geinoh Yamashirogumi. Gamelan and kecak are also used in the soundtrack to the video game Secret of Mana. The musical soundtrack for the Sci Fi Channel series Battlestar Galactica features extensive use of the gamelan, particularly in the 3rd season.[16] This article is about the 1988 animated film. ... Geinoh Yamashirogumi is a Japanese musical collective founded in 1974 by Shoji Yamashiro, consisting of hundreds of people from all walks of life: journalists, doctors, engineers, students, businessmen, etc. ... Secret of Mana, known in Japan as Seiken Densetsu 2 , lit. ... This article is about the reimagined universe of Battlestar Galactica in 2003; for more about the 2003 miniseries, see Battlestar Galactica (TV miniseries); for more about the subsequent television series, see Battlestar Galactica (2004 TV series); for other versions, see the main Battlestar Galactica page or Battlestar Galactica (disambiguation). ...


Arguably, links between electronic music and Gamelan can be drawn. Much electronic music is based around synthesised loops. Gamelan not only has cyclical patterns, but the sounds produced by certain gamelan instruments are not dissimilar to the sounds produced during FM Synthesis.


The most recent use of gamelan was in the prodigy's song 'hot ride'. this combined the rhythms of modern dance music with a melody produced by the gamelan, another example is EXEC_PAJA/.#Orica extracting, a song sung by Haruka Shimotsuki as part of Ar tonelico: Melody of Elemia soundtracks, the song starts with gamelan melody. Haruka Shimotsuki ) is a singer who worked for animes like Rozen Maiden and Ar tonelico: Melody of Elemia. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gamelan

Kulintang is a term for various musical instruments and musical genres which are indigenous to the South-East Asian islands presently known as Indonesia and the Philippines. ... Indonesia is culturally diverse, and every one of the 18,000 islands has its own cultural and artistic history and character[1]. This results hundreds of different forms of music, which often accompanies dance and theater. ... Publicity poster for original release (note misspelled word) Legong: Dance of the Virgins was one of the last feature films shot using the two-color Technicolor process. ... There is an increasing amount of gamelan outside Indonesia. ...

Further reading

Balinese gamelan

  • Copeland, Jonathan in consultation with Ni Wayan Murni (2008). Secrets of Bali, Fresh Light on the Morning of the World. Jakarta: Gateway Books International. 
  • Balinese Music (1991) by Michael Tenzer, ISBN 0-945971-30-3. Included is an excellent sampler CD of Balinese Music.
  • Gamelan Gong Kebyar: The Art of Twentieth-Century Balinese Music (2000) by Michael Tenzer, ISBN 0-226-79281-1 and ISBN 0-226-79283-8.
  • Music in Bali (1966) by Colin McPhee. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Music in Bali: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (2007) by Lisa Gold, Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 0-195-14149-0 (paper)

Michael Tenzer (born 1957) is a composer, performer, educator and scholar. ... Colin McPhee photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Colin McPhee (February 15, 1900 in Montreal or Toronto, Canada - January 7, 1964 in Los Angeles, CA) was a Canadian composer and musicologist. ...

Javanese gamelan

  • Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java (1995) by Sumarsam, ISBN 0-226-78010-4 (cloth) 0226780112 (paper)
  • Music in Central Java: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (2007) by Benjamin Brinner, Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 0-195-14737-5 (paper)
  • Music in Java: History Its Theory and Its Technique (1949) edited by Jaap Kunst, ISBN 90-247-1519-9. An appendix of this book includes some statistical data on intervals in scales used by gamelans.
  • A Gamelan Manual: A Player's Guide to the Central Javanese Gamelan (2005) by Richard Pickvance, Jaman Mas Books, London, ISBN 0-9550295-0-3

Sumarsam (born 1944) is a Javanese musician and scholar of the gamelan. ... Jaap Kunst (or Jakob) (b. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Bulletin for National Museum of Canada (Ottawa: April 1961), p. 2, cited in Donald A. Lentz. The Gamelan Music of Java and Bali: An Artistic Anomaly Complementary to Primary Tonal Theoretical Systems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965. Page 5.
  2. ^ Lentz, 5.
  3. ^ R.T. Warsodiningrat, Serat Weda Pradangga. Cited in Roth, A. R. Nenese Gamelan. University of Durham, Doctoral Thesis, 1986. Page 4.
  4. ^ Roth, 4-8
  5. ^ Broughton, Simon, et al., eds. World Music: The Rough Guide. London: The Rough Guides, 1994. ISBN 1858280176. Page 419-420
  6. ^ a b c Broughton, 420
  7. ^ Lindsay, 45
  8. ^ a b Broughton, 421.
  9. ^ Roth, 17
  10. ^ Colin McPhee, Music in Bali. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966.
  11. ^ Lindsay, Jennifer. Javanese Gamelan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979. Pp. 27-28. ISBN 0195804139
  12. ^ For example, in Sorrell, Neil. A Guide to the Gamelan. United Kingdom: Faber and Faber, 1990.
  13. ^ Neil Sorrell. A Guide to the Gamelan. London: Faber and Faber, 2000. Page 2-7 discusses the incident, about which much remains uncertain. In particular, it is unknown whether they played the Cirebonese instruments that the Paris Conservatoire received in 1887, which would be substantially different from their ordinary set, or if they brought their own set.
  14. ^ Ibid. Although the five notes of the slendro set are closest in pitch to a pentatonic scale, this scale would have been familiar from other folk sources, as it is a common scale worldwide. It is the equally tempered whole-tone scale that is more analogous of the exotic slendro scale.
  15. ^ http://www.progressiveears.com/frippbook/ch09.htm
  16. ^ SoundtrackNet 2/28/07 article

Cirebon (formerly Cheribon) is a city on north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Conservatoire de Paris, or Paris Conservatoire, has been central to the evolution of music in France and Western Europe. ... A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five pitches per octave as compared to the major scale which is made up of seven distinct notes. ...

External links

Listening

  • Gongcast - Webcast of gamelan recordings
  • Play a gamelan instrument online (saron, slentem, bonang, kempuls)
  • Another virtual gamelan. Allows to play, and "program" (sequencer like) gamelans. Text is in French.
  • The Virtual Javanese Gamelan play and compose Javanese music using this free download
  • A collection of recent recordings of Central Javanese gamelan with extensive musical excerpts
  • Balinese Gamelan of Munduk Village

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Gamelan (0 words)
Gamelan music is an integral part of all cultural activities in Java such as wayang kulit (leather puppets) performance, court dance, uyon-uyon (symphony orchestra performance), etc. There are two kinds of laras (tuning) in gamelan, namely slendro (comparable to minor key in Western music) and Pelog (major key).
The pengendang (drumer) is the conductor of the gamelan orchestra.
All the gamelan players are sitting cross-legged on a mat during a performance.
Home - The GameLAN Project (0 words)
The GameLAN project is articulated around tools which allow to play 2D or 3D video games in solo or multiplayer.
The 0.9.6 version of the GameLAN has been updated: please uninstall the previous one and then install the new one.
Release of a new version of the GameLAN: please, upgrade your GameLAN to this version by installing it upon the older one.
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