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Encyclopedia > Game controller

A game controller is an input device used to control a video game. A controller is typically connected to a video game console or a personal computer. A game controller can be a keyboard, mouse, gamepad, joystick, paddle, or any other device designed for gaming that can receive input. Special purpose devices, such as steering wheels for driving games and light guns for shooting games, may also exist for a platform. Some devices, such as keyboards and mice, are actually generic input devices and their use is not strictly limited to that of a game controller. Input and output devices together make up the hardware interface between a computer and the user or external world. ... “Computer and video games” redirects here. ... “Game console” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Keystroke be merged into this article or section. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Joystick elements: 1. ... A paddle is a game controller with a round wheel and one or more fire buttons, where the wheel is typically used to control movement of the player object along one axis of the video screen. ... A modern road cars steering wheel Steering wheels from different periods A steering wheel is a type of steering control used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


A game controller can be used to govern the movement or actions of an entity in a video or computer game. The type of element controlled depends upon the game, but a typical element controlled would be the player character's actions and movements. An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ... “Computer and video games” redirects here. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Types of game controller

Gamepad

Main article: Gamepad

A gamepad, also known as a joypad, is the most common kind of game controller, held with both hands where the thumbs are used to provide input and can have anywhere from a couple of buttons to a dozen or more, combined with multiple omnidirectional control sticks. Gamepads generally feature a set of action buttons handled with the right thumb and a direction controller handled with the left. These let the player control the game element movements in up to three dimensions, with many buttons to perform quick actions. Due to the ease of use and precision of gamepads, they have spread from traditional consoles where they originated to computers as a common input device. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the machine. ...


Most modern game controllers are a variation of a standard gamepad. Some common additions to the standard pad include shoulder buttons placed along the edges of the pad, centrally placed buttons labeled start, select, and mode, and an internal motor to provide force feedback. Haptic means pertaining to the technology of touch. ...


Gamepads are the primary means of input on nearly all modern video game consoles. Gamepads are also available for personal computers, but few computer games support gamepads, preferring the more conventional keyboards and mice. However, most console emulators support gamepads. The Nintendo GameCube is an example of a popular video game console. ... It has been suggested that Keystroke be merged into this article or section. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... A console emulator is a program that allows a computer to emulate a video game console. ...

A range of gamepads for SEGA video game consoles. Left to right, top-to-bottom: Master System controller (1985), Genesis/Mega Drive controllers (1988+), Digital Saturn controller (1994), Saturn 3D Pad (1996), and Dreamcast controller (1998).


Sega game controllers This work is copyrighted. ... Sega game controllers This work is copyrighted. ... This article is about the video game company. ... “Game console” redirects here. ... The Sega Master System ) or SMS for short (1986 - 2000), is an 8-bit cartridge-based video game console that was manufactured by Sega. ... The Sega Mega Drive was a 16-bit video game console released by Sega in Japan (1988), Europe (1990) and most of the rest of the world. ... It has been suggested that Arcade Racer Joystick be merged into this article or section. ... The Dreamcast , code-named Dural, Dricas and Katana during development) is Segas fifth and final video game console and the successor to the Sega Saturn. ...


Paddle

A paddle is a controller that features a round wheel and one or more fire buttons. The wheel is used to typically control movement of the player or an object along one axis of the video screen. Paddle controllers were the first analog controllers; they died out when "paddle and ball" type games fell out of favor. A variation on the Paddle, the Atari driving controller appeared on the Atari 2600. Designed specifically for the game Indy 500, It was almost identical in operation and design to the regular paddle controller. However, its wheel can be continuously rotated in either direction, and it was missing the extra paddle included on the previous model. Unlike a spinner, friction prevented the wheel from gaining momentum. A paddle is a game controller with a round wheel and one or more fire buttons, where the wheel is typically used to control movement of the player object along one axis of the video screen. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... This article is for the video game for the race please see Indianapolis 500. ...


Trackball

Main article: Trackball

A trackball is basically an upside-down mouse that is manipulated with the palm of one's hand. It has the advantage of not requiring a lot of desktop space, and that it is as fast as one can roll the ball on it. This is faster than one can move a mouse due to space not being an issue. Logitech TrackMan A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse with an exposed protruding ball. ...


Notable uses of a Trackball as a gaming controller would be games such as Centipede, Marble Madness,Golden Tee and Sonic Arcade. Centipede is a vertically-oriented shoot em up arcade game produced by Atari in 1980. ... Marble Madness is an arcade game by Atari Games released in 1984. ... Golden Tee (formerly Golden Tee Golf) is a golf arcade game series by Incredible Technologies. ... SegaSonic the Hedgehog, known by various names including Sonic Arcade, Sonic the Arcade and SEGASONIC Arcade was officially released into the Japanese arcades in June 1993. ...

Joystick

Main article: Joystick

This joystick is a computer peripheral that consists of a handheld stick that pivots about one end and transmits its angle in two or three dimensions to a computer. The joystick is often used for flight simulators. HOTAS controllers, which include extra hardware to simulate throttle and rudder controls are popular among fanatics of the genre. Joystick elements: 1. ... For an account of the words periphery and peripheral as they are used in biology, sociology, politics, computer hardware, and other fields, see the periphery disambiguation page. ... A flight simulator is a system that tries to replicate, or simulate, the experience of flying an airplane as closely and realistically as possible. ... HOTAS is an abbreviation for Hands on throttle-and-stick, an aircraft cockpit control layout. ...


Arcade style Joystick

This device can also be a home version of the kind used in the arcade, or for use on emulators. It features a shaft that has a sphere-like handle that is grasped, and one or more buttons for in game actions. Generally the layout has the joystick on the left, and the buttons on the right. There are instances when this is reversed, or the joystick is in the center with button on both sides.


Steering wheel

The steering wheel, essentially a larger version of a paddle, is used for racing simulators such as Live for Speed, Grand Prix Legends, GTR2, and Richard Burns Rally. Many are force feedback (see Force Feedback Wheel), designed to give the same feedback as you would driving a real car, but the realism of this depends on the game. They usually come with pedals to control the gas and brake. Shifting is taken care of with either paddles, a simple shifter which is moved forward or back to change gears, or a shifter which mimics that of real vehicles, which may use a clutch. Most wheels turn only 200 to 270 degrees lock-to-lock, but some models, such as the Logitech Driving Force Pro and Logitech G25, can turn 900 degrees, or 2.5 turns lock-to-lock. A modern road cars steering wheel Steering wheels from different periods A steering wheel is a type of steering control used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles. ... Sim (simulated) racing is the collective term for computer racing games which attempt to accurately simulate race driving, complete with real-world variables such as fuel usage, damage, tire wear and grip, and suspension settings. ... Live for Speed (LFS) is an online racing simulator developed by a three person team comprising Scawen Roberts, Eric Bailey, and Victor van Vlaardingen. ... Grand Prix Legends (nicknamed GPL) is a computer racing simulator developed by Papyrus Design Group and published in 1998 by Sierra Entertainment. ... GTR2 is a sports car racing simulator developed by SimBin for the x86 PC and is a sequel to GTR. GTR2 Forums / Online Racing Team [RPM / Roaring Pipes Maniacs GTR - FIA GT Racing Game - official site GTR 2 Review at GameBrite Motorsportgaming. ... Richard Burns Rally (commonly referred to as RBR) is a PC/PS2/Xbox/Gizmondo racing simulator, published by SCi and developed by Warthog with advice of World Rally Championship driver Richard Burns. ... Force feedback wheels attempt to recreate the force felt by drivers in real cars. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Driving Force Pro is a force feedback steering wheel made by Logitech for the Playstation 2. ... The Logitech G25 is an electronic steering wheel designed for racing video games on the PC. It uses a USB interface. ...


The Namco Jogcon paddle was available for the PlayStation game R4: Ridge Racer Type 4. Unlike "real" video game steering wheels, the Jogcon was designed to fit in the player's hand. Its much smaller wheel (diameter roughly similar to a soda can's) resembles the jog-and-shuttle control wheel used on some VCRs. Namco Ltd ) is a amusement company based in Japan, best known overseas for video games development. ... The JogCon is a controller developed and produced by Namco for the Sony PlayStation videogame console. ... A typical can of Diet Coke. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ...


Nintendo announced at E3 that they would be producing a Steering wheel, titled the WiiWheel. It will come bundled with Mario Kart wii edition (Tentative Title). The WiiWheel dosen't have a stand so users will have to place back to centre by themselves.


Keyboard, mouse and mousepad

The WASD keyboard setup is used widely
The WASD keyboard setup is used widely

The keyboard and mouse are typical input devices for a personal computer and are currently the main game controllers for computer games. The keyboard and mouse with the aid of the mousepad achieve greater speed, comfort and accuracy for the gamer. Some video game consoles also have the ability to function with a keyboard and a mouse. The computer keyboard is modeled after the typewriter keyboard and was designed for the input of written text. A mouse is a handheld pointing device used in addition to the keyboard. For games, the keyboard typically controls movement of the character while the mouse is used to control the game camera or used for aiming. It has been suggested that Keystroke be merged into this article or section. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... WASD keyboard setup File links The following pages link to this file: Game controller WASD ... WASD keyboard setup File links The following pages link to this file: Game controller WASD ... WASD positioning Made popular by Quake, WASD (or WSAD) is a set of four keys on the left-hand side of a QWERTY computer keyboard often used to control the players movement in first-person/third-person (FPS/TPS) computer games. ... Input and output devices together make up the hardware interface between a computer and the user or external world. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... A typical mousepad with an optical mouse A mousepad, or mouse mat, is a surface for enhancing the movement of a computer mouse. ... an index typewriter with a circular keyboard The 1874 Sholes & Glidden typewriters established the QWERTY layout for the letter keys that is used nowadays in Anglophone countries for virtually all computer keyboards and the majority of other keyboards. ... An Apple pro mouse A pointing device is any computer hardware component (specifically human interface device) that allows a user to input spatial (ie, continuous and multi-dimensional) data to a computer. ...


The numeric keypad found on the keyboard is also used as a game controller and can be found on a number of separate devices, most notably early consoles, usually attached to a joystick or a paddle. The keypad is a small grid of keys with at least the digits 0-9. Keyboard construction, in four layers, of a typical notebook computer keyboard There are many types of keyboard, usually differentiated by the switch technology employed in their operation. ...


Light gun

Main article: Light gun

A light gun is a peripheral used to "shoot" targets on a screen. They usually roughly resemble firearms or ray guns. Their use is normally limited to rail shooter or shooting gallery games like those that came with the "Shooting Gallery" light gun. The first home console light gun was released on the Magnavox Odyssey; later on, Nintendo would include one standard on their Famicom and NES. Nintendo will also release a "shell" in the style of a light gun for the Wii Remote. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shooting is the act of causing a gun to fire at a target. ... “NES” redirects here. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (任天堂 or ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 usually referred to as simply Nintendo, or Big N ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards. ... The Wii Remote, also nicknamed Wiimote, is the primary controller for Nintendos Wii console. ...


Touch screen

Nintendo DS Touch screen (bottom)
Nintendo DS Touch screen (bottom)
Main article: Touch screen

A touch screen is an input device that allows the user to interact with the computer by touching the display screen. It was first used on a dedicated console with the Tiger game.com. Nintendo popularized it for use in video games with the Nintendo DS; other systems including the Tapwave Zodiac as well as the vast majority of PDAs have also included this feature. Image File history File links Nintendo_DS_Open. ... Image File history File links Nintendo_DS_Open. ... Nintendo DS Touch screen A touch screen is an input/output device that allows the user to interact with the computer by touching the display screen. ... Tiger Electronics is an American toy manufacturer, best known for their handheld LCD games, the Furby, and Giga Pets. ... The Game. ... The Nintendo DS Lite ) (sometimes abbreviated DSLite, or simply Lite, sold as the iQue DS Lite in China) is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. ... The Tapwave Zodiac 2 The Tapwave Zodiac is a Palm OS 5-based PDA created by the US company Tapwave, and the first Palm-based device developed with gaming and multimedia as primary considerations. ... Look up Personal digital assistant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Modern touch screens use a thin, durable, transparent plastic sheet overlayed onto the glass screen. The location of a touch is calculated from the capacitance for the X and Y axes, which varies based upon where the sheet is touched. Capacitance is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. ... A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ...


RTS, and Programmable PC Controllers

There are a few specialized controllers that are specifically used for RTS games and some arcade type games. These controllers can be programmed to allow the emulation of keys, and macros in some cases. They were developed because some of these games require a keyboard to play, and some players find this to be awkward for such a task. See also: A real-time strategy (RTS) video game is one that is distinctly not turn-based. ...

First-generation Microsoft SideWinder gamepad Microsoft SideWinder is the general name given to the family of digital game controllers developed by Microsoft for PCs. ...

Others

  • Train controls: At a smaller scale, other hardware such as train controls (available after Microsoft Train Simulator was released), pinball controllers and multi-button consoles for strategy games were released in the past, but their popularity was limited to hardcore fans of the genre.
  • Dance pads, essentially a grid of flat pressure sensitive gamepad buttons set on a mat meant to be stepped on, have seen niche success with the popularity of rhythm games like Dance Dance Revolution and Pump it Up. The dance pad was first introduced on the Atari 2600, called the "Exus Foot Craz" pad. Nintendo later purchased the technology from Bandai and used it on their "Power Pad", for the Famicom and NES.
  • Buzzers: A recent example of specialized, while very simple, game controllers, is the four large "buzzers" (round buttons) supplied with the PlayStation 2 quiz show game series Buzz! (2005, 2006); both game and controllers clearly being inspired by the television show genre.
  • Wii Remote: Nintendo's Wii system utilizes a new kind of controller, called the Wii Remote. It has motion sensors and can detect its exact location and orientation in 3D space.
  • NeGcon: is a unique controller for racing games on the PlayStation. Physically it resembles a gamepad, but its left and right halves twist relative to each other, making it a variation of the paddle controller.
  • Microphone: A few games have made successes in using a headset or microphone as a secondary controller, such as Hey You, Pikachu! and the SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs series. The use of these microphones allowed players to issue commands to the game, controlling teammates (as in SOCOM) and other AI characters (Pikachu).
  • Steel Batallion for the XBOX was bundled with a full dashboard, with 2 joysticks and over 30 buttons, in an attempt to make it feel like an actual mecha simulator.
  • Fishing rod: the first fishing rod controller appeared as an accessory for the Sega Dreamcast video console for playing SEGA Marine Fishing. Later other games for Playstation console use also a similar controllers.
  • Floating Interactive Display: since 2003[1] two companies, IO2Technology from the US and Fogscreen from Finland have developed Minority Report style interactive floating interfaces which display an image projected in mid-air but can be interacted with by finger similar to a touch screen. The IO2Technology version is called the Heliosdisplay.
  • PCGamerBike similar to a pair of pedals removed from an exercise bike, then set down in front of a chair & used to precisely control game characters instead.

Microsoft Train Simulator (known in the Train Simulator community also as simply MSTS 1) is a train simulator for Microsoft Windows, released in July 2001 and developed by UK based Kuju Entertainment. ... It has been suggested that Dance Pad Games be merged into this article or section. ... Dance Dance Revolution, a. ... This article is about the video game. ... A music video game, also commonly known as a music game or rhythm game, is a type of video game where the gameplay is oriented almost entirely around the players ability to follow a musical beat and stay with the rhythm of the games soundtrack. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 2005 video game. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maracas Maracas (sometimes called rhumba shakers) are simple percussion instruments (idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried calabash or gourd shell (cuia - kOO-ya) or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. ... Samba de Amigo is a video game developed by Sonic Team and released in 2000 by Sega in arcades as well as for the Sega Dreamcast video game console. ... Quiz Show is a 1994 film which tells the true story of the Twenty One quiz show scandal of the 1950s. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Wii Remote, also nicknamed Wiimote, is the primary controller for Nintendos Wii console. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... The Wii Remote, also nicknamed Wiimote, is the primary controller for Nintendos Wii console. ... The NeGcon controller for the Playstation was an unusual design in that the left and right halves of the controller were able to be twisted relative to each other. ... “Microphones” redirects here. ... Hey You, Pikachu! is a Nintendo 64 game released in 2000. ... SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs is a first-person shooter video game developed by Zipper Interactive and published by Sony Computer Entertainment as an exclusive title for the PlayStation 2. ... Steel Battalion (ja: 鉄騎, Tekki) is a video game created by Capcom for the Xbox console where the player controls a vertical tank — a bipedal, heavily-armed mecha. ... The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SEGA Marine Fishing is a simulation game in which the player attempts to catch various marine sport fish. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The Minority Report (The) Minority Report is a science fiction short story by Philip K. Dick first published in 1956. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... Emotiv is a technology company based in Australia and U.S. working on a brain-computer interface technology that can detect and process both human conscious thoughts and non-conscious emotions. ... “Computer and video games” redirects here. ... “Brainwave” redirects here. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ... The PCGamerBike is like a pair of pedals removed from an exercise bike & set underneath a computers desk instead. ...

Longevity of hardware

An Xbox 360 Wireless Controller
An Xbox 360 Wireless Controller

Given the number of mobile and soft rubber parts in controllers it can be expected that after extensive use, some of the buttons will become eventually less responsive due to the softening of the rubber parts that connect the hard exterior button to the integrated circuit. Evidence of this is clearly visible in the video game kiosks in stores. Even the plastic outer casings of joysticks and wheels might crack if used too violently. This becomes more of an issue with cheaper third-party controllers. Button mashing and joystick wobbling were responsible for countless broken controllers until the mid of the 16-bit era, when such games became progressively out of fashion. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Button mashing (a. ... (Redirected from 16-bit era) In the history of video games, the 16-bit era was the fourth generation of video game consoles. ...


Even better built joypads, able to endure mechanical wear for years, can be defeated by the development of games which require more buttons or functions, or changes in the interfaces used, rendering them obsolete. For example, the increasing number of axes and buttons demanded by computer flight simulator titles and the disuse of the PC gameport interface have left many working PC controllers unusable. The end of a game console generation generally brings obsolescence for both a console and its controllers.


Health concerns

Since the controller is the most common way of interacting with a game, it has to be ergonomically designed to feel comfortable to most of their potential userbase to avoid injuries such as the ones in the RSI group or CTS. Most controllers these days are designed with the relaxed position of the hands in mind, which gave origin to the "pronged" design that reduced the soreness and cramping after extended use with older pads such as the NES or the Sega Master System. Ergonomics (or human factors) is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use (definition adopted by the International Ergonomics Association in 2007). ... A repetitive strain injury (RSI), also called repetitive stress injury, cumulative trauma disorder or occupational overuse syndrome, is any of a loose group of conditions from overuse of the computer, guitar, knife or similar motion or tool. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


Also, Nintendo fingers was a term coined in the early 90s after video game players had their thumbs badly burnt and even developed blisters due to the hardness of the buttons. A more common, less dangerous phenomenon sometimes known as a Nintendo cramp means the strain felt on the thumbs and the palm below. This tends to occur mostly when using particularly small controllers. The latter may in fact occur on any finger or the hand if it is kept in a prepared "arched" position for a long time, and is much less dangerous than Nintendo Fingers. For the packaging type, see Blister pack. ...


Currently, there are controller gloves available for the Wii Remote, Xbox 360 controllers, and SIXAXIS controllers in stores to comfort players' hands.


See also

This is a comparison of video game controllers. ... It has been suggested that 3D motion controller be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  1. ^ Wired Report: Look Ma, No Projection Screen (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  2. ^ Video Game Mind Control. MSNBC (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Game controller

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