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Encyclopedia > Game
See also: List of types of games
For games playable on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Department of Fun.
Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment.
Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment.
Paul Cézanne - The Card Players, 1895
Paul Cézanne - The Card Players, 1895

A game is a structured or semi-structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes also used as an educational tool. Games are generally distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work or art. Game may refer to: // Recreation etc. ... // Ball games Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Winter Olympic Games World Games X Games Board games Card games Dice games Miniature games Paper and pencil games Role playing games Arcade games Computer games Console games Handheld games Mobile games Online games Educational games Childrens games Creative games Lawn games... Caption: First Lt. ... Caption: First Lt. ... Tug of war Tug of war, also known as rope pulling, is a sport that directly pits two teams against each other in a test of strength. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x625, 168 KB) Paul Cézanne, Les joueurs de carte (Die Kartenspieler), 1892-95 Oil on canvas - Courtauld Institute, London File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Game... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x625, 168 KB) Paul Cézanne, Les joueurs de carte (Die Kartenspieler), 1892-95 Oil on canvas - Courtauld Institute, London File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Game... Cezanne redirects here. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about an emotion. ... Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands, especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking, road building, or any other field where the work may be considered physically arduous, and which has as a profitable objective, usually the production of goods. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interactivity. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational or psychological role. Look up rule, ruling in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Skill is human (usually learned) ability to perform actions. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... This article is about the general term. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ...


Known to have been played as far back as the 30th century BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures[1]. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet and Mancala are some of the oldest known games. // Ceremonial temple butcher knife made of flint, with the Horus name of the pharaoh Djer inscribed on its gold handle. ... The Royal Game of Ur refers to two game boards found in Royal Tombs of Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley in the 1920s. ... Nefertari playing Senet. ... Mancala is a family of board games played around the world, sometimes called sowing games or count and capture games, which comes from the general gameplay. ...

Contents

Definitions

Look up game in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations,[2] Wittgenstein demonstrated that the elements of games, such as play, rules, and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are. He subsequently argued that the concept "game" could not be contained by any single definition, but that games must be looked at as a series of definitions that share a "family resemblance" to one another. Wittgenstein redirects here. ... Book cover of the Blackwell edition of Philosophical Investigations Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is, along with the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one of the two major works by 20th-century philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Play might be described as unrestrained, amusing interaction with people, animals, or things, often in the context of learning. ... For other uses, see Competition (disambiguation). ... Family resemblance (German Familienähnlichkeit [1]) is a philosophical conception proposed by Ludwig Wittgenstein. ...


Caillois

French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes (Games and Men) [3], defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics: Roger Caillois (March 3, 1913 - December 21, 1978), was a French intellectual whose idiosyncratic work brought together literary criticism, sociology, and philosophy by focusing on subjects as diverse as gems and the sacred. ...

  • fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character
  • separate: it is circumscribed in time and place
  • uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable
  • non-productive: participation is not productive
  • governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life
  • fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality

Chris Crawford

Computer game designer Chris Crawford attempted to define the term game[4] using a series of dichotomies: Chris Crawford is a noted computer game designer and writer, responsible for a number of important games in the 1980s, for founding The Journal of Computer Game Design and for organizing the Computer Game Developers Conference. ... A dichotomy is a division into two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive parts. ...

  1. Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, and entertainment if made for money. (This is the least rigid of his definitions. Crawford acknowledges that he often chooses a creative path over conventional business wisdom, which is why he rarely produces sequels to his games.)
  2. A piece of entertainment is a plaything if it is interactive. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment.
  3. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. (Crawford notes that by his definition, (a) a toy can become a game element if the player makes up rules, and (b) The Sims and SimCity are toys, not games.) If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge.
  4. If a challenge has no “active agent against whom you compete,” it is a puzzle; if there is one, it is a conflict. (Crawford admits that this is a subjective test. Some games with noticeably algorithmic artificial intelligence can be played as puzzles; these include the patterns used to evade ghosts in Pac-Man.)
  5. Finally, if the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. (Competitions include racing and figure skating.) However, if attacks are allowed, then the conflict qualifies as a game.

Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity, active agents to play against, which any player (including active agents) could interfere one another. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sequel (disambiguation). ... There are several conceptual views of interactivity, the most general being the contingency view. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... A teddy bear A toy is an object used in play. ... This article is about a computer game that was released in year 2000. ... This article is about the first installment in the series of computer and video games. ... A puzzle undone, which forms a cube Puzzle cube; a type of puzzle For other uses, see Puzzle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation). ... Flowcharts are often used to graphically represent algorithms. ... AI redirects here. ... Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution by Midway Games in 1979. ... This article is about the speed competition. ... Figure skating is an ice skating sporting event where individuals, mixed couples, or groups perform spins, jumps, and other moves on the ice, often to music. ...


Crawford also notes (ibid.) several other definitions:

  • “A form of play with goals and structure.” (Kevin Maroney)
  • “A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal.” (Greg Costikyan)
  • “An activity with some rules engaged in for an outcome.” (Eric Zimmerman)

Greg Costikyan, also known as Designer X, is an American game designer and science fiction writer. ... Eric Zimmerman is a game designer and the co-founder and CEO of gameLab, a computer game development company. ...

Gameplay elements and classification

Games can be characterized by "what the player does."[4] This is often referred to as gameplay, a term that arose among computer game designers in the 1980s but as of 2007 is starting to see use in reference to games of other forms.[citation needed] Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules which define the overall context of game and which in turn produce skill, strategy, and chance.[clarify] Gameplay includes all player experiences during the interaction with game systems, especially formal games. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... A game designer is a person who designs games. ... The 1980s is the decade, spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tools

Games are often classified by the components required to play them (e.g. miniatures, a ball, cards, a board and pieces or a computer). In places where the use of leather is well established, the ball has been a popular game piece throughout recorded history, resulting in a worldwide popularity of ball games such as rugby, basketball, football, cricket, tennis and volleyball. Other tools are more idiosyncratic to a certain region. Many countries in Europe, for instance, have unique standard decks of playing cards. Other games such as chess may be traced primarily through the development and evolution of its game pieces. Miniatures games are a form of wargame in which a battle is played out using small figures to represent the units involved. ... Alternate uses: See Ball (disambiguation) A ball is a round object that is used most often in sports and games. ... For the game on The Price Is Right, see Card Game (pricing game). ... A shelf of board games. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... For the Russian group of artists, see Jack of Diamonds (artists). ... This article is about the Western board game. ...


Many game tools are tokens, meant to represent other things. A token may be a pawn on a board, play money, or an intangible item such as a point scored.


Games such as hide-and-seek or tag do not utilise any obvious tool. Rather its interactivity is defined by the environment. Games with the same or similar rules may have different gameplay if the environment is altered. For example, hide-and-seek in a school building differs from the same game in a park; an auto race can be radically different depending on the track or street course, even with the same cars. Hide and seek is a childrens game. ... Tag (also known as tip, it, touch, tig, tiggy, tick, chasing, chasemaster, chasey, cops and robbers) is an informal playground game that usually involves one or more players attempting to tag other players by touching them with an object, usually their hands. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Auto racing (also known as automobile racing or autosport) is a sport involving racing automobiles. ... A race track (or racetrack), is a purpose-built facility for the conducting of races. ... Street racing is a form of unsanctioned and illegal auto racing which takes place on public roads. ...


Rules

Whereas games are often characterized by their tools, they are often defined by their rules. While rules are subject to variations and changes, enough change in the rules usually results in a "new" game. For instance, baseball can be played with "real" baseballs or with wiffleballs. However, if the players decide to play with only three bases, they are arguably playing a different game. This article is about the sport. ... Wiffle ball and bat Wiffleball is a variation of the sport of baseball designed for indoor or outdoor play in confined areas. ...


Rules generally determine turn order, the rights and responsibilities of the players, and each player’s goals. Player rights may include when they may spend resources or move tokens. Common win conditions are being first to amass a certain quota of points or tokens (as in Settlers of Catan), having the greatest number of tokens at the end of the game (as in Monopoly), or some relationship of one’s game tokens to those of one’s opponent (as in chess's checkmate). Settlers of Catan is a multiplayer board game designed by Klaus Teuber. ... This article is about the board game. ...


Skill, strategy, and chance

A game’s tools and rules will result in its requiring skill, strategy, chance or a combination thereof, and are classified accordingly. A skill is an ability, usually learned and acquired through training, to perform actions which achieve a desired outcome. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... Look up chance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Games of skill include games of physical skill, such as wrestling, tug of war, hopscotch, target shooting, and stake and games of mental skill such as checkers and chess. Games of strategy include checkers, chess, go, arimaa, and tic-tac-toe, and often require special equipment to play them. Games of chance include gambling games (blackjack, mah jong, roulette etc.), as well as snakes and ladders and rock, paper, scissors; most require equipment such as cards or dice. However, most games contain two or all three of these elements. For example, American football and baseball involve both physical skill and strategy while tiddlywinks, poker and Monopoly combine strategy and chance. A game of skill is a game where the outcome is determined mainly by mental or physical skill, rather than by pure chance. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... Tug of war Tug of war, also known as rope pulling, is a sport that directly pits two teams against each other in a test of strength. ... Cuban girls playing hopscotch For other uses, see Hopscotch (disambiguation). ... The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of accuracy and speed when shooting various types of guns, including airguns. ... starting position on a 10×10 draughts board Draughts, also known as checkers, is a group of mental sport board games between two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over the enemys pieces. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... A game of strategy is a game where the outcome is influenced through interaction with the environment and other players. ... Go is a strategic board game for two players. ... Arimaa is a two-player abstract strategy board game that can be played using the same equipment as chess. ... Tic-tac-toe, also called noughts and crosses and many other names, is a paper and pencil game between two players, O and X, who alternate in marking the spaces in a 3×3 board. ... A game of chance is a game whose outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device, and upon which contestants frequently wager money. ... This article is about the gambling game. ... This article discusses the four-player game of Chinese origin. ... Roulette is a casino and gambling game named after the French word meaning small wheel. In the game a croupier spins a wheel in one direction, then spins a ball in the opposite direction around a tilted circular surface running around the circumference of the wheel. ... For other uses, see Snakes and ladders (disambiguation). ... Rock, Paper, Scissors chart Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-07-13, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Two standard six-sided pipped dice with rounded corners. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... This article is about the sport. ... // Tiddlywinks is a game played with sets of small, thin discs (called winks) lying on a surface, usually a felt mat. ... For the domestic fireplace tool, see fireplace poker. ... This article is about the board game. ...


Single-player games

Most games require multiple players. However, Single-player games are unique in respect to the type of challenges a player faces. Unlike a game with multiple players competing with or against each other to reach the game's goal, a one-player game is a battle solely against an element of the environment (an artificial opponent), against one's own skills, against time or against chance. Playing with a yo-yo or playing tennis against a wall is not generally recognised as playing a game due to the lack of any formidable opposition. This is not true, though, for a single-player computer game where the computer provides opposition. In computer games and video games, single-player refers to the variant of a particular game where input from only one player is expected throughout the course of the gaming session. ... The yo-yo is a toy consisting of two equally-sized discs of plastic, wood, or metal, connected with an axle, around which a string is wound. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ...


Sport

Association football is a popular sport worldwide.
Association football is a popular sport worldwide.
Main article: Sport

Many sports require special equipment and dedicated playing fields, leading to the involvement of a community much larger than the group of players. A city or town may set aside such resources for the organisation of sports leagues. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 182 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 182 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Soccer redirects here. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ...


Popular sports may have spectators who are entertained just by watching games. A community will often align itself with a local sports team that supposedly represents it (even if the team or most of its players only recently moved in); they often align themselves against their opponents or have traditional rivalries. The concept of fandom began with sports fans. A spectator sport is a sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its matches. ... Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ...


Stanley Fish cited[citation needed] the balls and strikes of baseball as a clear example of social construction, the operation of rules on the game's tools. While the strike zone target is governed by the rules of the game, it epitomizes the category of things that exist only because people have agreed to treat them as real. No pitch is a ball or a strike until it has been labeled as such by an appropriate authority, the plate umpire, whose judgment on this matter cannot be challenged within the current game. Stanley Fish (born 1938) is a prominent American literary theorist and legal scholar. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as... Strike zone boundaries (MLB) Definition In baseball, the strike zone is a conceptual rectangular area over home plate which defines the boundaries through which a pitch must pass in order to count as a strike when the batter does not swing. ... Strike zone boundaries (MLB) Definition In baseball, the strike zone is a conceptual rectangular area over home plate which defines the boundaries through which a pitch must pass in order to count as a strike when the batter does not swing. ... Home plate umpire Gary Darling signals that the last pitch was a strike In baseball, the umpire is the person charged with officiating the game, including beginning and ending the game, enforcing the rules of the game and the grounds, making judgment calls on plays, and meting out discipline. ...


Certain competitive sports, such as racing and gymnastics, are not games by definitions such as Crawford's (see above, despite the inclusion of many in the Olympic Games) because competitors do not interact with their opponents, they simply challenge each other in indirective ways. This article is about the speed competition. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, gracefulness, and kinesthetic awareness, and includes such skills as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Lawn games

Main article: Lawn game

Lawn games are outdoor games that can be played on a lawn. Many games that are traditionally played on a pitch are marketed as "lawn games" for home use in a front or back yard. Common lawn games include Horseshoes, Sholf, Croquet, Bocce and Stake. Lawn game is a generic term for outdoor games that can be played on a lawn. ... Lawn game is a generic term for outdoor games that can be played on a lawn. ... A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes clover and other plants, which are maintained at a low, even height. ... A pitch is an open outdoor area for various activities. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... For the 1923 film starring Oliver Hardy, see Horseshoes (film). ... For the Smalltalk based 3D software platform, see Croquet project. ... Bocce players scoring Bocce is a precision sport closely related to bowls and pétanque with a common ancestry from ancient games played in the Roman Empire. ...


Board games

Parcheesi is an American adaptation of a board game originating in India.
Parcheesi is an American adaptation of a board game originating in India.
Main article: Board game

Board games use as a central tool a board on which the players' status, resources, and progress are tracked using physical tokens. Many also involve dice and/or cards. Most games that simulate war are board games, and the board may be a map on which the players' tokens move. Some games, such as chess and go, are entirely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for their interest. Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very luck-based, with games such as Candy Land having virtually no decisions to be made. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on the questions a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less of a luck factor than many board games. Image File history File links PetitsChevaux1. ... Image File history File links PetitsChevaux1. ... Parcheesi is an American adaptation of the Indian Cross and Circle game Pachisi. ... A shelf of board games. ... Two standard six-sided pipped dice with rounded corners. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Go is a strategic, two-player board game originating in ancient China between 2000 BC and 200 BC. Go is a popular game in East Asia. ... Candy Land is a simple racing board game. ... Puerto Rico, a popular German-style board game German-style board games are a broad class of games that feature simple rules, modest length, and attractive components. ...


Card games

Main article: Card game

Card games use as a central tool a deck of cards. The cards may be a standard Anglo-American (52-card) deck of playing cards (such as Go Fish or Crazy Eights), a regional deck using 32, 36 or 40 cards and different suit signs, a tarot deck, or a deck specific to the individual game (such as Set). Uno and Rook are examples of games that were originally played with a standard deck and have since been commercialized with customized decks. Some collectible card games such as Magic: The Gathering are played with a small selection of cards which have been collected or purchased individually from large available sets. For the game on The Price Is Right, see Card Game (pricing game). ... For the Russian group of artists, see Jack of Diamonds (artists). ... Some typical modern playing cards. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Crazy Eights is a card game for two or more players. ... Austrian-style 54-card Tarock hand: the Fool; six trumps; King, Queen, 1 of hearts. ... Three cards from a Set deck. ... Uno may mean: One in Spanish, Italian, and other Roman languages UNO, a card game played with a special deck of cards Uno Chicago Grill Unniloctium (Uno), former name of the chemical element Hassium (Hs) Fiat Uno, automobile Proyecto Uno, Dominican merengue/hip hop/reggaeton group Uno is a song... Rook is a trick-taking game played with a deck of Rook playing cards. ... Collectible card games (CCGs), also called trading card games (TCGs), are played using specially designed sets of cards. ... Magic: The Gathering (colloq. ...


Video games

Main article: Video game

Video games are computer- or microprocessor-controlled games. Computers can create virtual tools to be used in a game, such as cards or dice, or far more elaborate worlds where mundane or fantastic things can be manipulated through gameplay. Computer and video games redirects here. ... This article is about the machine. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ...


A computer or video game uses one or more input devices, typically a button/joystick combination (on arcade games); a keyboard, mouse and/or trackball (computer games); or a controller or a motion sensitive tool. (console games). More esoteric devices such as paddle controllers have also been used for input. In computer games, the evolution of user interfaces from simple keyboard to mouse, joystick or joypad has profoundly changed the nature of game development.[citation needed] An input device is a hardware mechanism that transforms information in the external world for consumption by a computer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Button (computing). ... For other uses, see Joystick (disambiguation). ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... Logitech TrackMan A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse with an exposed protruding ball. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... A game controller is an input device used to control a video game. ... Game console redirects here. ... A paddle is a game controller with a round wheel and one or more fire buttons, where the wheel is typically used to control movement of the player object along one axis of the video screen. ...


In more open-ended computer simulations, aka sandbox-style games, the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of the virtual universe. Sometimes, there is a lack of goals or opposition, which has stirred some debate on whether these should be considered "games" or "toys". (Crawford specifically mentions Will Wright’s SimCity as an example of a toy.[4]) For other persons of the same name, see Will Wright. ... This article is about the first installment in the series of computer and video games. ...


Online games

Main article: Online game

From the very earliest days of networked and timeshared computers, online games have been part of the culture. Early commercial systems such as Plato were at least as widely famous for their games as for their strictly educational value. In 1958, Tennis for Two dominated Visitor's Day and drew attention to the oscilloscope at the Brookhaven National Laboratory; during the 1980s, Xerox PARC was known mainly for Maze War, which was offered as a hands-on demo to visitors. Online games refer to games that are played over some form of computer network. ... Online games refer to games that are played over some form of computer network. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Tennis for Two was a game developed in 1958 on an oscilloscope which simulated a game of tennis or ping pong. ... Illustration showing the interior of a cathode-ray tube for use in an oscilloscope. ... ≠ Aerial view of Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... PARC current logo. ... Maze War (also known as The Maze Game, Maze Wars or simply Maze) was the first networked, 3D multi-user first-person shooter game. ...


Modern online games are played using an Internet connection; some have dedicated client programs, while others require only a Web browser. Some simpler browser games appeal to demographic groups (notably women and the middle-aged) that otherwise play very few video games.[citation needed] Some games can be played in browser. The computer game is the most established of all sectors of the emergent new media landscape. The media is transformed from the traditional way of circulating in just one way to an interactive way. This is the phenomenon that is broadening around the world of videogame. It is an obvious example of the ways in which online and offline space can be seen as ‘merged’ rather than separate[5]. In computing, a client is a system that accesses a (remote) service on another computer by some kind of network. ... Browser games are electronic games that are played online via the Internet. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Middle age consists of the ages around, or older than, the middle of the average lifespan of human beings. ...


Media audiences’ characteristic has been changing in consequence of the social changes and development. They are becoming active and interact more than ever before. The players of the game in this phenomenon are just like the social formation in our society. They are both self-regulating, creating their own social norms and subject to regulation and constraint through the code of the game and sometimes through the policing of the game by those who run it. The values that are policed vary from game to game. Many of the values encoded into game cultures reflect offline cultural values, but games also offer a chance to emphasis alternative or subjugated values in the name of fantasy and play. The players of the game at the new century are now apparently expressing their profound self through the game. When they can play with their anonymous status, they are found to be more confident to express and to step out from the position they have never been out from. It offers new experiences and pleasures based in the interactive and immersive possibilities of computer technologies.[citation needed]


Role-playing games

Main article: Role-playing game

Role-playing games, often abbreviated as RPGs, are a type of game in which the participants (usually) assume the roles of characters acting in a fictional setting. The original role playing games -- or at least those explicitly marketed as such -- are played with a handful of participants, usually face-to-face, and keep track of the developing fiction with pen and paper. Together, the players may collaborate on a story involving those characters; create, develop, and "explore" the setting; or vicariously experience an adventure outside the bounds of everyday life. Pen-and-paper role-playing games include, for example, Dungeons & Dragons and GURPS. Modern independent RPGs, however, often blur the line between the more traditional idea of the RPG and other traditional genres, or border on story-telling. This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... This article is about the role-playing game. ... The Generic Universal RolePlaying System, commonly known as GURPS, is a role-playing game system designed to adapt to any imaginary gaming environment. ... An indie role-playing game is a role-playing game published outside of traditional, mainstream means. ...


The term role-playing game has also been appropriated by the video game industry to describe a genre of video games. These may be single-player games where one player experiences a programmed environment and story, or they may allow players to interact through the internet. The experience is usually quite different than traditional role-playing games. Single-player games include Final Fantasy, Fable: The Lost Chapters, and The Elder Scrolls. Online multi-player games, often referred to as Massively Multiplayer Online role playing games, or MMORPGs, include RuneScape, EverQuest 2, Guild Wars, MapleStory and Anarchy Online. Currently, the most successful MMO has been World of Warcraft, which controls the vast majority of the market. It has been suggested that Computer role-playing game be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Final Fantasy franchise. ... The Elder Scrolls (also known as Elder Scrolls or abbreviated as TES) is a computer role-playing game series, with Morrowind and Oblivion also being developed for consoles. ... MMO redirects here. ... RuneScape is a Java-based MMORPG operated by Jagex Ltd. ... EverQuest II, the sequel to EverQuest, is a fantasy massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Sony Online Entertainment (SOE) and shipped on November 8, 2004. ... This article is for the Guild Wars series. ... This article is about the original game for Windows. ... Anarchy Online (AO) [1] is a science fiction MMORPG released in June 2001 by Funcom set on the world of Rubi-Ka and its extra-dimensional twin, the Shadowlands. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment and is the fourth game in the Warcraft series, excluding expansion packs and the cancelled Warcraft Adventures: Lord of the Clans. ...


See also

Sports and games Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Main list: List of basic game topics

Image File history File links Portal. ... Basic topics in game include: // Main article: Game For a more comprehensive list, see Game classification Alternate reality games Ball games Board games Business games Car games Card games Collectible card games Casino games Childrens games Clapping games Computer and video games Computer board games Computer puzzle games Online... This article is about the machine. ... A game club is an organization devoted to bringing game players together. ... Game semantics (German: dialogische Logik) is an approach to the semantics of logic that grounds the concepts of truth or validity on game-theoretic concepts, such as the existence of a winning strategy for a player. ... For other uses, see Game theory (disambiguation) and Game (disambiguation). ... This article is about gamers - people who play games. ... Lawn game is a generic term for outdoor games that can be played on a lawn. ... Ludibrium is a word derived from Latin ludus(ludi), meaning a plaything or a trivial game. ... Video game studies (Lat. ... Play might be described as unrestrained, amusing interaction with people, animals, or things, often in the context of learning. ... A puzzle undone, which forms a cube Puzzle cube; a type of puzzle For other uses, see Puzzle (disambiguation). ... A teddy bear A toy is an object used in play. ...

External links

  • Wikia has a wiki on this subject: Games

Wikia (no official pronunciation[2]; originally Wikicities) is a selective wiki hosting service (or wiki farm) operated by Wikia, Inc. ...

Notes and references

  • Avedon, Elliot; Sutton-Smith, Brian, The Study of Games. (Philadelphia: Wiley, 1971), reprinted Krieger, 1979. ISBN 0-89874-045-2
  • http://www.videobusiness.com/article.asp?articleID=10858&catID=0
  • http://www.historicgames.com/gamestimeline.html - (N.T.)
  1. ^ http://www.historicgames.com/gamestimeline.html History Of Games
  2. ^ Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1953/2002). Philosophical Investigations. ISBN 0-631-23127-7. 
  3. ^ Caillois, Roger (1957). Les jeux et les hommes. Gallimard. 
  4. ^ a b c Crawford, Chris (2003). Chris Crawford on Game Design. New Riders. ISBN 0-88134-117-7. 
  5. ^ Flew, Terry and Humpphreys, Sal (2005) “Games: Technology, Industry, Culture” in Terry Flew, New Media: an Introduction (second edition), Oxford University Press, South Melbourne 101-144
Brian Sutton-Smith is a play theorist who has spent his lifetime attempting to discover the cultural significance of play in human life, arguing that any useful definition of play must apply to both adults and children. ... Wittgenstein redirects here. ... Roger Caillois (March 3, 1913 - December 21, 1978), was a French intellectual whose idiosyncratic work brought together literary criticism, sociology, and philosophy by focusing on subjects as diverse as gems and the sacred. ... Chris Crawford is a noted computer game designer and writer, responsible for a number of important games in the 1980s, for founding The Journal of Computer Game Design and for organizing the Computer Game Developers Conference. ... The Art of Computer Game Design (ISBN 0881341177) by Chris Crawford is attributed by Wolf & Perron in The Video Game Theory Reader as being the first book devoted to the theory of video games. ...

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