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Encyclopedia > Gallstone
Gallstone
Classification & external resources
gallstones
ICD-10 K80.
ICD-9 574
OMIM 600803
DiseasesDB 2533
MedlinePlus 000273
eMedicine emerg/97 

In medicine, gallstones (choleliths) are crystalline bodies formed within the body by accretion or concretion of normal or abnormal bile components. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2436 KB) Beschreibung Gallensteine biliary gallstones bilestone Autor: Stell98 Category Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gallstone Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // K00-K93 - Diseases of the digestive system (K00-K14) Diseases of oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws (K00) Disorders of tooth development and eruption (K01) Embedded and impacted teeth (K02) Dental caries (K03) Other diseases of hard tissues of teeth (K04) Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues (K040) Pulpitis (K05... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ...


Gallstones can occur anywhere within the biliary tree, including the gallbladder and the common bile duct. Obstruction of the common bile duct is choledocholithiasis; obstruction of the biliary tree can cause jaundice; obstruction of the outlet of the pancreatic exocrine system can cause pancreatitis. Cholelithiasis is the presence of stones in the gallbladder — chole- means "gall bladder", lithia meaning "stone", and -sis means "process". A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... X-Ray of the bile duct during a laprascopic cholecystectomy A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... Choledocholithiasis is the presence of a gallstone in the common bile duct. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjunctiva (a clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in red blooded animals. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ... This balancing rock, Steamboat Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs, CO The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ...


The characteristics of a gallstone is various. Independent of appearance, however, they are valueable on the market.

Contents

Characteristics

Size

Gallstones' size varies and may be as small as a sand grain or as large as a golf ball. The gallbladder may develop a single, often large, stone or many smaller ones, even several thousand.


Content

Gallstones have different appearance, depending of their contents.


Cholesterol stones

Cholesterol stones are usually green, but are sometimes white or yellow in color and account for about 80 percent of gallstones. They are made primarily of cholesterol. Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ...


Pigment stones

Pigment stones are small, dark stones made of bilirubin and calcium salts that are found in bile. They account for the other 20 percent of gallstones. Risk factors for pigment stones include cirrhosis, biliary tract infections, and hereditary blood cell disorders, such as sickle cell anemia. Stones of mixed origin also occur. Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Cirrhosis of the liver is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... Sickle-shaped red blood cells Sickle cell anemia (American English), sickle cell anaemia (British English) or sickle cell disease is a genetic disease in which red blood cells may change shape under certain circumstances. ...


Causes

Progress has been made in understanding the process of gallstone formation. Researchers believe that gallstones may be caused by a combination of factors, including inherited body chemistry, body weight, gallbladder motility (movement), and perhaps diet. Additionally, people with Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP) are at increased risk to develop gallstones [1]. Weight, in the context of human body weight measurements in the medical sciences and in sports is a measurement of mass, and is thus expressed in units of mass, such as kilograms (kg), or units of force such as pounds (lb). ...


Cholesterol gallstones develop when bile contains too much cholesterol and not enough bile salts. Besides a high concentration of cholesterol, two other factors seem to be important in causing gallstones. The first is how often and how well the gallbladder contracts; incomplete and infrequent emptying of the gallbladder may cause the bile to become overconcentrated and contribute to gallstone formation. The second factor is the presence of proteins in the liver and bile that either promote or inhibit cholesterol crystallization into gallstones.


In addition, increased levels of the hormone oestrogen as a result of pregnancy, hormone therapy, or the use of birth control pills, may increase cholesterol levels in bile and also decrease gallbladder movement, resulting in gallstone formation. Estrogens (or oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ... A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryos or fetuses by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies. ... In medicine, hormone therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment and covers various types of hormones including growth hormones and sex hormones. ... Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ...


No clear relationship has been proven between diet and gallstone formation. However, low-fiber, high-cholesterol diets, and diets high in starchy foods have been suggested as contributing to gallstone formation. Other nutritional factors that may increase risk of gallstones include rapid weight loss, constipation, eating fewer meals per day, eating less fish, and low intakes of the nutrients folate, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin C. (J Am Coll Nutr 1997 Feb;16(1):88-95). On the other hand, wine, fish, and whole grain bread may decrease the risk of gallstones. (Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1996 June;8(6):585-93.)


Symptoms

A main symptom of gallstones is commonly referred to as a gallstone "attack", in which a person will experience intense pain in the upper abdominal region that steadily increases for approximately thirty minutes to several hours. A victim may also encounter pain in the back, ordinarily between the shoulder blades, or pain under the right shoulder. In some cases, the pain develops in the lower region of the stomach, nearer to the pelvis, but this is less common.[citation needed] Nausea and vomiting may occur.


These attacks are intensely painful, similar to that of a kidneystone attack. One way to alleviate the abdominal pain is to drink a full glass of water at the start of an attack to regulate the bile in the gallbladder, but this does not work in all cases.[citation needed] Another way is to take magnesium followed by a bitter liquid such as coffee or swedish bitters an hour later.[citation needed] Bitter flavors stimulate bile flow, and studies have found lower rates of gallstones in coffee drinkers.[2] Kidney stones, also known as nephrolithiases, urolithiases or renal calculi, are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys or ureters. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... A cup of coffee Workers sorting and pulping coffee beans in Guatemala Mature coffee fruit still on the plant Coffee is a widely consumed beverage prepared from the roasted seeds — commonly referred to as beans — of the coffee plant. ... Swedish bitters is a herbal tonic, invented or discovered by 18th Century Swedish medic Dr. Claus Samst. ...


Often, these attacks occur after a particularly fatty meal and almost always happen at night. Other symptoms include abdominal bloating, intolerance of fatty foods, belching, gas, and indigestion. If the above symptoms coincide with chills, lowgrade fever, yellowing of the skin or eyes, and/or clay-colored stool, a doctor should be consulted immediately.[3] In medicine, low-grade fever is a continuous or fluctuating low fever, typically defined as never exceeding 38. ...


Some people who have gallstones are asymptomatic and do not feel any pain or discomfort. These gallstones are called "silent stones" and do not affect the gallbladder or other internal organs. They do not need treatment.[3] The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ...


Medical options

Cholesterol gallstones can sometimes be dissolved by oral ursodeoxycholic acid. This drug is very expensive, however, and the gallstones may recour once the drug is stopped. Obstruction of the common bile duct with gallstones can sometimes be relieved by endoscopic retrograde sphinceterotomy (ERS) following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A common misconception is that the use of ultrasound (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy) can be used to break up gallstones. Although this treatment is highly effective against kidney stones, it can only rarely be used to break up the softer and less brittle gallstones. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is endoscopy of the biliary tree and the pancreatic duct. ... Ultrasound is a form of cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, this limit being approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). ... A lithotriptor is a medical device used in the non-invasive treatment of kidney stones (urinary calculosis) and biliary calculi (stones in the gallbladder or in the liver). ...


A regimen called a "gallbladder flush" or "liver flush" is a popular remedy in alternative medicine. In this treatment, often self-administered, the patient drinks four glasses of apple cider and eats five apples per day for five days, then fasts briefly, takes magnesium, and then drinks large quantities of lemon or grapefruit juice mixed with olive oil or other oil before bed; the next morning, they painlessly pass a number of green and brown pebbles purported to be stones flushed from the biliary system. A New Zealand hospital analyzed stones from a typical gallbladder flush and found them to be composed of fatty acids similar to those in olive oil, with no detectable cholesterol or bile salts [4]. The hospital letter to patients concluded The gallbladder flush may not be entirely worthless, however; there is one case report in which treatment with olive oil and lemon juice resulted in the passage of numerous gallstones, as demonstrated by ultrasound examination (Br J Surg 1992;79:168).


Surgical options

Cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) has a 99% chance of eliminating the recurrence of cholelithiasis. Only symptomatic patients must be indicated to surgery. The lack of a gall bladder does not seem to have any negative consequences in many people. However, there is a significant proportion of the population, between 5-40%, who develop a condition called postcholecystectomy syndrome [1]. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress and persistent pain in the upper right abdomen. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy as seen through laparoscope X-Ray during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Cholecystectomy (, plural: cholecystectomies,) is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. ... The term Postcholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) describes the presence of abdominal symptoms after surgery to remove the gallbladder (Cholecystectomy). ...


There are two surgery options: open procedure and laparoscopic: see the cholecystectomy article for more details. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy as seen through laparoscope X-Ray during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Cholecystectomy (, plural: cholecystectomies,) is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. ...

  • Open cholecystectomy procedure: This involves a large incision into the abdomen (laparotomy) below the right lower ribs. A week of hospitalization, normal diet a week after release and normal activity a month after release.
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: 3-4 small puncture holes for camera and instruments (available since the 1980s). Typically same-day release or one night hospital stay, followed by a week of home rest and pain medication. Can resume normal diet and light activity a week after release. (Decreased energy level and minor residual pain for a month or two.) Studies have shown that this procedure is as effective as the more invasive open cholecystectomy, provided the stones are accurately located by cholangiogram prior to the procedure so that they can all be removed. The procedure also has the benefit of reducing operative complications such as bowel perforation and vascular injury.

A laparotomy is a surgical maneuver involving an incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity. ... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Value

Gallstones are, oddly, a valuable by-product of meat processing, fetching up to US$900 per ounce in their use as a purported aphrodisiac in the herbal medicine of some cultures. The finest gallstones tend to be sourced from old dairy cows. Much as in the manner of diamond mines, slaughterhouses carefully scrutinise offal department workers for gallstone theft.[5]


References

  1. ^ Erythropoietic Protoporphyria http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec12/ch160/ch160d.html
  2. ^ A Prospective Study of Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Symptomatic Gallstone Disease in Men - Journal of the American Medical Association
  3. ^ a b NIH document on Gallstones, Symptoms
  4. ^ The gallstone cure that wasn't. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  5. ^ Interview with Tasmanian meatpacker transcript

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biliary Tract Disorders, Gallbladder Disorders And Gallstone Pancreatitis - Patients - American College of ... (2139 words)
Gallstones are collections of cholesterol, bile pigment or a combination of the two, which can form in the gallbladder or within the bile ducts of the liver.
A gallstone in the common bile duct is called choledocholithiasis and may cause intermittent or constant discomfort.
Gallstone pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that results from blockage of the pancreas duct by a gallstone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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