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Encyclopedia > Gallon

The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. Volume is how much space a thing has. ...

There are three definitions in current use:

• U.S. liquid gallon is 231 in³ (exactly) or 128 U.S. fl oz (exactly) or 3.785 411 784 litres (exactly) or about 0.1336805556 cubic feet (576 gallons = 77 cubic feet, 1 cubic foot = 7.480512/0.999999 gallons). This is the most common definition of a gallon.
• U.S. dry gallon is one-eighth of a "Winchester bushel" of 2150.42 cu in, thus 268.8025 in³ (exactly) or 4.404 883 770 86 L (exactly)
• Imperial (UK) gallon is 160 imperial fl oz (exactly), or 4.546 09 L (legally and exactly). That is approximately 1.201 US (liquid) gallons. This definition is occasionally used in United Kingdom, and is based on the volume of 10 pounds of water at 62 °F. (A U.S. liquid gallon weighs about 8.33 pounds at the same temperature.)

The word has also been used as translation for several foreign units of the same magnitude.[citation needed] U.S. customary units, commonly known in the United States as English units or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the U.S., in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Unitsâ€”the modern metric system). ... A cubic inch is the volume of a cube which is one inch long on each edge. ... A fluid ounce is a unit of volume in both the Imperial system of units and the U.S. customary units system. ... The litre or liter (U.S. spelling, see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... The cubic foot (symbols ft³, cu. ... U.S. customary units, commonly known in the United States as English units or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the U.S., in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Unitsâ€”the modern metric system). ... The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the Commonwealth countries. ... A fluid ounce is a unit of volume in both the Imperial system of units and the U.S. customary units system. ... The pound is the name of a number of units of mass, all in the range of 300 to 600 grams. ... Water is a chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686â€“1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...

The U.S. dry gallon is less commonly used.

The liquid gallons in current use are subdivided into eight pints. A gallon can also be subdivided into four quarts. The pint is a unit of volume or capacity. ... A quart is a unit of measurement for volume. ...

## History

At one time, the volume of a gallon depended on what was being measured, and where it was being measured. But, by the end of the 18th century, three definitions were in common use: (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...

• The corn gallon, or “Winchester gallon”, of about 268.8 in³ (~4.405 L),
• the wine gallon, or “Queen Anne’s gallon”, which was 231 in³ (~3.79 L), and
• the ale gallon of 282 in³ (~4.62 L).

The corn or dry gallon was used in the United States until recently for grain and other dry commodities. It is one eighth of the (Winchester) bushel, originally a cylindrical measure of 18½ inches in diameter and 8 inches depth. That made the dry gallon 9¼²·π in³ ≈ 268.80252 in³. The bushel, which like dry quart and pint still sees some use, was later defined to be 2150.42 in³ exactly, making its gallon 268.8025 in³ exactly (4.404 883 770 86 L). In previous centuries there had been a corn gallon of around 271 to 272 cubic inches. A bushel is a unit of volume, used (with somewhat different definitions) in the systems of Imperial units and U.S. customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, â€³ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the number. ... A quart is a unit of measurement for volume. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists volumes between at 10-3 m3 and 10-2 mÂ³ (1 litre and 10 litres). ...

The wine, fluid or liquid gallon is the standard U.S. gallon since the early 19th century. The wine gallon, which some sources relate to the volume occupied by eight medieval merchant pounds of wine, was at one time defined as the volume of a cylinder six inches deep and seven inches in diameter, i.e. 6·3½²·π = 230.90706 in³. It had been redefined during the reign of Queen Anne, in 1706, as 231 in³ exactly (3 in × 7 in × 11 in), which is the result of the earlier definition with π approximated to 227. Although the wine gallon had been used for centuries for import duty purposes there was no legal standard of it in the Exchequer and a smaller gallon (224 in³) was actually in use, so this statute became necessary. It remains the U.S. definition today. English unit is an American term that refers to a unit in one of a number of systems of units of measurement, some obsolete, and some still in use. ... Anne (6 February 1665 â€“ 1 August 1714) became Queen of England and Ireland and Queen of Scots on 8 March 1702. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... Lower-case pi The mathematical constant Ï€ is a real number which may be defined as the ratio of a circles circumference (Greek Ï€ÎµÏÎ¹Ï†Î­ÏÎµÎ¹Î±, periphery) to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, and which is in common use in mathematics, physics, and engineering. ... The Exchequer was responsible for the collection and management of the royal revenues of the monarchs of England and the monarchs of Scotland for the English government. ...

The original ratio between corn and wine gallon is 9¼²:6·3½² = 1369:1176, but 268.8:231 is exactly 64:55 or ca. 13:11. This approximation is still applicable, although the ratio of 1.164 115 646 slightly changed to 1.163 647 186 with current definitions (268.8025:231 = 107521:92400 ~= 1344:1165). ^^ In some contexts it is or was necessary to disambiguate between those two U.S. gallons, so “liquid” or “fluid” and “dry” respectively are then added to the name.

In 1824, Britain adopted a close approximation to the ale gallon known as the Imperial gallon and abolished all other gallons in favor of it. Inspired by the kilogram–litre relationship, the Imperial gallon was based on the volume of 10 lb. of distilled water weighed in air with brass weights with the barometer standing at 30 inches of mercury and at a temperature of 62 °F. In 1963, this definition was refined as the space occupied by 10 lb of distilled water of density 0.998 859 g/mL weighed in air of density 0.001 217 g/mL against weights of density 8.136 g/mL. This works out at approximately 4.546 090 3 L (277.441 6 in³). The metric definition of exactly 4.546 09 dm³ (also 4.546 09 L after the litre was redefined in 1964, ca. 277.419 433 in³) was adopted shortly afterward in Canada; for several years, the conventional value of 4.546 092 L was used in the UK, until the Canadian convention was adopted in 1985. 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... The pound is the name of a number of units of mass, all in the range of 300 to 600 grams. ... Pressure is the application of force to a surface, and the concentration of that force in a given area. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686â€“1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...

Before and into the 19th century there were also several other gallons in use. Examples:

224 in³
standard wine gallon preserved at the Guildhall
231 in³
statute of 5th of Queen Anne
264.8 in³
ancient Rumford quart (1228)
265.5 in³
Exchequer (Henry VII., 1091, with rim)
266.25 in³
ancient Rumford (1228)
268.75 in³
Winchester, statute 13 + 14 by William III.
271 in³ − 2 spoonfuls
Exchequer (Henry VII., 1601, E.E.)
271 in³
Exchequer (1601, E.), corn
272 in³
corn (1688)
277.18 in³
coal, statute 12 of Anne
278 in³
Exchequer (Henry VII., with copper rim)
278.4 in³
Exchequer (1601 and 1602 pints)
280 in³
Exchequer (1601 quart)
282 in³
Treasury (gallon for beer and ale)

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