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Encyclopedia > Gall
Kalanchoë infected with crown-gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
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Kalanchoë infected with crown-gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
A detail photo of a crown-gall on a Kalanchoë infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
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A detail photo of a crown-gall on a Kalanchoë infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

Galls are proliferations of cell tissue in plants and can be caused by various parasites, from fungi and bacteria, to insects and mites. Galls are often very organised structures and because of this, the cause of the gall can often be determined without the actual agent being identified. This applies particularly to some insect and mite galls. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 626 KB)Kalanchoë infected with crown-gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 626 KB)Kalanchoë infected with crown-gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a species of bacteria that causes tumors (commonly known as galls or crown galls) in dicots (Smith et al. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 624 KB)A detail photo of a crown-gall on a Kalanchoë infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 624 KB)A detail photo of a crown-gall on a Kalanchoë infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a species of bacteria that causes tumors (commonly known as galls or crown galls) in dicots (Smith et al. ... Gall can mean: Gall (plant growth) Bile Colocynth People: Saint Gall Chief Gall Franz Joseph Gall This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ...

Contents


Creatures that induce galls

Insects

Galls induced by insects are called insect galls. Insects that induce insect galls are called gall-inducing insects. Insect galls are usually induced by the chemicals injected by the larvae or the adults when they consume part of the plants. After the galls were formed, the larvae stay inside and develop until fully grown, at which time they leave. In order to form galls, the insects must seize the time when plant cell division occurs at a high speed, and when the plant tissues are still growing, normally spring. Although insect galls can be found on a variety of parts of the plant, such as the leaves, stalks, branches, buds, roots or even flowers, gall-inducing insects are fairly particular about which tissue of the plants or what kind of plants they make galls on. They would at most make galls on plants similar to those that they usually make galls on. A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The term adult describes any mature organism, but normally it refers to a human: one that is no longer a child / minor and is now either a man or a woman. ... In the armed forces, leave is permission to be away from ones unit for a period of time. ... The word stalk has several basic meanings. ... Flower buds have not yet bloomed into a full-size flower. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Clivia miniata bears bright orange flowers. ...


Gall-inducing insects include gall wasps, gall midges, aphids, and psyllids. Gall wasps (Cynipidae), also called Gallflies, are a family of the order Hymenoptera and are classified with the Apocrita suborder of wasps in the superfamily Cynipoidea. ... Cecidomyiidae is the correct name for the insects known as the gall midge. ... Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae - adelgids, conifer aphids Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly/blackfly or plantlice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ... Psyllids or jumping plant lice (family Psyllidae or Chermidae) are small plant-feeding insects that are very host specific, i. ...


Uses

Galls are rich in resins and tannic acid and have been used in the manufacture of permanent inks and astringent ointments, in dyeing, and in tanning. A high-quality ink has long been made from the Aleppo gall, found on oaks in the Middle East; it is one of a number of galls resembling nuts and called gallnuts or nutgalls.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1065x1345, 249 KB) Picture taken by myself: Quercus robur oakgalls on male flowers; Quercus robur File links The following pages link to this file: Gall Gall wasp ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 230 KB) Eucalyptus gall File links The following pages link to this file: Eucalyptus Gall ...

Online references

  • Gall.. Infoplease encyclopedia. URL accessed on March, 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (321 words)
Insects that induce insect galls are called gall-inducing insects.
Although insect galls can be found on a variety of parts of the plant, such as the leaves, stalks, branches, buds, roots or even flowers, gall-inducing insects are fairly particular about which tissue of the plants or what kind of plants they make galls on.
Galls are rich in resins and tannic acid and have been used in the manufacture of permanent inks and astringent ointments, in dyeing, and in tanning.
FJ Gall (2266 words)
Gall began to collect human and animal skulls and wax moulds of brains from around 1792 in order to study the development of the cranial contours with the characteristic behaviours associated with a species of animal, or a well-known general or robber.
Gall claimed to have discovered that the nerves flowed not to a centre, but outwards in all directions, and hence there was no central control centre but instead diffuse and localized modules throughout the surface of the brain.
Gall described the brain as the continuation of the spinal cord and claimed to have discovered that the brain is made of "bundles of threads" rather than a pudding-like substance.
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