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Encyclopedia > Galileo affair
Galileo before the Holy Office, a 19th century painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Galileo before the Holy Office, a 19th century painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury

The Galileo affair, in which Galileo Galilei came into conflict with the Catholic Church over his support of Copernican astronomy, is often considered a defining moment in the history of the relationship between religion and science. Image File history File links Galileo_before_the_Holy_Office. ... Image File history File links Galileo_before_the_Holy_Office. ... Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury (1797 - 1890), French painter, was born at Cologne. ... Galileo redirects here. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparison to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... Science and Religion are portrayed to be in harmony in the Tiffany window Education (1890). ...

In 1610, Galileo published his Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger), describing the surprising observations that he had made with the new telescope. These and other discoveries exposed major difficulties with the understanding of the heavens that had been held since antiquity, and raised new interest in radical teachings such as the heliocentric theory of Copernicus. // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Galileo redirects here. ... Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are also seen) is a short treatise published in Latin by Galileo Galilei in March 1610. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparison to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... Copernicus redirects here. ...

In reaction, many scholars maintained that the motion of the Earth and immobility of the Sun were heretical, as they contradicted some accounts given in the Bible as understood at that time. Galileo's part in the controversies over theology, astronomy and philosophy culminated in his trial and sentencing in 1633 on a grave suspicion of heresy. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Sol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ...


The 1600 revolution in cosmology

Galileo began his telescopic observations in the later part of 1609, and by March of 1610 was able to publish a small book, The Starry Messenger (Sidereus Nuncius), relating some discoveries that had not been dreamed of in the philosophy of the time: mountains on the Moon, lesser moons in orbit around Jupiter, and the resolution of what had been thought cloudy masses in the sky (nebulae) into collections of stars too faint to see individually. Other observations followed, including the phases of Venus and the existence of sunspots. // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are also seen) is a short treatise published in Latin by Galileo Galilei in March 1610. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sunspot (disambiguation). ...

None of these findings proved that the Earth moved, or directly contradicted Christian doctrine; all were difficult at first for other astronomers to verify. But they caused difficulties for theologians and for natural philosophers (the name given to scientists at the time), as they contradicted the scientific and philosophical ideas of the time, which were based on those of Aristotle, whose teachings were and are closely associated with the Catholic Church. Galileo redirects here. ... -1... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...

Jesuit astronomers, experts both in Church teachings and in natural philosophy, were at first skeptical and hostile to the new ideas. Within a year or two, however, availability of good telescopes enabled them to repeat the new observations. In 1611 Galileo visited the Collegium Romanum in Rome, where the Jesuit astronomers by that time had repeated his observations and treated him with respect. Christoph Grienberger, one of the Jesuits scholars on the faculty, sympathized with Galileo’s theories, but was asked to defend the Aristotelian viewpoint by Claudio Acquaviva, the Father General of the Jesuits. Not all of Galileo's claims were completely accepted: Christopher Clavius, the most distinguished astronomer of his age, never was reconciled to the idea of mountains on the Moon. And outside the Collegium many still disputed the reality of the observations. In a letter to Kepler of August 1610[1], Galileo complained that some of the philosophers who opposed his discoveries had refused even to look through a telescope[2]. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... The Pontifical Gregorian University The Pontifical Gregorian University is a Roman Catholic university in Rome. ... Christoph (Christophorus) Grienberger (also variously spelled Gruemberger, Bamberga, Bamberger, Banbergiera, Gamberger, Ghambergier, Granberger, Panberger) (July 2, 1561-March 11, 1636) was an Austrian Jesuit astronomer, after whom the Gruemberger crater, on the Moon, is named. ... Claudio Acquaviva (September 14, 1543—January 31, 1615) was an Italian churchman, and was the fifth general of the Society of Jesus. ... Christopher Clavius, (March 25, 1538 – February 12, 1612) was a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who was the main architect of the modern Gregorian calendar. ... Kepler redirects here. ...

There were still problems in relations with the Jesuits. Galileo became involved in a dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots with Christoph Scheiner, a prominent Jesuit. This became a bitter lifelong feud. Oddly, neither of them was right; there can be little doubt that the first observations were by David Fabricius and his son Johannes. Christoph Scheiner (July 25, 1573 or 1575 – June 18, 1650) was a German astronomer and Jesuit. ... David and Johannes Fabricius were father and son astronomers from Frisia. ... David and Johannes Fabricius were father and son astronomers from Frisia. ...

At this time also, Galileo engaged in a dispute over the reasons that objects float or sink in water, siding with Archimedes against Aristotle, the favorite of the academics. The debate was unfriendly, and Galileo's blunt and sometimes sarcastic style, though not extraordinary in academic debates of the time, made him enemies. Galileo's friends reported to him that a group of professors of philosophy were working quietly to raise opposition to him in the Church, where accusations of heresy were more deadly than anything that could be done to a dissenter in a university; their success is indicated by the sermon of Caccini, described later. For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ...

The Bible argument

A major upset in what had been considered eternal truths concerning the heavens led the more unconventional thinkers to look seriously at the new ideas of astronomy in which the Earth moved and the Sun stood still; these ideas did appear to contradict the Bible: Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30 state that "the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved." Psalm 104:5 says, "the Lord set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved." Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that "the sun rises and the sun sets, and hurries back to where it rises."

One of the first suggestions of heresy that Galileo had to deal with came in 1613 from a professor of philosophy, Cosimo Boscaglia, who was neither a theologian nor a priest. In conversation with Galileo's patron, Cosimo II de' Medici, Boscaglia gave the opinion that the telescopic discoveries were valid, but the motion of the Earth was obviously contrary to Scripture. Galileo was defended on the spot by a Benedictine abbot, Benedetto Castelli, who was also a professor of mathematics and a former student of Galileo's. This exchange, reported to Galileo by Castelli, led Galileo to write a letter to Castelli, expounding his views on what he considered the most appropriate way of treating scriptural passages which made assertions about natural phenomena. Sometime later (in 1615) he expanded this into his much longer Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina. Castelli remained Galileo's friend, visiting him at Arcetri near the end of Galileo's life, after months of effort to get permission from the Inquisition to do so. Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... Cosimo Boscaglia was a professor of philosophy at the University of Pisa. ... Cosimo II de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (12 May 1590 – 28 February 1621) ruled as Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1609 to 1621. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... Benedetto Castelli, born Antonio Castelli (Brescia, 1578 – Rome, 1643), took the name Benedetto upon entering the Benedictine Order in 1595. ... The Letter to The Grand Duchess Christina by Galileo Galilei was an essay on the relation between the revelations of the Bible and the new discoveries then being made in science. ... The Torre del Gallo in Arcetri Arcetri is a region of Florence in the hills to the south of the city centre. ...

The first dangerous attack appears to have been that by Tommaso Caccini, a Dominican friar, who preached a sermon in Florence at the end of 1614, denouncing Galileo, his associates, and mathematicians in general (a category that included astronomers). The biblical text for the sermon on that day was Joshua 10, in which Joshua makes the Sun stand still; this was the story that Castelli had had to interpret for the Medici family the year before. It is said, though it is not verifiable, that Caccini used the passage "Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven?"[3] ‘ // Born in Florence in 1574 as Cosimo Caccini, Tommaso Caccini entered into the Dominican order of the Catholic Church as a teenager. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ...

First meetings with theological authorities

The Bible argument was a dangerous one for Galileo: why would anybody defend a theory where the Earth moves, given that it contradicts the literal meaning of the Bible? The obvious reason is of course, because it is true and backed by experimental evidence. An alternative reason was, to cast a doubt on the truth of the Bible - in that case, the controversy belonged to the theological field, and the thesis should be condemned as heretical. Once heresy was suggested, Galileo had to prove his good faith by proving his theory.

In late 1614 or early 1615, one of Caccini's fellow Dominicans, Niccolò Lorini, acquired a copy of Galileo's letter to Castelli, which he considered of sufficiently doubtful orthodoxy to bring to the attention of the Inquisition. In February 1615 he accordingly sent a copy to the Secretary of the Inquisition, Cardinal Sfondrati, with a covering letter critical of Galileo's supporters.[4]

A few weeks later, on March 19th, Caccini turned up at the Inquisition's offices in Rome to denounce Galileo for his Copernicanism and various other alleged heresies supposedly being spread by his pupils[5].

Galileo soon heard reports that Lorini had obtained a copy of his letter to Castelli and had, according to the reports, been claiming that it contained many heresies. He also heard that Caccini had gone to Rome and suspected him of trying to stir up trouble with Lorini's copy of the letter.[6]. As 1615 wore on he became more concerned, and eventually determined to go to Rome as soon as his health permitted, which it did at the end of the year. By presenting his case there, he hoped to clear his name of any suspicion of heresy, and to persuade the Church authorities not to suppress heliocentric ideas. In this he was acting against the advice of friends and allies, including Piero Guicciardini, the Tuscan ambassador to Rome; it was thought better not to risk stirring up opposition. Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ...

Bellarmine's view

Robert Cardinal Bellarmine, one of the most respected Catholic theologians of the time, was called on to adjudicate the dispute between Galileo and his opponents, including both religious zealots and secular university professors. The question of heliocentrism had first been raised with Cardinal Bellarmine, in the case of Paolo Antonio Foscarini, a Carmelite father; Foscarini had published a book, Lettera ... sopra l'opinione ... del Copernico, which took the dangerous step of attempting to reconcile Copernicus with the biblical passages that seemed to be in contradiction. Bellarmine at first expressed the opinion that Copernicus would not be banned, but would at most require some editing to assure that the heliocentric idea was presented as purely hypothetical. This article is about Robert Bellarmine, the Catholic Saint. ... The Order of Our Lady of Mt. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Foscarini sent a copy of his book to Bellarmine, who replied in a letter on April 12, 1615, addressed to both Foscarini and Galileo. In this he stated that the heliocentric ideas were "a very dangerous thing, not only by irritating all the philosophers and scholastic theologians, but also by injuring our holy faith and rendering the Holy Scriptures false." Moreover, while the matter was not inherently a matter of faith, it became one "on the part of the ones who have spoken", namely "the holy Fathers and all the Latin and Greek commentators." He conceded that if there were positive proof, "then it would be necessary to proceed with great caution in explaining the passages of Scripture which seemed contrary, and we would rather have to say that we did not understand them than to say that something was false which has been demonstrated." He did not, however, consider this to be a serious possibility. His final argument was that the motion of the Sun could not be a mere appearance, as the shore appears to recede when one sails away from it, because everyone perceives the latter as a mere appearance, while no one so perceives the former.

In sum, he found no problem with heliocentrism so long as it was treated purely as hypothesis and not as an absolute truth, unless there was conclusive proof. This put Galileo in an extremely difficult position, as he had many powerful arguments but no "conclusive" proof for the truth of his position. In fact, his theories had gaps and errors, as is (we now know) the usual condition of all radically new scientific work. The main argument against a movable Earth was well known at the time, and was presented by Aristotle almost two millennia before : If the Earth moves, why are there no observable parallax shifts? It was to take 300 years before there were instruments good enough to observe these, in stars. As Simon Singh shows in his book "The Big Bang", there were other serious related problems with the Copernican model. The model by Ptolemy corresponded better to observed data than the Copernican model. It was not until Kepler suggested ellipses, rather than circles that even better correspondence to observed data could be demonstrated. So despite his theory contradicting both simple theoretical arguments and observed data, he wanted his conviction to be taught as truth. Today, scientists tend to present only those parts of their findings as "truth" that are very clearly shown, such as the results of a particular experiment. Careful suggestions of new theories are rarely considered truth until a consensus is reached. For other uses, see Parallax (disambiguation). ...

Inquisition examination

On February 19, 1616, the Inquisition asked a commission of theologians, known as qualifiers, about the propositions that the Sun is at the center of the planets' motions and does not move, and that the Earth is not at the center and does move[7]. Historians of the Galileo affair have offered different accounts of why the matter was referred to the qualifiers at this time. Baretta (2005, pp.247-248) points out that the Inquisition had taken a deposition from Gianozzi Attavanti in November, 1615[8], as part of its investigation into the denunciations of Galileo by Lorini and Caccini. In this deposition, Attavanti confirmed that Galileo had advocated the Copernican doctrines of a stationary sun and a mobile Earth, and as a consequence the Tribunal of the Inquisition would have eventually needed to determine the theological status of those doctrines. It is however possible, as surmised by the Tuscan ambassador, Piero Guiccardini, in a letter to the Grand Duke[9], that the actual referral may have been precipitated by Galileo's aggressive campaign to prevent the condemnation of Copernicanism.[10].

On February 24 the Qualifiers delivered their unanimous report: the idea that the Sun is stationary is "foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture..."; while the Earth's movement "receives the same judgement in philosophy and ... in regard to theological truth it is at least erroneous in faith."

At a meeting of the cardinals of the Inquisition on the following day, Pope Paul V instructed Bellarmine to deliver this result to Galileo, and to order him to abandon the Copernican opinions; should Galileo resist the decree, stronger action would be taken. On February 26 Galileo was called to Bellarmine's residence, and accepted the orders.[11] On March 5, the decree was issued by the Congregation for the Index, prohibiting, condemning, or suspending various books which advocated the truth of the Copernican system. Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1552 – January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ...

Galileo met again with Bellarmine, apparently on friendly terms; and on March 11 he met with the Pope, who assured him that he was safe from persecution so long as he, the Pope, should live. Nonetheless, Galileo's friends Sagredo and Castelli reported that there were rumors that Galileo had been forced to recant and do penance. To protect his good name, Galileo requested a letter from Bellarmine stating the truth of the matter. This letter assumed great importance in 1633, as did the question whether Galileo had been ordered not to "hold or defend" Copernican ideas (which would have allowed their hypothetical treatment) or not to teach them in any way. If the Inquisition had issued the order not to teach heliocentrism at all, it would have been ignoring Bellarmine's position, which was in any case effectively ignored in the proceedings in 1633. Look up Recant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ...

In the end, the mission was a failure. Galileo did not persuade the Church to stay out of the controversy, but instead saw heliocentrism formally declared an idea that could not be held as truth, for lack of evidence. It was consequently termed heretical by the Qualifiers, since it contradicted the literal meaning of the Scriptures, though this position was not binding on the Church. Foscarini's book was banned; Copernicus' De Revolutionibus, though not formally banned, was removed from circulation pending revisions, and in fact was not fully cleared until the 19th century. Though Galileo was personally safe, and his works had not been banned, there was now much doubt (felt by other astronomers as far away as Germany) whether it was possible to do serious work in Copernican astronomy. Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Nicolai Copernici Torinensis De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, Libri VI - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, by Nicolaus Copernicus of Torin, Six Books (title page of 2nd edition, ex officina Henricpetrina Basel, 1566) Heliocentric model of the solar system De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: ), first printed in 1543 in Nuremberg... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Dialogue

Some scholars believe that Galileo's eventual condemnation in 1633 was not to do particularly with his Copernicanism but due to his attack on Aristotle.

The Assayer was published in 1623 just after the election of Pope Urban VIII, who had been, as Cardinal Barberini, Galileo's friend, and had opposed his condemnation in 1616. This book was a spirited attack on Orazio Grassi's (correct) interpretation on the 1618 comets that were widely believed to have been a baleful harbinger of the Thirty Years' War. In 1616 Galileo[1] may have been silenced on Copernicanism, but he bounced back with gusto in 1623. ... Pope Urban VIII (April 1568 – July 29, 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was Pope from 1623 to 1644. ... Combatants Sweden (from 1630)  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (1625-1629) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Denmark-Norway (1643-1645) Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of...

For the next several years Galileo stayed well away from the Copernican controversy. Toward 1630, however, he revived his project of writing a book on the subject. The book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was published in 1632, with formal authorization from the Inquisition for a book which presented a balanced view of both theories. However, in the book, the Copernican theory clearly receives better treatment, instead of balanced view. In addition, Pope Urban's view on the issue is repeated by a character named Simplicio, ridiculing the Pope. Because of this, Galileo was ordered to appear before the Inquisition for trial. Frontispiece and title page of the Dialogue The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) was a 1632 book by Galileo, comparing the Copernican system, and the traditional Ptolemaic system. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ...

The Trial

Cristiano Banti's 1857 painting Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition
Cristiano Banti's 1857 painting Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition

Galileo was ordered to Rome to stand trial on suspicion of heresy in 1633, "for holding as true the false doctrine taught by some that the sun is the center of the world", against the 1616 condemnation, since "it was decided at the Holy Congregation [...] on 25 Feb 1616 that [...] the Holy Office would give you an injunction to abandon this doctrine, not to teach it to others, not to defend it, and not to treat of it; and that if you did not acquiesce in this injunction, you should be imprisoned"[12]. The sentence of the Inquisition was in three essential parts: Image File history File links Galileo_facing_the_Roman_Inquisition. ... Image File history File links Galileo_facing_the_Roman_Inquisition. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ...

  • Galileo was required to recant his heliocentric ideas, declaring the immobility of the sun to be "absurd in philosophy and formally heretical", and the mobility of the Earth "to be at least erroneous in faith";
  • He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest for the rest of his life.
  • His offending Dialogue was banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future[13]

After a period with the friendly Archbishop Piccolomini in Siena, Galileo was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri near Florence, where he spent the remainder of his life under house arrest with his friend and pupil Ferdinando II de' Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany. His standing would remain questioned at every turn. In March 1641, Vincentio Reinieri, a follower and pupil of Galileo, wrote him at Arcetri that an Inquisitor had recently compelled the author of a book printed at Florence to change the words "most distinguished Galileo" to "Galileo, man of noted name."[14] This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... The Torre del Gallo in Arcetri Arcetri is a region of Florence in the hills to the south of the city centre. ... Ferdinando II de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (14 July 1610 – 23 May 1670) ruled as Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... Vincentio (Vincenzio, Vincenzo) Reinieri (Renieri, Reiner) (March 30, 1606--November 5, 1647) was an Italian mathematician and astronomer. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...

However, partially in tribute to Galileo, at Arcetri the first academy devoted to the new experimental science, The Accademia del Cimento was formed, which is where Francesco Redi performed the first controlled experiment and many other important advancements were made which would eventually help usher in The Age of Enlightenment. The Accademia del Cimento (Academy of Experiment), a early scientific society, was founded in Florence 1657 by students of Galileo, Evangelista Torricelli and Vincenzo Viviani. ... Redi is featured in many modern-day science textbooks due to his experiment. ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ...

Pope John Paul II

In 1992, it was much lauded in the news that the Catholic Church had apparently "vindicated" Galileo. The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ...

Thanks to his intuition as a brilliant physicist and by relying on different arguments, Galileo, who practically invented the experimental method, understood why only the sun could function as the centre of the world, as it was then known, that is to say, as a planetary system. The error of the theologians of the time, when they maintained the centrality of the Earth, was to think that our understanding of the physical world's structure was, in some way, imposed by the literal sense of Sacred Scripture....

Pope John Paul II, L'Osservatore Romano N. 44 (1264) - 4th November,1992 Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


  1. ^ Drake (1978, p.162), Sharratt (1996, p.86), Favaro (1900, 10:421-423) (Latin).
  2. ^ Galileo did not name the philosophers concerned, but Galileo scholars have identified two of them as Cesare Cremonini and Giulio Libri (Drake, 1978, pp.162, 165; Sharratt, 1996, p.87). Claims of similar refusals by bishops and cardinals have sometimes been made, but there appears to be no evidence to support them.
  3. ^ Acts 1:11.
  4. ^ Drake (1978, p.240), Sharratt (1996, pp.110−111), Favaro (1907, 19:297−298)] (Italian).
  5. ^ Sharratt (1996, p.111), Favaro (1907, 19:307−311) (Latin)(Italian).
  6. ^ Drake (1978, p.241), Favaro (1895, 5:291−292) (Italian).
  7. ^ Fantoli (2005, p.118), McMullin (2005b, p.152), Favaro (1907, 19:320) (Italian).
  8. ^ Favaro (1907, 19:318) (Italian).
  9. ^ McMullin (2005b, pp.167-168), Drake (1978, p.252), Sharratt (1996, p.127), Favaro (1902,12:242) (Italian).
  10. ^ An inaccuracy in Guicciardini's letter has led some historians (e.g. Drake, 1978, p.252; Sharratt, 1996, p.127) to identify a meeting between Cardinal Orsini and the Pope as the specific incident which triggered the Copernican propositions' referral to the qualifiers. This cannot have been the case, however, because the meeting did not occur until several days after the propositions had been referred to them. (McMullin, 2005b, pp.152, 153)
  11. ^ Drake (1978, p. 253).
  12. ^ See Texts from The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History, edited and translated by Maurice A. Finocchiaro .
  13. ^ Drake (1978, p.367), Sharratt (1996, p.184), Favaro (1905, 16:209, 230)(Italian). When Fulgenzio Micanzio, one of Galileo's friends in Venice, sought to have Galileo's Discourse on Floating Bodies reprinted in 1635, he was informed by the Venetian Inquisitor that the Inquisition had forbidden further publication of any of Galileo's works (Favaro, 1905, 16:209) (Italian), and was later shown a copy of the order (Favaro, 1905, 16:230).(Italian) When the Dutch publishers Elzevir published Galileo's Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences in 1638, some five years after his trial, they did so under the pretense that a manuscript he had presented to the French Ambassador to Rome for preservation and circulation to interested intellectuals had been used without his knowledge ( Sharratt, 1996, p.184; Galilei, 1954, p.xvii; Favaro, 1898, 8:43 (Italian)). Return to other article: Galileo Galilei; Dialogue; Two New Sciences.
  14. ^ Drake (1978, p. 414).

For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Elzevir was the name of a celebrated family of Dutch printers belonging to the 17th century. ... Galileo redirects here. ... Frontispiece and title page of the Dialogue The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) was a 1632 book by Galileo, comparing the Copernican system, and the traditional Ptolemaic system. ... The Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (1638) was Galileos final book and a sort of scientific testament covering much of his work in physics over the preceding thirty years. ...


  • Drake, Stillman (1978), Galileo At Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-16226-5
  • Favaro, Antonio (1890–1909), ed.[1]. Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale (Italian). (The Works of Galileo Galilei, National Edition, 20 vols.), Florence: Barbera, 1890–1909; reprinted 1929–1939 and 1964–1966. ISBN 88-09-20881-1. Searchable online copy from the Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence. Brief overview of "Le Opere" @ Finns Fine Books, [2] and here [3]
  • Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (1989), The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06662-6
  • Galilei, Galileo [1638,1914] (1954), Henry Crew and Alfonso de Salvio, translators, Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, Dover Publications Inc., New York, NY. ISBN 486-60099-8
  • McMullen, Emerson Thomas, Galileo's condemnation: The real and complex story (Georgia Journal of Science, vol.61(2) 2003)
  • McMullin, Ernan ed.(2005), The Church and Galileo, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN. ISBN 0-268-03483-4
  • Pagano, Sergio M. ed. (1984) (in collaboration with Luciano, Antonio G.), I Documenti del Processo di Galileo Galilei (Documents of the Trial of Galileo Galilei), Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarum Scripta Varia, no.53, Vatican City. ISBN 88-85042-11-2
  • Redondi, Pietro (1983), Galileo eretico, Einaudi, Turin; Galileo: Heretic (transl: Raymond Rosenthal) Princeton University Press, 1987 (reprint 1989 ISBN 0-691-02426-X); Penguin, 1988 (reprint 1990 ISBN 0-14-012541-8)
  • Sharratt, Michael (1996), Galileo: Decisive Innovator. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-56671-1

This article is about the city in Italy. ...

External links

  • The Starry Messenger (1610). An English translation from Bard College
  • Sidereus Nuncius (1610) (Latin) Original Latin text at LiberLiber online library.
  • Galileo's letter to Castelli of 1613. The English translation given on the web page at this link is from Finocchiaro (1989), contrary to the claim made in the citation given on the page itself.
  • Galileo's letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of 1615
  • Bellarmine's letter to Foscarini of 1615
  • Inquisition documents, 1616 and 1633
  • Galileo: Science and Religion Extensively documented series of lectures by William E.Carroll and Peter Hodgson.
  • Edizione Nationale (Italian). A searchable online copy of Favaro's National Edition of Galileo's works at the website of the Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence.



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