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Encyclopedia > Galilean moon
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Jupiter's 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). From the top, they are Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto

The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei. By far the largest of the many moons of Jupiter, they are visible even in a low-power telescope. In fact, if the observing conditions are perfect, it is just possible to see Callisto, the outermost, with the unaided eye. They were first observed by Galileo on January 7, 1610.


Galileo observed the moons' motion over several days and realized that they were in orbit around Jupiter. This discovery supported the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus and showed that not everything revolves around the Earth.


Galileo first called his discovery the Cosmica Sidera, in honour of Cosimo II dé Medici (15901621), grand-duke of Tuscany from 1609, whose patronage Galileo wanted to secure. At the grand-duke's suggestion, Galileo changed the name to Medicea Sidera ("Médici stars"), because the Médici were four brothers. The discovery was announced in the Sidereus Nuncius ("Starry Messenger"), published in Venice in March 1610, less than two months after the first observations.


Amongst the other names that were put forward, there is Principharus, Victipharus, Cosmipharus and Ferdinandipharus, for each of the four Médici brothers, proposed by Giovanni Battista Hodierna, a disciple of Galileo and author of the first ephemerides (Medicaeorum Ephemerides, 1656). Johannes Hevelius called them the Circulatores Jovis or Jovis Comites, and Jacques Ozanam called them Gardes or Satellites (from the Latin satelles, satellitis: escort). It would be the names proposed by Simon Marius (Simon Mayer), who pretended to have discovered the moons at the same time as Galileo, that would eventually prevail: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, published in his Mundus Jovialis in 1614. Galileo steadfastly refused to use Marius' names and invented as a result the numbering scheme that is still used nowadays, in parallel with proper moon names. The numbers run from Jupiter outward, thus I, II, III and IV for Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto respectively. Galileo used this system in his notebooks but never actually published it.


The Galilean moons are, in order from closest to Jupiter to farthest away:

Name Image Diameter
(km)
Mass
(kg)
Mean orbital
radius (km)
Orbital
period
Type
Io Image:Jup io comp.png 3643 8.93×1022 421,800 1.77 days Volcanic
Europa Image:Jup europa comp.png 3122 4.8×1022 671,100 3.55 days Oceanic
Ganymede Image:Jup ganymede comp.png 5262 1.48×1023 1,070,400 7.16 days Oceanic
Callisto Image:Jup callisto comp.png 4821 1.08×1023 1,882,700 16.69 days Oceanic


See also: Jupiter's natural satellites


  Results from FactBites:
 
Terms and Definitions (4656 words)
The inclination of a planet's orbit is the angle between the plane of its orbit and the ecliptic.
The inclination of a moon's orbit is the angle between the plane of its orbit and the plane of its primary's equator.
A circular feature on the surface of dark icy moons such as Ganymede and Callisto lacking the relief associated with craters; Pamlimpsests are thought to be impact craters where the topographic relief of the crater has been eliminated by slow adjustment of the icy surface.
Galilean moons - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (721 words)
The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei.
The Galilean moons are visible from Earth with a small telescope or binoculars.
The Galilean moons were first observed by Galileo on January 7, 1610.
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