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Encyclopedia > Galician language
Galician
galego 
Pronunciation: /gaˈlego/
Spoken in: Galicia, Spain 
Region: Galicia; also in other parts of Spain and in some parts of Portugal.
Total speakers: 3–4 million (½ million emigrants throughout Ibero-America and Europe)
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Western
     Gallo-Iberian
      Ibero-Romance
       West-Iberian
        Portuguese-Galician
         Galician 
Official status
Official language of: Galicia, Spain; accepted orally as Portuguese by the European Union Parliament.
Regulated by: Real Academia Galega
Language codes
ISO 639-1: gl
ISO 639-2: glg
ISO 639-3: glg

Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: [gaˈlego]) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of "historic nationality," located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Galicia (Iberian peninsula) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Galicia (Iberian peninsula) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Ibero-America is a term used to refer collectively to the countries in the Americas which were formerly colonies of Spain or Portugal. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... The formation of Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process: A common Latin/Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. ... West Iberian language is the subcategory of Romance languages, including Spanish and Portugese. ... Portuguese-Galician (in Portuguese and Galician is known as Galaico-Português) was a Iberian Romance language, spoken in the Middle Ages, in the western area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... Galicia (Iberian peninsula) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This article is about a subdivision of the Romance language family. ... Galicia (Iberian peninsula) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,480,369  5. ...


Galician and Portuguese were, in medieval times, a single language which linguists call Galician-Portuguese, Medieval Galician, or Old Portuguese, spoken in the territories initially ruled by the medieval Kingdom of Galicia. Both languages are even today united by a dialect continuum located mainly in the northern regions of Portugal. Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...

Contents

Classification

Historically, the Galician-Portuguese language originated in Galicia and Northern Portugal in lands belonging to the ancient Kingdom of Galicia (comprising the Roman Gallaecia) and branched out since the 14th century after the Portuguese expansion brought it southwards. There are linguists who consider Modern Galician and Modern Portuguese as dialects or varieties of the same language, but this is a matter of debate. For instance, in past editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Galician was termed a Portuguese dialect spoken in northwestern Spain. (It has also been considered incorrectly as a dialect of Spanish.) However, the Galician government does not regard Galician as a variety of Portuguese, but rather as a distinct language. Mutual intelligibility (estimated at 85% by R. A. Hall, Jr., 1989[1]) is good between Galicians and Northern Portuguese, but poorer between Galicians and speakers of Central-Southern European Portuguese. The dialects of Portuguese most similar to Galician are those of Alto-Minho and Trás-os-Montes in northern Portugal. Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Portuguese dialects are variants of the Portuguese language that are shared by a substantial number of speakers over several generations, but are not sufficiently distinct from the official norms to be considered a separate language. ...


Relation with Portuguese

The linguistic status of Galician with respect to Portuguese is controversial. Some authors, such as Lindley Cintra,[2] consider that they are still dialects of a common language, in spite of superficial differences in phonology and vocabulary. Others, such as Pilar Vázquez Cuesta,[3] argue that they have become separate languages due to major differences in phonetics and vocabulary usage, and, to a lesser extent, morphology and syntax. The official position of the Galician Language Institute is that Galician and Portuguese should be considered independent languages. The standard orthography takes advantage of the divergent features of the phonology of Galician to emphasize its differences from Portuguese, insisting on a phonetic spelling, and rejecting for example Portuguese graphic conventions like the graphemes nh, lh, j in favour of ñ, ll, x.

Map of Galicia showing speakers of Galician as first language according to Population and Housing Census of the Galician Statistics Institute (2001)
Map of Galicia showing speakers of Galician as first language according to Population and Housing Census of the Galician Statistics Institute (2001)

The relationship involving Galician and Portuguese can be compared with that between Flemish and Dutch, Macedonian and Bulgarian, Occitan and Catalan, Italian and Corsican, Romanian and Moldovan or English and Lowland Scots. Due to language proximity two interpretations have risen in conflict: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1164x985, 102 KB) Created by Susana Freixeiro. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1164x985, 102 KB) Created by Susana Freixeiro. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The term Flemish language can designate: the official language of Flanders, which is Dutch with only very small variations; any of the regional dialects of Dutch spoken in Belgium; these are more different from Dutch than the official language of Flanders; one of these dialects, the West Flemish. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ...


The official institution regulating Galician language is Instituto da Lingua Galega (ILG). It claims that modern Galician must be considered an independent Romance language that belongs to the group of Ibero-Romance Languages and has strong ties with Portuguese and its northern dialects. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The formation of Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process: A common Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. ...


There is also an unofficial and minoritary institution Associaçom Galega da Língua (AGAL), according to which differences between Galician and Portuguese languages are not enough to consider them separate languages, just like other Galician-Portuguese forms such as Brazilian Portuguese, African Portuguese, archaic Galician-Portuguese still spoken in Spanish Extremadura Fala, and other dialects. Brazilian Portuguese (Português Brasileiro in Portuguese) is the group of dialects of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 190 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple million Brazilian immigrants, mainly in the United States, Portugal, Canada, Japan, and Paraguay. ... African Portuguese is the group of Portuguese language dialects spoken in Africa. ... Fala language (SIL Code: FAX; ISO 639-2 code: roa) is a Romance language from the Portuguese-Galician subgroup spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of which 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal. ...

See also: Reintegrationism

The term reintegracionismo or reintegrationism describes a linguistic movement in Galicia, Spain, which aims to reincorporate the Galician dialect or language into the Portuguese language. ...

Geographic distribution

Galician is spoken by more than 3 million people, including most of the people in Galicia, as well as among the many Galician immigrants in the rest of Spain (Madrid, Barcelona, Biscay), elsewhere in Europe (Andorra, Geneva, London), and Ibero-America (Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Havana, Caracas, Mexico City, São Paulo, Guadalajara, Veracruz City and Panama City). Galicia (Iberian peninsula) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Biscay (Basque Bizkaia, Spanish: Vizcaya) is a province of northern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Ibero-America is a term used to refer collectively to the countries in the Americas which were formerly colonies of Spain or Portugal. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Department Montevideo Department Altitude 43 m Coordinates 34º 53S 56º 10W Founded 1726 Founder Bruno Mauricio de Zabala Population 1,325,968 (2004) (1st) Demonym Montevideano Phone Code +02 Postal Code 10000 Montevideo (IPA: ) is the capital, largest city, and chief port of Uruguay. ... Nickname: (Spanish) City of Columns Position of Havana in the Americas Coordinates: , Country  Cuba Province Ciudad de La Habana Municipalities 15 Founded 1515a Government  - Mayor Juan Contino Aslán Area  - City 721. ... Nickname: La Sultana del Avila (English:The Avilas Sultan) La Sucursal del paraiso Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Nickname: Motto: Ciudad en movimiento Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Nickname: Motto: Non ducor, duco(Latin) I am not led, I lead Location in the São Paulo state. ... Coordinates: , Country Mexico State Jalisco Foundation 1542 Government  - Mayor Alfonso Petersen Farah ( PAN) Area  - City 187. ... Veracruz is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Panama City (Spanish: Ciudad de Panamá), population 708,738, with a total metro population of 1,063,000 is the capital of Panama, located at the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal, at . ...


Controversy exists regarding the inclusion of Eonavian dialects spoken in Asturias into the Galician language, with those defending Eonavian as a dialect continuum of transition to the Asturian language on the one hand, and those defending it as clearly Galician on the other. Eonavian or Eonaviego is a term used to refer a set of dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends in the zone of Asturias between the Eo and Navia rivers (or more exactly Eo and Barayo rivers). ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as...


Because of its historical status as a non-official language, for some authors the situation of language domination in Galicia could be called "diglossia," with Galician in the lower part of the continuum, and Spanish at the top; while for others, the conditions for diglossia established by Ferguson are not met. Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up continuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Charles A. Ferguson (1921-1998) was a Stanford University linguist best known for his work on diglossia. ...


Official status

Spain has recognized Galician as one of Spain's four "official languages" (lenguas españolas), the others being Castilian (also called Spanish), Catalan (or Valencian), and Basque (Euskara). Galician is taught at primary and secondary school and used at the universities in Galicia. Further, it has been accepted orally as Portuguese in the European Parliament and used as such by, among others, the Galician representatives José Posada, Camilo Nogueira and Xosé Manuel Beiras. This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... This page deals with language. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... José Domingo Posada González (born May 9, 1940), of Spain, was a member of the European Parliament from 1994 to 1999 and is the president of Coalición Galega. ... Camila Nogueria Román was born on 22 November 1936 in Vigo (Galiza), Spain and Member of the European Parliament in the parliamentary term from 1999 to 2004. ...


Dialects

Galician has multiple dialects but none lack mutual intelligibility. A pair of languages is said to be mutually intelligible if speakers of one language can readily understand the other language. ...


History

Further information: Galician-Portuguese

From the 8th century, Galicia was a political unit within the kingdoms of Asturias and Leon, but was able to reach a degree of autonomy, becoming an independent kingdom at certain times in the tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries. Galician was the only language in spoken use, and Latin was used, to a decreasing extent, as a written language. This monopoly on spoken language was able to exert such pressure in the 13th century, that it led to a situation of dual official status for Galician and Latin in notarial documents, edicts, lawsuits, etc.; Latin, however, continued to be the universal vehicle for higher culture. Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Written texts in Galician have only been found dating from the end of the 12th century, because Latin continued to be the cultured language (not only in Galicia, but also throughout medieval Europe). (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


The oldest known document is the poem Ora faz ost'o Senhor de Navarra by Joam Soares de Paiva, written around 1200. The first non-literary documents in Galician-Portuguese date from the early 13th century, the Noticia de Torto (1211) and the Testamento of Afonso II of Portugal (1214), both samples of medieval notarial prose. Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... Afonso II of Portugal (English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), known as the Fat (Port. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ...


In the Middle Ages, Galaico-português (or Galician-Portuguese) was a language of culture, poetry, and religion throughout not only Galicia and Portugal, but also Castile (where Castilian was used mainly for prose). The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


After the separation of Portuguese and Galician, Galician was considered provincial, and it was not widely used for literary or academic purposes until its renaissance in the mid-19th century. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


With the advent of democracy, Galician has been brought into the country's institutions, and it is now co-official with Spanish. Galician is taught in schools, and there is a public Galician-language television channel, TVG. Televisión de Galicia (Television of Galicia), is a Galician TV channel, part of the Compañía de Radiotelevisión de Galicia (CRTVG). ...


The Real Academia Galega and other Galician institutions celebrate each May 17 as "Día das Letras Galegas" ("Galician Literature Day"), dedicated each year to a deceased Galician-language writer chosen by the academy. This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Día das Letras Galegas (Galician for Galician Literature Day) is a holiday in Galicia, a region of Spain. ...


Sounds

Vowels
Phoneme (IPA) Grapheme Example
/a/ a nada
/e/ e tres
/ɛ/ e ferro
/i/ i min
/o/ o bonito
/ɔ/ o home
/u/ u rúa
Consonants
Phoneme (IPA) Grapheme Example
/b/ b/v banco, ventá
/θ/ z/c cero, zume
/tʃ/ ch chama
/d/ d dixo
/f/ f falo
/ɡ/ or /ħ/ g/gu galego, guerra
/k/ c/qu conta, quente
/l/ l luns
/ʝ/ or /ʎ/ ll botella
/m/ m mellor
/n/ n nove
/ɲ/ ñ mañá
/ŋ/ nh algunha
/p/ p por
/ɾ/ r hora
/r/ r/rr recto, ferro
/s/ s sal
/t/ t tinto
/ʃ/ x viaxe

See also Wikipedia in Galician: Official orthography of Galician. Image File history File links Description: IPA vowel chart for Galician. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Almost all dialects of Galician have lost nasal vowels. Along the modern age, Galician consonants went through significant changes which closely paralleled the evolution of the Spanish consonants, namely the following consonant mergers and sound changes: A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the mouth and the nose. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with History of the Spanish language. ...

  • /β//b/;
  • /z//s/;
  • /dz//ts//s/ in western dialects or /θ/ in eastern and central dialects;
  • /ʒ//ʃ/;

For a comparison, see Differences between Spanish and Portuguese: Sibilants. Additionally, during the 17th and 18th centuries the western and central dialects of Galician developed a fricative pronunciation for the phoneme written g/gu, which is found neither in Spanish nor in Portuguese, called gheada: /ɡ//ħ/. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


During the 20th and 21st centuries Spanish has experienced a new consonant shift in which the lateral consonant /ʎ/ came to be pronounced as a fricative /ʝ/ (see yeísmo). This merger has somewhat influenced other dialects spoken in Spain, including some Galician ones, but it is rejected by Galician language institutions. The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Yeísmo is a distinctive feature of many dialects of the Spanish language, which consists of the merger of the palatal lateral approximant phoneme (written ll) with another phoneme, usually realized as a palatal fricative or affricate. ...


In this respect, it can be said that Portuguese is phonologically more conservative than Galician.


Grammar

Galician allows pronominal clitics to be attached to indicative and subjunctive forms, as does Portuguese, unlike standard Spanish or Castilian. After many centuries of close contact between the two languages, Galician has also adopted many loan words from Spanish, and some calques of Spanish syntax. In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ...


Writing system

The current official Galician orthography was introduced in 1982, and made law in 1983, by the Real Academia Galega (RAG), based on a report by the ILG. It remains a source of contention, however; a minority of citizens would rather have the institutions recognize Galician as a Portuguese variety as cited before, and therefore still opt for the use of writing systems that range from adapted medieval Galician-Portuguese writing system or European Portuguese one (see reintegrationism). Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... The term reintegracionismo or reintegrationism describes a linguistic movement in Galicia, Spain, which aims to reincorporate the Galician dialect or language into the Portuguese language. ...


In July 2003 the Real Academia Galega (Galician Royal Academy) modified the language normative to admit some archaic Galician-Portuguese forms conserved in modern Portuguese. These changes have been considered an attempt to build a consensus among major Galician philology trends and represent, in words of the Galician Language Academy, "the orthography desired by 95% of Galician people." The 2003 reform is thought to put an end to the so-called "normative wars" raised by the different points of view at the relationship between the modern Galician and Portuguese languages. This modification has been accepted only by a part of the reintegrationist movement at this point. This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ...


The question of the spelling system has very significant political connotations in Galicia. At present there are minor but significant political parties representing points of view that range from greater self-government for Galicia within the Spanish political setup to total political independence from Spain designed to preserve the Galician culture and language from the risk of being inundated by the Castillian culture and language. Since the modern Galician orthography is somewhat influenced by Castillian spelling conventions, some parties wish to remove it. Since medieval Galician and medieval Portuguese were the same language, modern Portuguese spelling is nearer to medieval Galician than to modern Galician Spanish-style spelling. Language unification would also have the benefit of linking the Galician language to another major language with its own extensive cultural production, which would weaken the links that bind Galicia and Spain and ultimately favor the people's aspiration toward an independent state. However, although all three concepts are frequently associated, there is no correlation between reintegrationism, independentism and defending Galician and Portuguese linguistic unity, and in fact reintegrationism has a small force in the whole Galician nationalist movement.


Examples

English Galician (Official) Galician (Reintegrationist) Portuguese Spanish
Good Morning Bo día / Bos días Bons Dias Bom Dia / Bons dias Buenos dias
What's your name? Como te chamas? ¿Cómo te llamas?
I love you Quérote / Ámote Amo-te Te quiero / Te amo
Excuse me Desculpe Disculpe
Thank you Grazas / Graciñas Obrigado Gracias
Welcome Benvido Bem-vido Bem-vindo Bienvenidos
Goodbye Adeus Adiós
Yes Si Sim
No Non Nom Não No
Dog Can Cam Cão Perro (Rarely Can)
Grandfather Avó /aˈbo/ Avô* /ɐˈvo/ Abuelo
Newspaper Xornal Jornal Periódico
Mirror Espello Espelho Espejo

*Note that avó /ɐˈvɔ/ in Portuguese means "grandmother". This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... The term reintegracionismo or reintegrationism describes a linguistic movement in Galicia, Spain, which aims to reincorporate the Galician dialect or language into the Portuguese language. ... Variant of good morning exercise with barbell hung from arms rather than held behind the neck. ... The phrase I love you is a phrase used to express the emotion of love. ... Thank You may mean: Look up thank you in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A greeting word. ... Look up Goodbye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up yes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Ethnologue
  2. ^ Lindley Cintra, Luís F. Nova Proposta de Classificação dos Dialectos Galego-PortuguesesPDF (469 KiB) Boletim de Filologia, Lisboa, Centro de Estudos Filológicos, 1971 (in Portuguese).
  3. ^ Vázquez Cuesta, Pilar «Non son reintegracionista», interview given to La Voz de Galicia on 22/02/2002 (in Galician).

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems, in 1993, for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

See also

Barallete was the name of an argot employed by the peripatetic knife-sharpeners and umbrella holders (afiladores y paraguerios) of the Galician city of Ourense. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Eonavian or Eonaviego is a term used to refer a set of dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends in the zone of Asturias between the Eo and Navia rivers (or more exactly Eo and Barayo rivers). ... Galician literature has been developed both in Galician and Spanish. ... Fala dos arxinas or Verbo dos arginas (in Spanish, jerga de los canteros) (Galician, argot of stonecutters) is the name of an argot employed by stonecutters in the Spanish region of Galicia, particularly in the area of Pontevedra. ... Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ... Portuguese (  or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal from the Latin spoken by romanized Celtiberians about 1000 years ago. ... Fala language (SIL Code: FAX; ISO 639-2 code: roa) is a Romance language from the Portuguese-Galician subgroup spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of which 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Galician language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Newspapers in Galician: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...

Other links related to Galician:


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Galician language, alphabet and pronunciation (405 words)
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