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Encyclopedia > Galicia (Central Europe)
Coat-of-arms [citation needed] of the Principality and Kingdom of Halych-Volhynia in the 13th —14 th century.
Coat-of-arms [citation needed] of the Principality and Kingdom of Halych-Volhynia in the 13th —14 th century.
Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria in the 19th century.
Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria in the 19th century.
Approximate borders of Great Moravia at its greatest extent (in 89094)
Árpád and the six other chieftains of the Magyars. From the Chronicon Pictum. It showing the shield with the Royal House of Arpad emblem, a black sitting jackdaw.
Árpád and the six other chieftains of the Magyars. From the Chronicon Pictum. It showing the shield with the Royal House of Arpad emblem, a black sitting jackdaw.
King Andrew II Rex Galiciae at Lodomerie with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien
King Andrew II Rex Galiciae at Lodomerie with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien
History of Ukraine
Ancient times:
Medieval era:
Cossack era:
Imperial rule:
Modern era:
Polish Statehood

Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина, Polish: Galicja, Russian: Галиция (Galitsiya), German: Galizien, Hungarian: Halics, earlier also Gácsország, Czech: Halič, Yiddish: גאַליציע (Galitsye), Turkish: Galiçya, Romanian: Galiţia) is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. The nucleus of historic Galicia is formed of three regions of western Ukraine: Lviv, Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk. Throughout history the term has been used to denote widely varying territories and has various meaning among different groups. There are two well-known places called Galicia: Galicia, one of Spains autonomous communities. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Great_Moravia. ... Image File history File links Great_Moravia. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Events The sovereignty of prince Svatopluk I in Bohemia is confirmed. ... Births Deaths Events Northumbrians and East Angles swear allegiance to Alfred the Great. ... Image File history File links HetVezer-ChroniconPictum. ... Image File history File links HetVezer-ChroniconPictum. ... Árpád Árpád (c. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Jackdaw range The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), sometimes known as the Eurasian Jackdaw or European Jackdaw, is one of the smallest species (34–39 cm in length) in the genus of crows and ravens. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Andrew II of Hungary with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien Andrew II (Hungarian: András or Endre, Slovak: Ondrej, Croatian: ) (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Reconstruction of a Trypillia hut, in the Trypillia museum, Ukraine. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... Catacomb culture, ca. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Zarubintsy culture was one of the major archaeological cultures which flourished in the area north of the Black Sea along the upper Dnieper and Pripyat Rivers, stretching west towards the Vistula Basin from the 3rd or 2nd centuries BC until the 2nd century AD. It was identified ca 1899... Chernyakhiv culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ... The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or... White Croatia is the area of modern-day Poland, Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Slovakia from which the White Croats migrated in the 7th century into Dalmatia, Croatia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... The Ruin (Ukrainian: ) is a period of Ukrainian history from the death of hetman Bohdan Khmelnitsky in 1657 and until ascension of hetman Ivan Mazepa in 1687. ... Right-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Правобережна Україна Russian: Правобережная Украина; Polish: Prawobrzeżna Ukraina), a... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of... Sloboda Ukraine (Russian: Слободская Украина) or Slobozhanshchina (Слобожанщина) was a historical region (17th–18th centuries) on the frontier of Muscovy and Imperial Russia... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Zaporizhia (Ukrainian: Запоріжжя, Zaporizhia; Polish: Zaporoże or Dzikie Pola (Wild Fields or Savage Steppe), Russian: Запоро́жье, Zaporozhye) is a historical region which is situated about the Dnieper River, below the Dnieper rapids (porohy, poroża), (now Ukraine), hence the name, translated as territory beyond the rapids. During the 16th to 18th... This article is in need of attention. ... This article covers the history of the administrative division of Russia from 1708 to 1743. ... Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... One of the underlying themes of Ukrainian history of the early 20th century has been the quest for an independent nation. ... Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: or ЗУНР, ZUNR; also translated West Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Flag Capital Kyiv Government Monarchy Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky History  - Established April, 1918  - Disestablished December, 1918 Ukrainian State (Ukrainian: , Ukrains’ka Derzhava) or The Hetmanate (Ukrainian: , Het’manat) was a short-lived polity in Ukraine, installed under support of the Central powers by Ukrainian Cossacks and military organizations after disbanding the... The Directorate, or Directory (Директория, Dyrektoriya), was a government of the Ukrainian National Republic formed in 1918 in rebellion against Skoropadskys Hetmanate. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (Galician SSR) existed from July 8, 1920 to September 21, 1920 during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the South-Western front of the Red Army. ... Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Motto Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Anthem Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Ukraines glory has not perished Map of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anthem Ще не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля(Ukrainian) Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny ni slava, ni volya(transliteration) Ukraines glory has not yet perished, nor her freedom Ukraine() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Kiev (Kyiv) Official languages Ukrainian Demonym Ukrainian Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Viktor Yushchenko  -  Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych Independence from... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x810, 414 KB) Coat of Arms of Piast dynasty The eagle was cropped from some {{Polishsymbol}} coat of arms made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w:User:Snargle... Coat of arms Central Europe, c. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... Flag The Grand Duchy was administrated as the Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish, German Government Monarchy Regency Council Cardinal Kakowski Prince Lubomirski Józef Ostrowski Prime Minister  - 1917-1918 Jan Kucharzewski  - 1918 Antoni Ponikowski  - 1918 Jan Kanty Steczkowski  - 1918 Ladislaw Wróblewski Historical era World War I  - Established November 5, 1916  - Disestablished November 11, 1918 Currency Polish marka... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... This article is about the country. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Lviv (Львівська область, L’vivs’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian, Lwów in Polish, Lemberg in German) is a region of western Ukraine, created on December 4, 1939. ... Ternopil (Тернопільська область, Ternopil’s’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian; Tarnopol in Polish; Ternopol in Russian) is a region of Ukraine. ... Ivano-Frankivsk (Івано-Франківська область, Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian) is a region of Ukraine. ...

Tribal area

In Roman times the region was populated by various tribes, including Celtic-German the Lugians, Goths and Vandals (the Przeworsk and Puchov cultures). In turbulent times starting from Wandering of the nations, the great migration that happened in parallel to fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by the following groups of nomadic people, started from Sarmatians (Alans) (4th century-5th century), Huns (5th century), Awars (6th century-8th century), Slavs (6th century), Bulgars, Pechenegs, Cumans, Hungarians (9th century) and Tatars (13th century-18th century). Finally, the Celtic-German population was dominated by West Slavs people, identified with slavized Sarmatian groups of Croats (White Croats, Red Croats) and Serbs, and Slavic Lendians, etc. Around 833 the West Slavs became part of the Great Moravian state. Upon the invasion of the Hungarian tribes into the heart of the Great Moravian Empire around 899, the Lendians of the area found themselves under influence of Hungarian Empire. In 955 their area seems to constitute part of Bohemian State. Around 970 it was included in forming the Polish state. This area was mentioned in 981 (by Nestor), when Volodymyr the Great of Kievan Rus took the area over on his way into Poland. The area returned to Poland in 1018, back to Rus in 1031, and Casimir III of Poland recovered it in 1340. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ... The German term Völkerwanderung (lit. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [28] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... West Slavic tribes from Bavarian Geographer, 845, Lendizi nr 33 Lendians, Polish: LÄ™dzianie by Constantine VII Lendzanenoi or Lendzaninoi in 959, by Josippon Lz’njn in 953, by Nestor the Chronicler, 981 - Lachy, by Ali al-Masudi Landzaneh - 940, better known in historiography by the names derived from the... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Great Moravia (Old Church Slavonic approximately Велья Морава, Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna Moravia) was a Slav state existing on the territory of present-day Moravia and Slovakia between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Events Edward the Elder becomes King of England. ... West Slavic tribes from Bavarian Geographer, 845, Lendizi nr 33 Lendians, Polish: LÄ™dzianie by Constantine VII Lendzanenoi or Lendzaninoi in 959, by Josippon Lz’njn in 953, by Nestor the Chronicler, 981 - Lachy, by Ali al-Masudi Landzaneh - 940, better known in historiography by the names derived from the... Motto none Historically Regnum Mariae Patronae Hungariae (Latin) Kingdom of Mary the Patroness of Hungary Anthem Himnusz Hymn (God, bless the Hungarians) Hungary() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Budapest Official languages Hungarian (Magyar) Demonym Hungarian Government Parliamentary republic  -  President László Sólyom... Events August 10 - Otto I the Great defeats Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld Edwy becomes King of England. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... This article is about the country. ... Events Births Princess Theodora, later Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Mark Antokolski Nestor the Chronicler Monument to Nestor the Chronicler near the Kiev Pechersk Lavra Nestor (c. ... Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hessen, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ...


The territory was settled by the East Slavs from the early middle ages and, in the 12th century, a Rurikid Principality of Halych (Galich) was formed there, merged in the end of the century with the neighboring Volhynia into the Principality of Halych Volhynia that existed for a century and a half. From 1352, when the principality was partitioned between the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, most of Galicia belonged to the Polish Crown where it also remained also after the 1569 union between Poland and Lithuania. Upon the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772 the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, became the largest, most populous, and northernmost province of Austria where it remained until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Rurik Dynasty ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Origin and variations of the name

The name Galicia et Lodomeria was used in the 13th century by King Andrew II of Hungary. It was a Latinised version of the Slavic names Halych and Volodymyr, the major cities of the Ukrainian or Ruthenian principality of Halych-Volhynia, which was under Hungarian rule in 121421. No doubt, that Latin designation Galicia et Lodomeria was used for this land before the period when it had been occupied by Andrew II for seven years. Prior to that, Halych-Volhynia was a mighty principality under the reign of Roman the Great in 11701205. After Hungarians had been expelled in 1221, Ruthenians took back the rule. Roman's son Daniel was crowned a king of Galicia-Volhynia, founding also Lviv (Leopolis), in honour of his son Leo. Leo moved the capital from Halych to Lviv. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Andrew II of Hungary with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien Andrew II (Hungarian: András or Endre, Slovak: Ondrej, Croatian: ) (c. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Volodymyr-Volynskyi or Volodymyr-Volynsky (Ukrainian: Володимир-Волинський, Volodymyr-Volynskyi;Russian: Владимир-Волынский, Vladimir-Volinskij; Polish: WÅ‚odzimierz WoÅ‚yÅ„ski, ) is a city in Volyn Oblast, northwestern Ukraine, with a population of 38,000 (2004). ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... Roman the Great or Roman Mstislavich (c. ... December 29: Assassination of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sailed to North America and founded a colony. ... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Roman the Great or Roman Mstislavich (c. ... Monument to King Danylo in Lviv. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Lev I of Halych in front of his capital, Lviv Leo I of Halych (Ukrainian: , Lev Danylovich), (born ca. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ...


The origin of the Ukrainian name Halych (Галич) (Halicz in Polish, Галич in Russian, Galic in Latin) is uncertain. Some historians speculate it has to do with people of Celtic origin that settled nearby, and is related to many similar place names found across Europe and Asia Minor, such as Galatia, Gaul, and perhaps Spanish Galicia. Others assert that the name is of Slavic origin — from halytsa (galitsa) meaning "a naked (unwooded) hill", or from halka (galka) which means "a jackdaw". The jackdaw was used as a charge in the city's coat of arms and later also in the coat of arms of Galicia. The name, however, predates the coat of arms which may represent folk etymology. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Jackdaw range The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), sometimes known as the Eurasian Jackdaw or European Jackdaw, is one of the smallest species (34–39 cm in length) in the genus of crows and ravens. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ...


Although Hungarians were driven out from Halych-Volhynia by 1221, Hungarian kings continued to add Galicia et Lodomeria to their official titles. In the 16th century, those titles were inherited, together with the Hungarian crown, by the Habsburgs in 1527. In 1772, Empress Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, decided to use those historical claims to justify her participation in the first partition of Poland. In fact, the territories acquired by Austria did not correspond exactly to those of former Halych-Volhynia. Volhynia, including the city of Włodzimierz Wołyński (Volodymyr Volyns'kyi) — after which Lodomeria was named — was taken by Russia, not Austria. On the other hand, much of Lesser Poland — which was historically and ethnically Polish, not Ruthenian — did become part of Galicia. Moreover, despite the fact that the claim derived from the historical Hungarian crown, Galicia and Lodomeria was not officially assigned to Hungary, and after the Ausgleich of 1867, it found itself in Cisleithania, or the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Coat of arms of Lodomeria Lodomeria is the Latinized name of Volodymyr-Volhynia, a medieval Ruthenian principality, which was part of Halych-Volhynia in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Kraków Katowice WrocÅ‚aw Łódź PoznaÅ„ Bydgoszcz Lublin BiaÅ‚ystok GdaÅ„sk Szczecin Warsaw M A S O V I A S I L E S I A G R E A T E R P O L A N D L E S S E R P O... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... Cisleithania (German: Cisleithanien) was the name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918. ...


The full official name of the new Austrian province was Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator. After the incorporation of the Free City of Kraków in 1846, it was extended to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Krakau with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator. Arms of OÅ›wiÄ™cim View into part of the market square. ... Zator is a town in southern Poland. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ...


Each of those entities was formally separate; they were listed as such in the Austrian emperor's titles, each had its distinct coat-of-arms and flag. For administrative purposes, however, they formed a single province. The duchies of Auschwitz (Oświęcim) and Zator were small historical principalities west of Kraków, on the border with Prussian Silesia. Lodomeria existed only on paper; it had no territory and could not be found on any map. The title of Emperor of Austria was proclaimed in 1804 by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, who feared for the future of the old Reich in the face of Napoleons aggressions, and wished to maintain his imperial title in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat OÅ›wiÄ™cim County Gmina OÅ›wiÄ™cim Established 12th century City Rights 1291 Government  - Mayor Janusz Andrzej MarszaÅ‚ek Area  - Town 30. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Coat of arms of Lodomeria Lodomeria is the Latinized name of Volodymyr-Volhynia, a medieval Ruthenian principality, which was part of Halych-Volhynia in the 13th and 14th centuries. ...


Galicia and Lodomeria in different languages

  • Latin: Galicia et Lodomeria
  • German: Galizien und Lodomerien
  • Hungarian: Gácsország (or Halics) és Lodoméria
  • Polish: Galicja i Lodomeria
  • Slovak: Halič a Vladimírsko or Galícia a Lodoméria
  • Ukrainian: Галичина і Володимирія (Halychyna i Volodymyria)
  • Russian: Галиция и Лодомерия (Galicija i Lodomerija)
  • Romanian: Galiţia şi Lodomeria
  • Italian: Galizia e Lodomeria
  • Spanish: Galicia o Galitzia
  • Portuguese: Galícia
  • French: Galicie
  • Yiddish: גאליציע און לאָדאָמעריע

For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Yiddish (Yid. ...

History

Red Ruthenia

Main articles: Red Ruthenia and Halych-Volhynia

The region of what later became known as Galicia appears to have been incorporated, in large part, into the Empire of Great Moravia. It is first attested in the Primary Chronicle under 981, when Volodymyr the Great of Kievan Rus took over the Red Ruthenian cities in his military campaign on the border with Poland. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... The Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Повсть времяньныхъ лтъ; Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let; Ukrainian: Повість времмених літ, Povist vremennykh lit; often translated into English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the Ancient Rus from around 850 to 1110 originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. ... Events Births Princess Theodora, later Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the following century, the area shifted briefly to Poland (1018 to 1031) and then back to Kievan Rus. As one of many successors to Kievan Rus', the Principality of Halych existed from 1087 to 1200, when Roman the Great finally managed to unite it with Volhynia in the state of Halych-Volynia. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... Roman the Great or Roman Mstislavich (c. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ...


Despite anti-Mongol campaigns of Daniel of Halych, who was crowned the king of Halych-Volhynia, his state occasionally paid tribute to the Golden Horde. Daniel's son Lev moved his capital from Halych to Lviv. Daniel's dynasty also attempted to gain papal and broader support in Europe for an alliance against the Mongols, but proved unable of competing with the rising powers of centralised Great Duchy of Lithuania and Poland. In the 1340s, the Rurikid dynasty died out, and the area passed to King Casimir III of Poland. But the sister state of Volynia, together with Kiev fell under Lithuanian control. Monument to King Danylo in Lviv. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... “Lvov” redirects here. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вял&#1110... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1290s 1300s 1310s 1320s 1330s - 1340s - 1350s 1360s 1370s 1380s 1390s Years: 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 Events and Trends The Black Death spreads across Europe The Battle of Sluys is fought between the naval fleets of... Rurik Dynasty ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hessen, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


Thereafter, the region comprised a Polish possession divided into a number of voivodeships. This began an era of heavy Polish settlement among the Ruthenian population. Armenian and Jewish immigration to the region also occurred in large numbers. Numerous castles were built during this time and some new cities were founded: Stanisławów (now Ivano-Frankivsk) and Krystynopol (now Chervonohrad). A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: Voievodat, Polish: Województwo, Serbian: Vojvodstvo or Vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Ivano-Frankivsk highlighted. ... Krystynopol is a city in the Ukraine. ...


Galicia was twice occupied by the Ottoman Turks in the 1490s and 1520s, ravaged by Ukrainian Cossack pogroms and Russian and Swedish invasions during The Deluge, and the Swedes returned during the Great Northern War of the early 18th century. For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Decades: 1440s 1450s 1460s 1470s 1480s - 1490s - 1500s 1510s 1520s 1530s 1540s Years: 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 Events and Trends 1490: Tirant lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell & Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


With the support of Prussia and Russia, Stanisław August Poniatowski was selected to be king in 1764; these countries intended, through him, to secure their own influence on Poland. For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Princes of Galicia

After the death of George II of Halych, Galicia was annexed by the Kingdom of Poland, between 1340 and 1366, during the reign of Casimir III of Poland. Géza II (Hungarian: , Slovak: Gejza, Serbian: Гејза) was king of Hungary from 1141 until his death in 1161. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Events June 3 - Thomas Becket consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Roman the Great or Roman Mstislavich (c. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Lev I of Halych in front of his capital, Lviv Leo I of Halych (Ukrainian: , Lev Danylovich), (born ca. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Yuriy I of Halych also Yuriy I of Lviv (born April 24 1252 (1257 ?) — March 18, 1308) - Prince of Belz (1264-1301), king of Halych-Volhynia (1301-1308). ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Andrew of Halych (Ukrainian: ), Andriy Yuriyovich, Andriy I, Andrew I of Galich, Andrii I, Andrei of Galicia, Andrey of Galič, Andrew of Galicia (unknown - 1323) was the last Ruthenian (Ukrainian) king of Galicia-Volhynia in 1308-1323 (according to other sources since 1315). ... Leo II of Halych (Ukrainian: ), Lev Yuriyovich, Lev II, Lev II of Galich, Leo II of Galicia, Lev II Halytskyi, Lev II of Galič, Lew II Halicki (unknown - 1323) was the last Ruthenian (Ukrainian) king of Galicia-Volhynia in 1308-1323 (according to other sources since 1315). ... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: in Letters of Gediminas, Vilnius is named as the capital city Pharos of Alexandria Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world... Bolesław Jerzy II Mazowiecki (Boleslaus George II of Masovia, also known as Yuriy II of Halicz and Bolesław Trojdenowicz) (1308-1340) was a ruler of the Piast dynasty. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: in Letters of Gediminas, Vilnius is named as the capital city Pharos of Alexandria Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Heiress Maria of the Duchies of Galicia (1323-41) was wife to George II of Halych and sister to Leo II of Halych and Andrew of Halych, daughter of George of Halych. ... Coat of arms of Galicia Lubart (Lubko, Lubartas, Dymitr; ca 1300 – 1384) was the King of Galicja (independent kingdom 1253 – 1349) 1340 – 1349, Prince of Polock 13?? – 1342, Wlodzimierz, Luck 1340 – 138?, Wolynia 1340 – 1349, 1350 – 1366, 1371 – 1383. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Opolski (1225-1282), Duke of Kalisz (1234-1244), Duke of WieluÅ„ (1234-1249), Duke of Opole and Racibórz since 1246. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Bolesław Jerzy II Mazowiecki (Boleslaus George II of Masovia, also known as Yuriy II of Halicz and Bolesław Trojdenowicz) (1308-1340) was a ruler of the Piast dynasty. ... Coat of arms Central Europe, c. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hessen, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date...


Kings of Galicia

Andrew II of Hungary with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien Andrew II (Hungarian: András or Endre, Slovak: Ondrej, Croatian: ) (c. ... Lat. ... Events Temujin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Coloman (Hungarian: Könyves Kálmán, Slovak and Croatian: Koloman) (1070 – February 3, 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 to 1116. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Chūkyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... Monument to King Danylo in Lviv. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... A contemporary monument to the Battle of Lewes, a crucial 1264 battle in the Second Barons War in England. ... Drohiczyn is a town in north-eastern Poland. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ... Emperor Charles I of Austria The Blessed Charles I (Karl Franz Josef Ludwig Hubert Georg Maria von Habsburg-Lothringen) (17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922) (Hungarian: IV. Károly (Károly Ferenc József)) was (among other titles) the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary and Bohemia... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

From partitions of Poland to the Congress of Vienna

Territorial changes of Galicia, 1772–1918
Territorial changes of Galicia, 17721918
Map of Galicia in 1836

In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by Austria in the First Partition of Poland. As such, the Austrian region of Poland and what was later to become Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country. However, a large portion of ethnically Polish lands to the west was also added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term, Galicia. Lviv (Lemberg, Lwów) served as capital of Austrian Galicia, which was dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was mostly Ukrainian, or "Ruthenian", as they were known at the time. In addition to the Polish aristocracy and gentry who inhabited almost all parts of Galicia, and the Ruthenians in the east, there existed a large Jewish population, also more heavily concentrated in the eastern parts of the province. Download high resolution version (742x726, 49 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Galicia (Central Europe) Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (742x726, 49 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Galicia (Central Europe) Categories: GFDL images ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A cropped version of a public domain map (source). ... A cropped version of a public domain map (source). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Lviv ( Львів in Ukrainian; Львов, Lvov in Russian; Lwów in Polish; Leopolis in Latin; Lemberg in German—see also cities alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine with 830,000 inhabitants (an additional 200,000 commute daily from... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ...


During the first decades of Austrian rule, Galicia was firmly governed from Vienna, and many significant reforms were carried out by a bureaucracy staffed largely by Germans and Germanized Czechs. The aristocracy was guaranteed its rights, but these rights were considerably circumscribed. The former serfs were no longer mere chattel, but became subjects of law and were granted certain personal freedoms, such as the right to marry without the lord's permission. Their labour obligations were defined and limited, and they could bypass the lords and appeal to the imperial courts for justice. The Eastern Rite "Uniate" Church, which primarily served the Ruthenians, was renamed the Greek Catholic Church (see Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church) to bring it onto a par with the Roman Catholic Church; it was given seminaries, and eventually, a Metropolitan. Although unpopular with the aristocracy, among the common folk, Polish and Ukrainian/Ruthenian alike, these reforms created a reservoir of good will toward the emperor which lasted almost to the end of Austrian rule. At the same time, however, Austria extracted from Galicia considerable wealth and conscripted large numbers of the peasant population into its armed services. “Wien” redirects here. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


From 1815 to 1860

In 1815, as a result of decisions of the Congress of Vienna, the Lublin area and surrounding regions were ceded by Austria to the Congress Kingdom of Poland which was ruled by the Tsar, and the Ternopil Region, including the historical region of Southern Podolia, was returned to Austria from Russia which had held it since 1809. The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Ternopil (Ukrainian: , translit. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ...


The 1820s and 1830s were a period of absolutist rule from Vienna, the local Galician bureaucracy still being filled by Germans and Germanized Czechs, although some of their children were already becoming Polonized. After the failure of the November insurrection in Russian Poland in 1830-31, in which a few thousand Galician volunteers participated, many Polish refugees arrived in Galicia. The latter 1830s were rife with Polish conspiratorial organizations whose work culminated in the unsuccessful Galician insurrection of 1846, easily put down by the Austrians with the help of the Galician peasantry which remained loyal to the emperor. This insurrection only occurred in the western, Polish-populated, part of Galicia, and the conflict was between patriotic, noble, rebels, and unsympathetic Polish peasants. In 1846, as one of the results of this unsuccessful revolt, the former Polish capital city of Cracow, which had been a Free City, and a republic, became a part of Galicia, administered from Lemberg. Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ...


In the 1830s, in the eastern part of Galicia, the beginnings of a national awakening occurred among the Ruthenians. A circle of activists, primarily Greek Catholic seminarians, affected by the romantic movement in Europe and the example of fellow Slavs elsewhere, especially in eastern Ukraine under the Russians, began to turn their attention to the common folk and their language. In 1837, the so-called Ruthenian Triad led by Markiyan Shashkevych, published The Mermaid of the Dniester, a collection of folksongs and other materials in the common Ruthenian tongue. Alarmed by such democratism, the Austrian authorities and the Greek Catholic Metropolitan banned the book. // Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Evolutionary theorist Charles Darwins expedition on the HMS Beagle. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Markiyan Shashkevych (6 November 1811, Pidlissia near Zolochiv – 7 June 1843, Novosilki near Baligród) was a famous Ukrainian poet, writer, and interpreter. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ...


In 1848, revolutions occurred in Vienna and other parts of the Austrian Empire. In Lemberg, a Polish National Council, and then later, a Ukrainian, or Ruthenian Supreme Council were formed. Even before Vienna had acted, the remnants of serfdom were abolished by the Governor, Franz Stadion, in an attempt to thwart the revolutionaries. Moreover, Polish demands for Galician automomy were countered by Ruthenian demands for national equality and for a partition of the province into an Eastern, Ruthenian part, and a Western, Polish part. Eventually, Lemberg was bombarded by imperial troops and the revolution put down completely. Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... —Alexis de Tocqueville, Recollections The European Revolutions of 1848, in some countries known as the Spring of Nations, were the bloody consequences of a variety of changes that had been taking place in Europe in the first half of the 19th century. ...


A decade of renewed absolutism followed, but to placate the Poles, Count Agenor Goluchowski, a conservative representative of the eastern Galician aristocracy, the so-called Podolians, was appointed Viceroy. He began to Polonize the local administration and managed to have Ruthenian ideas of partitioning the province shelved. He was unsuccessful, however, in forcing the Greek Catholic Church to shift to the use of the western or Gregorian calendar, or among Ruthenians generally, to replace the Cyrillic alphabet with the Latin alphabet. Count Agenor Gołuchowski (1812-1875) Polish-Austrian conservative politician, member of parliament of Austria, Minister of Interior and governor of Galicia, and father of Agenor Maria Gołuchowski and Adam Gołuchowski. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Constitutional experiments

In 1859, following Austrian military defeat in Italy, the Empire entered a period of constitutional experiments. In 1860, the Vienna Government, influenced by Agenor Goluchowski, issued its October Diploma, which envisioned a conservative federalization of the empire, but a negative reaction in the German-speaking lands led to changes in government and the issuing of the February Patent which watered down this de-centralization. Nevertheless, by 1861, Galicia was granted a Legislative Assembly or Sejm. Although at first pro-Habsburg Ruthenian and Polish peasant representation was considerable in this body (about half the assembly), and the pressing social and Ruthenian questions were discussed, administrative pressures limited the effectiveness of both peasant and Ruthenian representatives and the Sejm became dominated by the Polish aristocracy and gentry, who favoured further autonomy. This same year, disturbances broke out in Russian Poland and to some extent spilled over into Galicia. The Sejm ceased to sit. Combatants Image:Second-empire. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Count Agenor Gołuchowski (1812-1875) Polish-Austrian conservative politician, member of parliament of Austria, Minister of Interior and governor of Galicia, and father of Agenor Maria Gołuchowski and Adam Gołuchowski. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ...


By 1863, open revolt broke out in Russian Poland and, from 1864 to 1865, the Austrian government declared a State of Siege in Galicia, temporarily suspending civil liberties. Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


1865 brought a return to federal ideas along the lines suggested by Agenor Goluchowski and negotiations on autonomy between the Polish aristocracy and Vienna began once again. Count Agenor Gołuchowski (1812-1875) Polish-Austrian conservative politician, member of parliament of Austria, Minister of Interior and governor of Galicia, and father of Agenor Maria Gołuchowski and Adam Gołuchowski. ...


Meanwhile, the Ruthenians felt more and more abandoned by Vienna and among the "Old Ruthenians" grouped around the Greek Catholic Cathedral of Saint George, there occurred a turn towards Russia. The more extreme supporters of this orientation came to be known as "Russophiles". At the same time, influenced by the Ukrainian language poetry of the eastern Ukrainian writer, Taras Shevchenko, a Ukrainophile movement arose which published literature in the Ukrainian/Ruthenian vernacular and eventually established a network of reading halls. Supporters of this orientation came to be known as "Populists", and later, simply as "Ukrainians". Almost all Ruthenians, however, still hoped for national equality and for an administrative division of Galicia along ethnic lines. Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Russophiles (Ukrainian: Pусофіли), also sometimes referred to in some contexts Moscowphiles, were participants in a cultural and political movement in Western Ukraine known as Russophilia. ... Taras Shevchenko Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1814 [O.S. February 25] – March 10, 1861 [O.S. February 26]) was a Ukrainian poet, also an artist and a humanist. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ...


Galician autonomy

Galician Sejm (parliament) in Lviv
Galician Sejm (parliament) in Lviv

In 1866, following the Battle of Sadova and the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the Austrian empire began to experience increased internal problems. In an effort to shore up support for the monarchy, Emperor Franz Joseph began negotiations for a compromise with the Magyar nobility to ensure their support. Some members of the government, such as Austrian prime minister Count Belcredi, advised the Emperor to make a more comprehensive constitutional deal with all of the nationalities that would have created a federal structure. Belcredi worried that an accommodation with the Magyar interests would alienate the other nationalities. However, Franz Joseph was unable to ignore the power of the Magyar nobility, and they would not accept anything less than dualism between themselves and the traditional Austrian élites. Galician Parliament in Lwow The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... Galician Parliament in Lwow The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... In the Battle of Königgrätz or Battle of Sadowa of July 3, 1866, the Austro-Prussian War was decided in favor of Prussia. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph I (in English also Francis Joseph) ( August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Finally, after the so-called Ausgleich of February of 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into a dualist Austria-Hungary. Although the Polish and Czech plans for their parts of the monarchy to be included in the federal structure failed, a slow yet steady process of liberalisation of Austrian rule in Galicia started. Representatives of the Polish aristocracy and intelligentsia addressed the Emperor asking for greater autonomy for Galicia. Their demands were not accepted outright, but over the course of the next several years a number of significant concessions were made toward the establishment of Galician autonomy. The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ...

Galicia in 1897

From 1873, Galicia was de facto an autonomous province of Austria-Hungary with Polish and, to a much lesser degree, Ukrainian or Ruthenian, as official languages. The Germanisation had been halted and the censorship lifted as well. Galicia was subject to the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy, but the Galician Sejm and provincial administration had extensive privileges and prerogatives, especially in education, culture, and local affairs. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2260x1163, 952 KB) from 1897 Rand McNally World Atlas This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2260x1163, 952 KB) from 1897 Rand McNally World Atlas This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...


These changes were supported by many Polish intellectuals. In 1869, a group of young conservative publicists in Cracow, including Józef Szujski, Stanisław Tarnowski, Stanisław Koźmian and Ludwik Wodzicki, published a series of satirical pamphlets entitled Teka Stańczyka (Stańczyk's Portfolio). Only five years after the tragic end of the January Uprising, the pamphlets ridiculed the idea of armed national uprisings and suggested compromise with Poland's enemies, especially the Austrian Empire, concentration on economic growth, and acceptance of the political concessions offered by Vienna. This political grouping came to be known as the Stanczyks or Cracow Conservatives. Together with the eastern Galician conservative Polish landowners and aristocracy called the "Podolians", they gained a political ascendency in Galicia which lasted to 1914. 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Józef Szujski (1835-1883) was a Polish politician, historian and professor of the Jagiellonian University. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... This is a list of Polish uprisings. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


This shift in power from Vienna to the Polish landowning class was not welcomed by the Ruthenians, who became more sharply divided into Russophiles, who looked to Russia for salvation, and Ukrainians who stressed their connections to the common people. “Wien” redirects here. ... Russophiles (Ukrainian: Pусофіли), also sometimes referred to in some contexts Moscowphiles, were participants in a cultural and political movement in Western Ukraine known as Russophilia. ...


Both Vienna and the Poles saw treason among the Russophiles and a series of political trials eventually discredited them. Meanwhile, by 1890, an agreement was worked out between the Poles and the "Populist" Ruthenians or Ukrainians which saw the partial Ukrainianization of the school system in eastern Galicia and other concessions to Ukrainian culture. Thereafter, the Ukrainian national movement spread rapidly among the Ruthenian peasantry and, despite repeated setbacks, by the early years of the twentieth century this movement had almost completely replaced other Ruthenian groups as the main rival for power with the Poles. Throughout this period, the Ukrainians never gave up the traditional Ruthenian demands for national equality and for partition of the province into a western, Polish half and an eastern, Ukrainian half. “Wien” redirects here. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


The Great Economic Emigration

Beginning in the 1880s, a mass emigration of the Galician peasantry occurred. The emigration started as a seasonal one to Imperial Germany (newly unified and economically dynamic) and then later became a Trans-Atlantic one with large-scale emigration to the United States, Brazil, and Canada. // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle in another country. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ...


Caused by the backward economic condition of Galicia where rural poverty was widespread (see Economy below), the emigration began in the western, Polish populated part of Galicia and quickly shifted east to the Ukrainian inhabited parts. Poles, Ukrainians, Jews, and Germans all participated in this mass movement of countryfolk and villagers. Poles migrated principally to New England and the midwestern states of the United States, but also to Brazil and elsewhere; Ukrainians migrated to Brazil, Canada, and the United States, with a very intense emigration from Southern Podolia to Western Canada; and Jews emigrated both directly to the New World and also indirectly via other parts of Austria-Hungary. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


A total of several hundred thousand people were involved in this Great Economic Emigration which grew steadily more intense until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. The war put a temporary halt to the emigration which never again reached the same proportions. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


The Great Economic Emigration, especially the emigration to Brazil, the "Brazilian Fever" as it was called at the time, was described in contemporary literary works by the Polish poetess, Maria Konopnicka, the Ukrainian writer, Ivan Franko, and many others. Maria Konopnicka (May 23, 1842, Suwałki — October 8, 1910, Lwów) was a Polish poet, novelist, translator and essayist. ... Ivan Franko Ivan Franko (Іван Франко) (August 15, 1856 – May 28, 1916) was a Ukrainian poet and writer, social and literary critic, journalist, economist, and political activist. ...


First World War and Polish-Ukrainian conflict

During the First World War, Galicia saw heavy fighting between the forces of Russia and the Central Powers. The Russian forces overran most of the region in 1914 after defeating the Austro-Hungarian army in a chaotic frontier battle in the opening months of the war. They were in turn pushed out in the spring and summer of 1915 by a combined German and Austro-Hungarian offensive. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1918, Western Galicia became a part of the restored Republic of Poland, while the local Ukrainian population briefly declared the independence of Eastern Galicia as the "West Ukrainian People's Republic". During the Polish-Soviet War a short-lived Galician SSR in East Galicia existed. Eventually, the whole of the province was recaptured by Poles. The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (Galician SSR) existed from July 8, 1920 to September 21, 1920 during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the South-Western front of the Red Army. ...


The Ukrainians of the former eastern Galicia and the neighbouring province of Volhynia, made up about 15% of the Second Polish Republic population, and were its largest minority. Poland's annexation of Eastern Galicia, never accepted as legitimate by some Ukrainians, was internationally recognized in 1923. This attitude, among other local problems, contributed to growing tensions between the Polish government and the Ukrainian population, eventually giving the rise to the militant underground Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists or OUN (Ukrainian: or ОУН) was a Ukrainian political movement originally created in the interwar Poland. ...


In the western part of Galicia, Rusyn Lemkos formed the Lemko-Rusyn Republic in 1918, initially attempting to unite with Russia, instead of Ukraine. As this was impossible, they later attempted to unite with Rusyns from the area south of the Carpathians, in an attempt to join Czechoslovakia as a third ethnic entity. This effort was suppressed by the Polish government in 1920, and the area was incorporated into Poland. The leaders of the republic were tried by the Polish government, but were acquitted. Rusyn can refer to: Rusyns Rusyn language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Lemkos (Ukrainian: ) are one of four major ethnic groups who inhabit the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, and who speak the Lemko dialect/language. ... Lemko-Rusyn Republic or Ruska Narodna Respublika Lemkiv was founded in Florynka on December 5, 1918, in the aftermath of World War I, after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain. ...


Second World War and Distrikt Galizien

In the prelude to the Second World War, the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact divided Poland roughly along the Curzon line. Thus all territory east of the San, Bug and Neman rivers were annexed into the USSR, approximating the former territory of East Galicia. This territory was divided into four administrative districts (oblasts): Lvov, Stanislav, Drohobych and Tarnopol (the latter including parts of Volhynia) of the Soviet Republic of Ukraine. The period 1939 to 1941 is as controversial as the basis of USSR's legitimacy for its annexation. Whilst part of Jewish population did rejoice, at least initially, that they were part of a nation that at least respected their national identity, Soviet repression made soon the absolute majority feel otherwise. Jews who did not adopt Russian nationality were deported to Siberia. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... - Location of Lviv Oblast (red) on the map of Ukraine (blue). ... Location of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (red) on the map of Ukraine (blue). ... Drohobych Oblast (Ukrainian: ), (December 4, 1939—June 21, 1959) was an oblast in the Ukrainian SSR. It had a territory of 9. ... - Location of Ternopil Oblast (red) on the map of Ukraine (blue). ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... “Siberian” redirects here. ...


The period of Sovietisation came to an end when Germany occupied East Galicia during Operation Barbarossa in 1941. This was a period of massacres. Evacuating Soviets decided instantly to kill all the mass of people waiting in the prisons for deportation to Gulag even if their fault was petty crimes or no fault at all. Upon Wehrmacht forces arriving in the area, they discovered the evidence of the mass murders committed by Soviet forces, including mass killing of Jews and Polish intelligentsia. Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ...


On June 30, 1941, Yaroslav Stetsko declared in Lvov the Government of an independent Ukraine. This was done without approval of the Germans, and Galicia was subsequently incorporated into the General Government as Distrikt Galizien. As Germany viewed Galicia as already aryanized and civilized, the non-Jewish Galicians escaped the full extent of German intentions than many other Ukrainians who lived more eastward. Despite the more lenient extent of German control for the majority of the Galician population, the Jewish Galicians were deported to concentration camps, much like elsewhere in Ukraine. is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Yaroslav Stetsko (Polish Jarosław Stećko, Ukrainian Ярослав Стецько), (19 January 1912, Tarnopol, Galicia - 5 July 1986, Germany) was an Ukrainian leader of OUN. In 1929-1934, he studied philosophy at Lvov and Cracow universities. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... District Galicia (German: , Polish: ) was an administrative unit of the General Government from 1941 to 1944. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Conflicts in Galicia and Volhynia between Poles and Ukrainians also intensified during this time, with skirmishes between the Polish Home Army versus the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UIA) versus Soviet partisans. These conflicts included the massacres of Poles in Volhynia, and to a lesser extent within Galicia, revenge attacks on Ukrainians. Despite these warring factions, and despite many Galicians joining the UIA and supporting its anti-Soviet, anti-German and anti-Polish policies, some also joined Germany in its fight against Stalin, forming the 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Galizien (1st Ukrainian). Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... UPA appeal poster. ... Belorussian guerrillas liquidated, injured and took prisoner some 1. ... The Massacre of Poles in Volhynia was an ethnic cleansing conducted in Volhynia (Polish: ) during World War II. In the course of it, up to 80,000 Poles are thought to have been massacred by the nationalist Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya, or UPA). ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... SS-Division Galizien (Ukrainian: ), 14. ...


Legacy

The border was later recognized by the Allies since 194447, and the region was ethnically cleansed by Soviets and a communist Polish government (Operation Wisla). The old province, as modified by Austria around 1800, remains divided today, with the western part Polish, and the original eastern part, Ukrainian. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... In memory to the people deported from Lemkivshchyna “WisÅ‚a” (Vistula) Action was conducted in 1947 to relocate south-eastern Polands Ukrainian, Boyko and Lemko population. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...


People

In 1773, Galicia had about 2.6 million inhabitants in 280 cities and market towns and approx. 5 500 villages. There were nearly 19 000 noble families with 95 000 members (about 3% of the population). The serfs accounted for 1.86 million, more than 70% of the population. A small number were full-time farmers, but by far the overwhelming number (84%) had only smallholdings or no possessions.


No country of the Austrian monarchy had such a varied ethnic mix as Galicia: Poles, Ruthenians (Ukrainians), Jews, Germans, Armenians, Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians, Gypsies, etc. The Poles were mainly in the west, with the Ruthenians predominant in the eastern region ("Ruthenia"). Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ...


The Jews of Galicia had immigrated in the Middle Ages from Germany. German-speaking people were more commonly referred to by the region of Germany where they originated (such as Saxony or Swabia). For inhabitants who spoke different native languages, e.g. Poles and Ruthenians, identification was less problematic, but wide-spread multilingualness blurred the borders again. Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Germany, showing modern borders. ...


It is, however, possible to make a clear distinction in religious denominations: Poles were Roman Catholic, the Ruthenians (or Rusyn, now mostly calling themselves Ukrainians) belonged to Byzantine-Slavonic Greek Catholic Church. The Jews represented the third largest religious group, who kept mostly strictly their rabbinical faith. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ...


The average life expectancy was 27 years for men and 28.5 years for women, as compared to 33 and 37 in Bohemia, 39 and 41 in France and 40 and 42 in England. Also the quality of life was much lower. The yearly consumption of meat did not exceed 10 kilograms per capita, as compared to 24 kg in Hungary and 33 in Germany. This was mostly due to much lower average income. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Economy

Despite being one of the most populous regions in Europe, Galicia was also one of the least developed economically. The first detailed description of the economic situation of the region was prepared by Stanislaw Szczepanowski (18461900), a Polish lawyer, economist and chemist who in 1873 published the first version of his report titled Nędza galicyjska w cyfrach (The Galician Poverty in Numbers). Based on his own experience as a worker in the India Office, as well as his work on development of the oil industry in the region of Borysław and the official census data published by the Austro-Hungarian government, he described Galicia as one of the poorest regions in Europe. On a more informal level, the poverty was expressed in a Polish nickname for Galicja and Lodomeria: Golicja i Głodomeria, loosely translated as Broke- and Hunger-Land. The name of Stanisław Szczepanowski was used by at least two notable personalities in Polish history: Stanisław of Szczepanów (1030-1079), a bishop of Kraków known mostly for having been slain by King Boleslaus the Bold. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... The India Office was the British government department responsible for the government of British India. ... Boryslav as seen from the former castle hill Boryslav (Ukrainian: ; Polish BorysÅ‚aw) is a town in Lviv Oblast of Western Ukraine, on Tysmenitsa River (tributary of Dniester). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


In 1888 Galicia had 78 500 km² of area and was populated by ca. 6.4 million people, including 4.8 million peasants (75% of the whole population). The population density was 81 people per square kilometre and was higher than in France (71 inhabitants/km²) and similar to that of Germany.


The average income per capita did not exceed 53 Rhine guilders (RG), as compared to 91 RG in the Kingdom of Poland (ruled by Russia), 100 in Hungary and more than 450 RG in England at that time. Also the percentage of people with higher income was much lower than in other parts of the Monarchy and Europe: the luxury tax, paid by people whose yearly income exceeded 600 RG, was paid by 8 people in every 1000 inhabitants, as compared to 28 in Bohemia and 99 in Lower Austria. These comparisons are all with areas to the West of Galicia, and hence closer to Europe's industrial core. Comparing Galicia to Ukraine or other parts of Russia, it is less clear that Galicia was unusually underdeveloped. The gulden was the currency of Austria-Hungary between 1754 and 1892. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ...


The taxes in Galicia were relatively high and equalled to 9 Rhine guilders a year (ca. 17% of yearly income), as compared to 5% in Prussia and 10% in England. Despite high taxation, the national debt of the Galician government exceeded 300 million RG at all times, that is approximately 60 RG per capita. At the same time nations of Galicia (in 1910: 44% Poles, 42% Ukrainians, 11% Jews,[1] 3% others) were treated much better there, than in other parts of former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled by Prussia and Russia. Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


All in all, the region was used by the Austro-Hungarian government mostly as a reservoir of cheap workforce and recruits for the army,[citation needed] as well as a buffer zone against Russia. It was not until early in the 20th century that heavy industry started to be developed, and even then it was mostly connected to war production. The biggest state investments in the region were the railways and the fortresses in Przemyśl, Kraków and other cities. Industrial development was mostly connected to the private oil industry started by Ignacy Łukasiewicz and to the Wieliczka salt mines, operational since at least the Middle Ages. PrzemyÅ›l (pronounce: pʃεmiÉ•l, Ukrainian: Перемишль, Peremyshl) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 67,847 inhabitants (2005). ... Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (1822 - 1882) was a Polish pharmacist and inventor of the first method of distilling kerosene from seep oil. ... Wieliczka is a town (2006 population: 19,128) in southern Poland in the Kraków metropolitan area, and situated (since 1999) in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, previously (1975-1998) in Kraków Voivodeship. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Major cities and towns

Belz Coat of Arms 1772 Belz (Ukrainian: , Polish: BeÅ‚z, Yiddish: בעלז), a small town in the Lviv Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, near the border with Poland, is located between the Solokiya river (affluent of the Bug river) and the Rzeczyca stream. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939, location the city Panorama over the old town of Berezhany Berezhany (Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a city located in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Bochnia (IPA: ) is a town of 30,000 inhabitants on the river Raba in southern Poland, 35 km southeast of Kraków. ... Boryslav as seen from the former castle hill Boryslav (Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a town in the Lviv Oblast of Western Ukraine, on Tysmenitsa River (tributary of Dniester). ... Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939, location the city A church in Brody (1625). ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Busk (Ukrainian: ) is a city in Lviv Oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939, location the city Buchach (Ukrainian: ; Polish: ; Yiddish: בעטשאָטש, translit. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939, location the city Ternopil Oblast Chortkiv (Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a city in the Ternopil oblast (province) in western Ukraine. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Dukla is a village and an eponymous municipality in southeastern Poland, in the Subcarpathian Voivodship. ... Drohobych (Ukrainian: , German: , Polish: , Russian: ) is a city located at the confluence of the Tysmenytsia river and Seret, a tributary of the latter, in the Lviv Oblast (province), in western Ukraine. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Husiatyn is a town (1978 pop. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Coat of Arms Corpus Christi church Dominican church JarosÅ‚aw is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 40,523 inhabitants (2004). ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Facade of St. ... Kalush (in Ukrainian Калуш; Polish Kalusz, Yiddish קאַלוש Kalush or Kalish) is a city in Southwest Ukraine incorporated in 1939. ... Kolomyia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: ) is a town and a raion (district) centre in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province) in Ukraine, at the Prut River. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Kozova is a small town, in Ternopilska oblast of western Ukraine, in the historic area known as Galicia, 16 km east of Berezhany, some 30 km west of Ternopil and ca. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Coat of Arms Krosno (in full The Royal Free City of Krosno, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Krosno) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 48. ... This article is about the city in Poland. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Limanowa [] (German: Ilmenau) is a small town (population 14,000) in southern Poland, in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Village of Machliniec from 1877 Bolechow map Ðœachliniec was the German name of a small village in the Austrian province of Galizien . ... MY or my can mean: Wiktionary has a definition of: MY my, the first-person possessive adjective in the English language Burmese language (ISO 639 alpha-2, my) Malaysia (ISO country code, MY) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Nadvirna Coast of Arms Nadvirna (Ukrainian: , Polish: Nadwórna; Russian: , translit. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat City County Gmina Nowy SÄ…cz Estabilished 1292 City Rights 1292 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Nowak Area  - Town 57 km²  (22 sq mi) Population (2005)  - Town 84,594  - Density 1,484. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat OÅ›wiÄ™cim County Gmina OÅ›wiÄ™cim Established 12th century City Rights 1291 Government  - Mayor Janusz Andrzej MarszaÅ‚ek Area  - Town 30. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Peremyshliany (Ukrainian: ) is a city in Lviv Oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Pidhaytsi (Ukrainian: Підгайці; Polish: ) is a small city in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine. ... Podgórze is a suburb of Kraków, situated on the right bank of the WisÅ‚a River. ... PrzemyÅ›l (pronounce: pʃεmiÉ•l, Ukrainian: Перемишль, Peremyshl) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 67,847 inhabitants (2005). ... Przeworsk is a town in south-eastern Poland with 16,600 inhabitants (2001). ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Rohatyn (ukr. ... Rzeszów ( ) is a city in south-eastern Poland with a population of 164,000 (2005), granted a town charter in 1354, the capital of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously of Rzeszów Voivodeship (1945-1998). ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sambir is a city in western Ukraine, close to the border with Poland. ... Sanok, Latin: Sanocum, German: Saanig, Yiddish: Sonik, Ukrainian: Сянiк (Sianik), in full The Royal Free City of Sanok, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok), part of The Land of Sanok (Polish: Ziemia Sanocka, and Ruthenian Voivodeship), is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,261 inhabitants (2005). ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Ivano-Frankivsk highlighted. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Terebovlia (Ukrainian: , also Terebovlya, Polish: ) is a small city in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. ... Ternopil (Тернопіль in Ukrainian, Tarnopol in Polish, Ternopol in Russian) is a city in Western Ukraine, located at the banks of the Seret river. ... Tarnów is a city in south-eastern Poland with 121,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Truskavets (Polish: ) is a town in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine, close to the border with Poland. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada Miasta w Wadowicach Mayor Ewa Filipiak Area km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 19. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Zalishchyky (Ukrainian: Залiщики, Polish: , Russian: ) is a small city on the Dniester River in the southern part of Ternopil Oblast in Western Ukraine. ... Zator is a town in southern Poland. ... Zolochiv (Ukrainian: ; Polish: ; Russian: , translit. ... Yiddish (Yid. ...

References

  • Paul Robert Magocsi, Galicia: A Historical Survey and Bibliographic Guide (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983). Concentrates on the historical, or Eastern Galicia.
  • Andrei S. Markovits and Frank E. Sysyn, eds., Nationbuilding and the Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982). Contains an important article by Piotr Wandycz on the Poles, and an equally important article by Ivan L. Rudnytsky on the Ukrainians.
  • Christopher Hann and Paul Robert Magocsi, eds., Galicia: A Multicultured Land (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005). A collection of articles by John Paul Himka, Yaroslav Hrytsak, Stanislaw Stepien, and others.
  • A.J.P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1941, discusses Habsburg policy toward ethnic minorities.
  • (Polish) Grzegorz Hryciuk, Liczba i skład etniczny ludności tzw. Galicji Wschodniej w latach 1931-1959, Lublin 1996
  • Alison Fleig Frank, Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005). A new monograph on the history of the Galician oil industry in both the Austrian and European contexts.
  • Dohrn, Verena, journey to Galicia, publishing house S. Fischer, 1991, ISBN 3-10-015310-3
  • Drdacki, Moritz knight by Ostrow, the glad patents Galziens a contribution to customer of the Unterthanswesens, printed with J.P.Sollinger, Vienna, 1838, Reprint 1990, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-024-4
  • Kratter, F., letters over itzigen condition of Galicia a contribution to the Staatistik and knowledge of human nature, publishing house G. Ph. of usurer, Leipzig 1786, Reprint 1990, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-001-5
  • Mueller, Sepp, from the settlement to the resettlement, Wiss. contribution to history and regional studies of east Central Europe, hrsg. v. Joh. Gottfr. Herder Joh.-Gottfr.-Herder-Institut Marburg, NR. 54 Rohrer, Josef, remarks on a journey of the Turkish Graenze over the Bukowina by east and west Galicia, Schlesien and Maehren to Vienna, publishing house Anton Pichler, Vienna 1804, Reprint 1989, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-010-4
  • statistic Central Commission (Hrsg.), local repertory of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomerien with the Herzogthume Krakau, publishing house Carl Gerolds son, Vienna 1874, Reprint 1989, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-015-5
  • Stupnicki, Hipolit, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomerien sammt the Grossherzogthume Krakau and the Herzogthume Bukowina in geographical-historical-statistic relationship, printed with Peter Piller, Lemberg 1853, Reprint 1989, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-016-3
  • Traunpaur, Alfons Heinrich Chevalier d'Orphanie, Dreyssig of letters over Galicia or observations of a unpartheyischen man, Vienna 1787, Reprint 1990, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-013-9

Cambridge City Hall Cambridge is a city in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Piotr Stefan Wandycz is a Polish-American historian, President of the Polish Institute of Arts & Sciences of America, and profesor emeritus at Yale University, specializing in Eastern and Central European history. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... For others named John Taylor, see John Taylor. ...

See also

Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (Galician SSR) existed from July 8, 1920 to September 21, 1920 during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the South-Western front of the Red Army. ... Kraków Katowice Wrocław Łódź Poznań Bydgoszcz Lublin Białystok Gdańsk Szczecin Warsaw M A S O V I A S I L E S I A G R E A T E R P O L A N D L E S S E R P O... The following is a list of rulers of Galicia from the times of its recreation after the Partitions of Poland until the Polish-Ukrainian War. ... Galicia was the largest and most populous province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and existed from 1772 to 1918. ... The following list includes famous people of various nationalities who were born or resided for a significative period of life in Galicia (18th–20th centuries). ...

External links

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Galicia (Central Europe)

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Galicia (Central Europe) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3866 words)
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator.
Galicia was twice occupied by the Ottoman Turks in the 1490s and 1520s, ravaged by Ukrainian Cossack pogroms and Russian and Swedish invasions during The Deluge, and the Swedes returned during the Great Northern War of the early 18th century.
Galicia was subject to the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy, but the Galician Sejm and provincial administration had extensive privileges and prerogatives, especially in education, culture, and local affairs.
Article about "Galicia" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (875 words)
Galicia (Galego: Galiza or Galicia, Spanish: Galicia, Portuguese: Galiza) is an autonomous community in the northwest of Spain (pop.
Geographically, the most important feature of Galicia is the presence of many fiordlike indentations on the western and northern coast, estuaries that were drowned with rising sea levels after the ice age These are called rias and are divided into the Rias Altas and the Rias Baixas.
In the 5th century invasions, Galicia fell to the Suevi, in 411 CE, who loosely held it until it was annexed to the Visigothic dominions of Leovigild in 585.
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