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Encyclopedia > Galen
Galen.
Galen.

Galen (Greek: Γαληνός, Galēnos; Latin: Claudius Galenus; AD 129[1] –ca. 200 or 216) of Pergamon was a prominent ancient Greek[2] physician, whose theories dominated Western medical science for well over a millennium. The forename "Claudius", absent in Greek texts, was first documented in texts from the Renaissance and was probably an erroneous interpretation of "Cl." which stood for "clarissimus". Galen may refer to the following persons: Galen, an ancient Greek physician Clemens August Graf von Galen, a German count and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church Bernhard von Galen, who was prince-bishop of Münster Vasily Blyukher, a Soviet military commander Galen Strawson, a British philosopher It may... Drawing of Galen. ... Drawing of Galen. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Diogenes to Patriarch Eleutherius. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Events The Baths of Caracalla in Britain is divided into Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... For other uses, see Doctor. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...

Contents

Life

Galen was born in the ancient Greek city Pergamon, Mysia - then part of the Roman Empire - now Bergama, Turkey.[1] The son of the wealthy architect Nicon, he had eclectic interests — agriculture, architecture, astronomy, astrology, philosophy — before finally concentrating on medicine. View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... Mysia. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... View from Pergamon looking down on Bergama. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Aeulius Nicon was a wealthy architect and builder in 2nd century Pergamon. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


By the age of 20, he had served for four years in the local temple as a therapeutes ("attendant" or "associate") of the god Asclepius. Although Galen studied the human body, dissection of human corpses was against Roman law, so instead he used pigs, apes, and other animals. The legal limitations forced on him led to quite a number of mistaken ideas about the body. For instance, he thought a group of blood vessels near the back of the brain, the rete mirabile, was common in humans, but it is only in animals. After his father's death in 148/149, he left Pergamon to study in Smyrna, Corinth, and Alexandria for the next 12 years. In 157, Galen returned to his native city, where he worked for three or four years as a physician in a gladiator school. During this time he gained much experience with treating trauma and especially wounds, which he later called "windows into the body". The Oricoli bust of Zeus, King of the Gods, in the collection of the Vatican Museum. ... Asclepius (Greek , transliterated Asklēpiós; Latin Aesculapius) is the demigod of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... A rete mirabile (Latin for wonderful net) is a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other, found in a number of vertebrates, and serving different purposes. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today İzmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... A wound is a physical trauma where the skin is torn, cut or punctured. ...


Galen performed many audacious operations — including brain and eye surgeries — that were not tried again for almost two millennia. To perform cataract surgery, he would insert a long needle-like instrument into the eye behind the lens; He would then pull the instrument back slightly to remove the cataract. The slightest slip could have caused permanent blindness. For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... This article is about the visual condition. ...


Galen moved to Rome in 162. There he lectured, wrote extensively, and performed public demonstrations of his anatomical knowledge. He soon gained a reputation as an experienced physician, attracting to his practice a large number of clients. Among them was the consul Flavius Boethius, who introduced him to the imperial court, where he became a physician to Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Despite being a member of the court, Galen reputedly shunned Latin, preferring to speak and write in his native Greek, a tongue that was actually quite popular in Rome. He would go on to treat Roman luminaries such as Lucius Verus, Commodus, and Septimius Severus. However, in 166 Galen returned to Pergamon again, where he lived until he went back to Rome for good in 169. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus (December 15, 130 – 169), known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (161–180), from 161 until his death. ... Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192 (also with Marcus Aurelius from 177 until 180). ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ...


Galen spent the rest of his life at the Roman imperial court, where he was given leave to write and experiment. He performed vivisections of numerous animals to study the function of the kidneys and the spinal cord. His favorite animal subject was the Barbary Macaque. Enos the space chimp before insertion into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in 1961. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is a tail-less macaque. ...


Galen identified veins (dark red) and arterial (brighter and thinner) blood, each with distinct and separate functions. Venous blood was thought to originate in the liver and arterial blood in the heart; the blood flowed from those organs to all parts of the body where it was consumed. In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ...


It has been reported that Galen employed 20 scribes to write down his words.[citation needed] In 191, a fire in the Temple of Peace destroyed some of his records. Because of a reference in the 10th century Suda lexicon, the year of Galen's death has traditionally been placed at around 200. However, since some scholars argue that textual evidence shows Galen writing as late as 207, they contend that he lived longer, the latest year proposed being 216.[3] As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ...


Legacy

Of Galen’s 600 books, just 20 survive. They were lost in the destruction of the library at Alexandria and in the general chaos associated with the collapse of the Roman empire. The Arabs captured and preserved some ancient medical texts during the golden age and expansion of the Arab Empire - only those works exist today.[4] The Royal Library of Alexandria was once the largest in the world. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258...


Hunayn ibn Ishaq's translation (c.830-870) of 129 of Galen's works into Arabic, in particular Galen's insistence on a rational systematic approach to medicine, set the template for Islamic medicine, which rapidly spread throughout the Arab Empire. The Arabs held Galen in highest regard.[5] As the title "Doubts on Galen" of a book by Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (d. 925) makes clear, as well as the writings of Ibn al-Nafis, the works of Galen were not taken on unquestioningly, but as a challengeable basis for further enquiry. A strong emphasis on experimentation and empiricism led to new results and new observations, which were contrasted and combined with those of Galen by writers such as Razi, Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (Haly Abbas), Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulasis), Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) and Ibn al-Nafis. Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (809—873) was Nestorian physician in the House of Wisdom. ... Arabic redirects here. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... For other uses, see Razi. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... -1... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi, also known as Masoudi, was a famous Persian physician. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, surgeon, and scientist. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, Abumeron, ibn-Zohr) (1090? - 1162) was an Arab (Spanish-born) physician. ...


Constantine the African helped reintroduce Greek medicine to Europe. His translations of Arabic versions of Hippocrates and Galen first gave the West a view of Greek medicine as a whole.[6] Constantine the African was a translator of Greek medical texts. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ...


Later, in medieval Europe, Galen's writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum. Unlike pagan Rome, Christian Europe did not forbid the dissection and autopsy of the human body and such examinations were carried out regularly from at least the 14th century. However, Galen's influence, as in the Arab world, was so great that when dissections discovered anomalies in Galen's anatomy, the physicians often tried to fit these into the Galenic system. An example of this is Mondino de Liuzzi, who describes rudimentary blood circulation in his writings but still asserts that the left ventricle should contain air. Mondino de Liuzzi (1275 - 1326) was a medical professor at Bologna and a pioneer of anatomy in practice. ...


In the 1530s, Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius took on a project to translate many of Galen's Greek texts into Latin. Vesalius' most famous work, De humani corporis fabrica, was greatly influenced by Galenic writing and form. Seeking to examine critically Galen's methods and outlook, Vesalius turned to human cadaver dissection as a means of verification. Galen's writings were frequently disproved by Vesalius, who demonstrated Galen's errors through books and hands-on demonstrations. The examinations of Vesalius also disproved medical theories of Aristotle and Mondino de Liuzzi. Andreas Vesalius or Andreas Vesal (1514 - Belgian anatomist and the author of the first complete textbook on human anatomy: De Humanis Corporis Fabrica (On the workings of the Human Body) (Basel, 1543). ... The title page of the Fabrica. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Mondino de Liuzzi (1275 - 1326) was a medical professor at Bologna and a pioneer of anatomy in practice. ...


Since some of Galen's writings were translated into Arabic, the Middle East knows and reveres him as "Jalinos".[7] Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Galen's emphasis on bloodletting as a remedy for almost any ailment remained influential until well into the 1800s. Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b "Galen". Encyclopædia Britannica IV. (1984). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., p. 385. 
  2. ^ Galen of Pergamum
  3. ^ Nutton, Vivian (1973-05). "The Chronology of Galen's Early Career". The Classical Quarterly 23 (1): 169. ISSN 00098388. Retrieved on 2007-07-02. 
  4. ^ Channel 4 - History - Ancient surgery
  5. ^ How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs
  6. ^ Constantine the African
  7. ^ Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500-1700. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (2001), 37-39.

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The Antonine Plague, 165-180 C.E., also known as the Plague of Galen, was an ancient pandemic, either of smallpox or measles brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East. ... Galenic formulation deals with the principles of preparing and compounding medicines in order to optimize their absorption. ... Timeline of medicine and medical technology // c. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... This article is about the herb sometimes known as wolfsbane. ... Binomial name (Burm. ... Castoreum is the glandular secretion of the beaver. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), also known as belladonna or dwale, is a well-known perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves and berries that are highly toxic and hallucinogenic. ... Binomial name Hyoscyamus niger L. Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in Eurasia. ... Lactucarium is the milky fluid secreted by several species of wild Lettuce, usually from the base of the stems. ... Mandrake root redirects here. ... Species Metel Category: ... This article is about the drug. ... Species Conium chaerophylloides (Thunb. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Datura inoxia Mill. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, surgeon, and scientist. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC—50) was a Roman encyclopedist and possibly, although not likely, a physician. ... Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Razi. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Zhang Zhongjing or Chang Chung Ching (Wades-Giles) (張仲景, 150 - 219) , also known as Zhang Ji (張機), was one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the later years of the Eastern Han era. ... Structure of Aconitine Aconitine is a highly poisonous alkaloid derived from the aconite plant. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Coniine or 2-propylpiperidine is a poisonous alkaloid found in poison hemlock. ... Hyoscyamine is a chemical compound, a tropane alkaloid it is the levo-isomer to atropine. ... This article is about the drug. ... Salicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Galen (481 words)
Galen was born at Pergamum, Asia Minor on the 22 September 131 and was educated by his father, who decided his son should enter the medical profession.
Galen put forward the theory that illness was caused by an imbalance of the four humours: blood, phlegm, fl bile and yellow bile.
Galen catalogued in great detail various remedies including how each was made and the correct doses to be given.
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