The jacamars are near passerinebirds from tropical South America, extending up to Mexico. They are glossy elegant birds with long bills and tails, which feed on insects caught in the air. In appearance and behaviour they show resemblances to the Old World bee-eaters, although they are more closely related to woodpeckers
Like most of their relatives, jacamars are hole nesters, laying 2-4 white eggs in a hole in the ground. This group is related to other Piciformes as below, although it should be noted that the jacamars and the puffbirds are sometimes given an order of their own, Galbuliformes:
Their observations indicate that barbs arising in the center of the "ventral triangle," and having a vertical arrangement, are properly considered homologous with the aftershaft.
The species examined were as follows: Galbulidae: Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis, Brachy- galba lugubris, Jacarrralcyon tridactyla, Galbula alblrostris, Galbula galbula, Galbula tombacea, Galbula ru/icauda, Galbula leucogastra, Galbula dea and Jacamerops aurea.
In all of the jacamars examined the aftershaft is present and originates as a single shaft from the proximal margin of the superior umbilicus.
Dorsal view of the preacetabular portion of the pelvis of (A) Galbula cyanescens (Galbulidae), LSUMZ 64928; and (B) Selenidera maculirostris (Ramphastidae), FMNH 105610.
In the derived condition of the Pici, the hypotarsal groove is relatively deeper and more completely surrounds the tendon of M. flexor hallucis longus due to the posterior expansion of the rim of the lateral cotyla and the lateral protrusion of a portion of the lateral calcaneal ridge (Fig.
We hypothesize that the piciforms constitute a monophyletic group on the basis of possessing a unique flexor tendon pattern in the hindlimb, a M. flexor hallucis longus with three heads of origin, zygodactyly, and a well-developed sehnenhalter on the outer (IV) trochlea of the tarsometatarsus.
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