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Encyclopedia > Galatia
Galatia as a Roman province.
Galatia as a Roman province.

Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia was bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia, on the east by Pontus, on the south by Lycaonia and Cappadocia, and on the west by the remainder of Phrygia, the eastern part of which the Gauls had invaded. The modern capital of Turkey, Ankara (ancient Ancyra), lies in ancient Galatia. Image File history File links en: A modest modification of http://commons. ... Image File history File links en: A modest modification of http://commons. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kinhdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... In ancient geography, Lycaonia was a large region in the interior of Asia Minor, north of Mount Taurus. ... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names; Turkish Kapadokya) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin Gallia, Greek Galatia) was the region of Western Europe occupied by present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ...


Celtic Galatia

Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace, who became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BCE. It has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli. They were an intermixture of Gauls and Greeks, and hence Francis Bacon and other Renaissance writers called them "Gallo-Graeci," and the country "Gallo-Graecia". Thrace (Greek Θράκη, Thrákē, Latin: Thracia or Threcia, Turkish Trakya, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakiya) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin Gallia, Greek Galatia) was the region of Western Europe occupied by present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Sir Francis Bacon For other people named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ...


The Galatians were in their origin a part of that great Celtic migration which invaded Macedon, led by the 'second' Brennus, a Gaulish chief. He invaded Greece in 281 BCE with a huge warband and was turned back in the nick of time from plundering the temple of Apollo at Delphi. At the same time, another Gaulish group were migrating with their women and children through Thrace. They had split off from Brennus' Gauls in 279 BCE, and had migrated into Thrace under their leaders Leonnorius and Lutarius. These Gaulish invaders appeared in Asia Minor in 278277 BCE; others invaded Macedonia, killed the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy Ceraunus but were eventually ousted by Antigonus Gonatas, the grandson of the defeated diadoch Antigonus the One-Eyed. A Celtic cross. ... Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... A sculpture, depicting the Brennus who led the attack on Rome, that adorned an 18th or 19th century French naval vessel Brennus is the name of two Celtic chieftains famous in ancient history: The sack of Rome In 387 BC, in the Battle of the Allia an army of Cisalpine... (Redirected from 281 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280... The amphitheatre, seen from above. ... (Redirected from 279 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC - 279 BC - 278... (Redirected from 278 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC - 278 BC - 277... (Redirected from 277 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278 BC - 277 BC - 276... The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Hellenistic royal family which ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared... Ptolemy Keraunos (Ceraunus) (? - 279 BC), King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC. He was the eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter (ruler of Egypt) and his third wife Eurydice (daughter of Antipater). ... Coin of Antigonus II Gonatas (c. ... ... Antigonus I Cyclops or Monophthalmos (the One-eyed, so called from his having lost an eye) (382 BC - 301 BC) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. ...


As so often happens in cases of invasion, the invaders came at the express invitation of Nicomedes I of Bithynia, who required help in a dynastic struggle against his brother. Three tribes of Gauls crossed over from Thrace to Asia Minor. They numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the same number of women and children, divided into three tribes, Trocmi, Tolistobogii and Tectosages. They were eventually defeated by the Seleucid king Antiochus I, in a battle where the Seleucid war elephants shocked the Celts. While breaking the momentum of the invasion, the Galatians were by no means exterminated. Nicomedes I (in Greek Nικoμηδης; 279–c. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Silver coin of Antiochus I Antiochus I Soter ( 324/323_262/261 BC reigned 281 BC - 261 BC) was half Persian, his mother Apame being one of those eastern princesses whom Alexander had given as wives to his generals in 324 BC. On the assassination of his father Seleucus I in...


Instead, the migration led to the establishment of a long-lived Gaulish territory in central Anatolia, which included the eastern part of ancient Phrygia, a territory that became known as Galatia. There they ultimately settled, and being strengthened by fresh accessions of the same clan from Europe, they overran Bithynia and supported themselves by plundering neighbouring countries. Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kinhdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ...


The constitution of the Galatian state is described by Strabo: conformably to Gaulish custom, each tribe was divided into cantons, each governed by a chief ('tetrarch') of its own with a judge under him, whose powers were unlimited except in cases of murder, which were tried before a council of 300 drawn from the twelve cantons and meeting at a holy place, twenty miles southwest of Ancyra, which was likely to have been a sacred oak grove, for it was called 'Drynemeton' the "temple of the oaks" drys + nemed "temple". The local population of Cappadocians were left in control of the towns and most of the land, paying tithes to their new overlords, who formed a military aristocracy and kept aloof in fortified farmsteads, surrounded by their bands. the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ... A tetrarch is a Greek term that strictly identifies one of four governors of a divided province. ...

The Dying Gaul: a Hellenistic image of a noble adversary (Capitoline Museum, Rome)
The Dying Gaul: a Hellenistic image of a noble adversary (Capitoline Museum, Rome)

The Gauls were great warriors, respected by Greeks and Romans (illustration, right). They hired themselves out as mercenary soldiers, sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times. For years the Gaulish chieftains and their warbands ravaged the western half of Asia Minor, as allies of one or other of the warring princes, without any serious check, until they sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax, who reigned in Asia Minor. Hierax tried to defeat king Attalus I of Pergamum (241197 BCE), but instead, the hellenised cities united under his banner, and his armies inflicted several severe defeats upon them, about 232 forcing them to settle permanently and to confine themselves to the region to which they had already given their name. The theme of the Dying Gaul (a famous statue displayed in Pergamon) remained a favorite in Hellenistic art for a generation. Their right to the district was formally recognized. The three Gaulish tribes were settled where they afterwards remained, the Tectosages round Ancyra, the Tolistobogii round Pessinus, sacred to Cybele, and the Trocmi round Tavium. Image File history File links Sculpture: Wounded Gaul, Capitoline Museum, Rome photo by [1], June 4, 2005 Explicitly released by the photographer to Creative Commons File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Sculpture: Wounded Gaul, Capitoline Museum, Rome photo by [1], June 4, 2005 Explicitly released by the photographer to Creative Commons File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Dying Gaul The Dying Gaul is an ancient Roman marble copy of a lost ancient Greek statue, thought to have been executed in bronze, that was commissioned some time between 230 BC-220 BC by Attalos I of Pergamon to honor his victory over the Galatians. ... Piazza del Campidoglio, on the top of Capitoline Hill, with the façade of Palazzo Senatorio. ... Antiochus Hierax (in Greek AντιoχoÏ‚ Ιεραξ; killed 227 BC), so called from his grasping and ambitious character, was the younger son of Antiochus II, Seleucid king of Syria. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Bust of Attalus I, circa 200 BC Attalus I (Soter Savior) (269 BC–197 BC)1 ruled Pergamon, a Greek city-state in present-day Turkey, from 241 BC to 197 BC. He was the second cousin and the adoptive son of Eumenes I2, whom he succeeded, and was the... (Redirected from 241 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 246 BC 245 BC 244 BC 243 BC 242 BC - 241 BC - 240... (Redirected from 197 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC - 197 BC... The Kingdom of Pergamon (colored olive) shown at its greatest extent in 188 BC. Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus... Pessinus was the city in Asia Minor (presently Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey) on the upper course of the river Sangarios (modern day Sakarya River), 120 SW of Akara, from which the mythological King Midas is said to have ruled a greater Phrygian realm. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mother goddess. ... Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of the Galatian tribe of Trocmi, one of the three Celtic tribes which migrated from the Danube Valley to Galatia in the 3rd century BCE. Owing to its position on the high roads of commerce was an important trading post. ...


But the power of the Gauls was not yet broken. The Attalid Pergamene king himself soon employed their services in the increasingly devastating wars of Asia Minor; another band deserted from their Egyptian overlord Ptolemy IV after a solar eclipse had broken their spirits. Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC), son of Ptolemy III, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ...


In the early 2nd century BCE they proved terrible allies of Antiochus the Great, the last Seleucid king trying to regain suzerainity over Asia Minor, but after the defeat of the Seleucid king to the Romans, Rome at last proved a worthy protection against them. Silver coin of Antiochus III Antiochus III the Great, (ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. (His traditional designation, the Great, stems from a misconception of Megas Basileus (Great king), the traditional...


In 189 BCE an expedition was sent against them under Caius Manlius Vulso, who defeated them. Henceforward their military power declined and they fell at times under Pontic ascendancy, from which they were finally freed by the Mithridatic Wars, in which they heartily supported Rome. (Redirected from 189 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC - 189 BC... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and Pontus in the first century BC. They are named for Mithridates VI who was King of Pontus at the time, and a famous enemy of Rome. ...


In the settlement of 64 BCE Galatia became a client-state of the Roman empire, the old constitution disappeared, and three chiefs (wrongly styled “tetrarchs“) were appointed, one for each tribe. But this arrangement soon gave way before the ambition of one of these tetrarchs, Deiotarus, the contemporary of Cicero and Julius Caesar, who made himself master of the other two tetrarchies and was finally recognized by the Romans as 'king' of Galatia. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61... Deiotarus was a tetrarch of Galatia (Gallo-Graecia) in Asia Minor, and a faithful ally of the Romans. ... Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ;) (January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin orator and prose stylist. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (IPA: ;[1]), July 12, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. ... Galatia was a region of Central Anatolia settled by the Gauls after their invasions in the mid 3rd Century BC. From then until 62 BC, the Galatians ruled themselves by means of decentralized Tetrarchies, but in 62 the Romans established a Kingdom of Galatia, which lasted around 35 years. ...


Roman and Christian Galatia

On the death of the third king Amyntas in 25 BCE, however, Galatia was incorporated by Octavian Augustus in the Roman empire, though near his capital Ancyra (modern Ankara) Pylamenes, the king's heir, rebuilt a temple of the Phrygian goddess Men to venerate Augustus (the Monumentum Ancyranum), as a sign of fidelity. It was on the walls of this temple in Galatia that the major source for the Res Gestae of Augustus were preserved for modernity. Few of the provinces proved more enthusiastically loyal to Rome. The Galatians also practiced a form of Romano-Celtic polytheism, common in Celtic lands. Amyntas was a king of Galatia and several of the adjacent countries, mentioned by Strabo[1] as contemporary with himself. ... (Redirected from 25 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... Augustus (Latin: IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC – August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (in English Octavian) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of the Roman Emperors. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... A recent view of the Temple of Augustus and Rome in Ankara. ... Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ...


During his second missionary journey Paul, accompanied by Silas and Timothy (Acts 16:6), visited the "region of Galatia," where he was detained by sickness (Epistle to Galatians 4:13), and had thus the longer opportunity of preaching to them the gospel. On his third journey he went over "all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order" (Acts 18:23). During the journeys of Paul he was received with enthusiasm in Galatia. In Acts, xvi, 6 and xviii, 23:"And they went through the Phrygian and Galatian region" (ten phrygian kai Galatiken choran) and "he departed and went through the Galatian region and Phrygia" (ten Galatiken choran kai phrygian). The Galatians were fickle; at Lystra the multitude could scarcely be restrained from sacrificing to Paul (because they assumed he was a god); shortly afterwards they stoned him and left him for dead. Crescens was sent thither by Paul toward the close of his life (2 Timothy 4:10). Paul of Tarsus, also known as Saul, Paulus, and Saint Paul the Apostle ( AD 9 – 67),[1] is widely considered to be central to the early development and spread of Christianity, particularly westward from Judea. ... Silas or Silvanus (flourished 1st century) was an early Christian who was a companion of Paul and Peter. ... Timothy (whose Greek name means to fear or to honor God) was a first-century Christian bishop who died about AD 80. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Josephus related the biblical figure Gomer to Galatia. "For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, [Galls,] but were then called Gomerites." Antiquities of the Jews, I:6. Although others have related Gomer to Cimmerians. Josephus (c. ... Gomer (גֹּמֶר, Standard Hebrew Gómer, Tiberian Hebrew Gōmer) is the eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah mentioned in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible. ... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... The Cimmerians (Greek Κιμμέριοι, Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of Azerbaijan in...


The Galatians were still speaking the Celtic Galatian language in the time of St. Jerome (347420 CE), who wrote that the Galatians of Ancyra and the Treveri of Trier (in what is now the German Rhineland) spoke the same language. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken in Galatia in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to the 4th century AD. Of the language only a few glosses and brief comments in classical writers and scattered names on inscriptions survive. ... Jerome (ca. ... Events Council of Sardica Council of Philippopolis Births John Chrysostom, bishop Eunapius, Greek Sophist and historian Deaths Categories: 347 ... For other uses, see 420 (disambiguation). ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ... The Treveri tribe of Gaul inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle, within the southern fringes of the vast Arduenna Silva (Ardennes Forest). ... The city of Trier (Latin: Augusta Treverorum; French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier; Italian: ; Spanish: ) is situated on the western bank of the Moselle River in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany, although some consider the lands to the east of the river culturally distinct, jovially referring to them as Schäl Sick; the bad or wrong side...


In an administrative reorganisation about 386-95 two new provicnes succeeded to it, Galatia Prima and Galatia Secunda or - Salutaris, which included part of Phrygia. Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ...


The final fate of the Galatian people is a subject of some uncertainty, but they seem ultimately to have been absorbed into the Greek- and/or Turkish-speaking populations of west-central Anatolia.

External links

  • A detailed map of Celtic settlements in Galatia


Roman Imperial Provinces (120)
Achaea | Aegyptus | Africa | Alpes Cottiae | Alpes Maritimae | Alpes Poenninae | Arabia Petraea | Armenia Inferior | Asia | Assyria | Bithynia | Britannia | Cappadocia | Cilicia | Commagene | Corduene | Corsica et Sardinia | Creta et Cyrenaica | Cyprus | Dacia | Dalmatia | Epirus | Galatia | Gallia Aquitania | Gallia Belgica | Gallia Lugdunensis | Gallia Narbonensis | Germania Inferior | Germania Superior | Hispania Baetica | Hispania Lusitania | Hispania Tarraconensis | Italia | Iudaea | Lycaonia | Lycia | Macedonia | Mauretania Caesariensis | Mauretania Tingitana | Moesia | Noricum | Numidia | Osroene | Pannonia | Pamphylia | Pisidia | Pontus | Raetia | Sicilia | Sophene | Syria | Thracia
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Galatia - Encyclopedia.com (955 words)
Galatia [Gr.,=Gaul], ancient territory of central Asia Minor, in present Turkey (around modern Ankara).
Laura Tyner Foriest, and was reared in the Galatia Community of Northampton County, N.C...
Paul and the victims of his persecution: the opponents in Galatia.
Galatia - LoveToKnow 1911 (1037 words)
Under Diocletian's reorganization Galatia was divided, about 295, into two parts and the name retained for the northern (now nearly identical with the Galatia of Deiotarus); and about 390 this province, amplified by the addition of a few towns in the west, was divided.
After suffering from Persian and Arabic raids, Galatia was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century and passed to the Ottoman Turks in the middle of the t4th.
The question whether the "Churches of Galatia," to which St Paul addressed his Epistle, were situated in the northern or southern part of the province has been much discussed, and in England Prof.
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