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Encyclopedia > Galactose
Image:Galactose Haworth.png
Haworth projection of D-galactose

Image:D-galactose_Fischer.png

Fischer projection of D-galactose

Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. It is also synthesized by the body, where it forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins in several tissues. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has food energy. Galactose is less sweet than glucose and not very water-soluble. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A Haworth projection of the structure for α-D-glucopyranose A Haworth projection is a common way of representing the cyclic structure of monosaccharides with a simple three-dimensional perspective. ... Fischer projection of D-galactose (generated at Wikisophia. ... Fischer projection of D-glucose In chemistry (particularly organic chemistry and biochemistry), a Fischer projection is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule by projection. ... Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... GUM may refer to one of the following. ... Mucilage is a thick gluey substance, often produced by plants. ... Synthesis (from the Greek words syn = plus and thesis = position) is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... Glycolipids are carbohydrate-attached lipids. ... A glycoprotein is a macromolecule composed of a protein and a carbohydrate (a sugar). ... Biological tissue is a substance made up of cells that perform a similar function. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sugar substitute. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ...


Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose. It found in hemicellulose and can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis. Polymer is a generic term used to describe a very long molecule consisting of structural units and repeating units connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A hemicellulose can be any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides) present in almost all cell walls along with cellulose. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ...


Galactose is a monosaccharide constituent, together with glucose, of the disaccharide lactose. The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase, a lactase. In the human body, glucose is changed into galactose in order to enable the mammary glands to secrete lactose. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide, is one of the most important carbohydrates. ... A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that makes up around 2-8% of the solids in milk. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... Generic graph showing the effect of a catalyst in an hypotetical exothermic chemical reaction. ... Ribbon diagram of the catalytically perfect enzyme TIM. An enzyme is a protein that catalyzes, or speeds up, a chemical reaction. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... In both males and females, the breasts are composed of adipose tissue and mammary glands. ...


Two studies have suggested a possible link between galactose in milk and ovarian cancer.[1][2] Other studies failed to show such a link. Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ...

Contents


Structure and isomerism

The first and last -OH groups point the same way and the second and third -OH groups point the other way. D-Galactose has the same configuration at its penultimate carbon as D-glyceraldehyde. Galactose is the optical isomer of glucose. Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde Glyceraldehyde is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3. ...


Reactions

A reaction is the following: In physics, a reaction (physics) is defined by Newtons third law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The idea that any given force has a pair or opposite force. ...

Hydrolysis

Galactose and glucose are produced by hydrolysis of lactose by ß-galactosidase. This enzyme is produced by the lac operon in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that makes up around 2-8% of the solids in milk. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... The lac operon is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and some other enteric bacteria. ... It has been suggested that Filamentation be merged into this article or section. ...


Metabolic disorders

There are 4 important disorders involving galactose:

  • Galactokinase deficiency causes cataracts. If a galactose-free diet starts sufficiently early, the cataracts will regress without complications.
  • UDPgalactose-4-epimerase deficiency is extremely rare (only 2 reported cases). It causes nerve deafness.
  • Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency is the most problematic, as galactose-free diets do not have considerable long-term effects.
  • Compulsive blinking disorder.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carbohydrates - Glucose (492 words)
Galactose is more commonly found in the disaccharide, lactose or milk sugar.
Galactose is classified as a monosaccharide, an aldose, a hexose, and is a reducing sugar.
Galactose is defined as the -OH on C # 4 in a upward projection in the chair form,(also upward in the Haworth structure).
Galactose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (281 words)
Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose.
Galactose is a monosaccharide constituent, together with glucose, of the disaccharide lactose.
The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase, a lactase.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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