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Encyclopedia > Gaius Maecenas
Villa of Maecenas in Tivoli, Italy, Jacob Philipp Hackert, 1783.
Villa of Maecenas in Tivoli, Italy, Jacob Philipp Hackert, 1783.

Gaius Cilnius Maecenas (708 BC) was a confidante and political advisor to Octavian (who was to become the first Emperor of Rome as Caesar Augustus) as well as an important patron for the new generation of 'Augustan' poets. His name has become a byword for a wealthy patron of the arts. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x1827, 307 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gaius Maecenas ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x1827, 307 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gaius Maecenas ... Tivoli, the classical Tibur, is an ancient Italian town in Lazio, about 30 km from Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river, where it issues from the Sabine hills. ... Italian landscape, 1778. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC - 8 BC - 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC Births... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most...

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Biography

Expressions in Propertius (ii. I, 25-30) seem to imply that he had taken some part in the campaigns of Mutina, Philippi and Perusia. He prided himself on his ancient Etruscan lineage, and claimed descent from the princely house of the Cilnii, who excited the jealousy of their townsmen by their preponderating wealth and influence at Arretium in the 4th century B.C. (Livy x. 3). Tacitus (Ann. 6. 11) refers to him as "Cilnius Maecenas"; it is possible that "Cilnius" was his mother's nomen - or that Maecenas was in fact a cognomen. Sextus Aurelius Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet born between 57 BC and 46 BC in or near Mevania, who died in around 12 BC. Like Virgil and Ovid, Propertius was also a member of the poetic circle of neoteric poets which collected around Mæcenas. ... Modena is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Map of Greece showing Philippi Philippi (in Ancient Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, founded by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. ... The ancient Perusia, now Perugia, first appears in history as one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria. ... Jealousy typically refers to the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur when a person believes a valued relationship is being threatened by a rival. ... Arezzo is a city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Tuscany. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... In the Roman naming convention used in ancient Rome, male names typically contain three proper nouns which are classified as praenomen (or given name), nomen gentile (or Gens name) and cognomen. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ...


The Gaius Maecenas mentioned in Cicero (Pro Cluentio, 56) as an influential member of the equestrian order in 91 B.C. may have been his grandfather, or even his father. The testimony of Horace (Odes iii. 8, 5) and Maecenas's own literary tastes imply that he had profited by the highest education of his time. For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ...


His great wealth may have been in part hereditary, but he owed his position and influence to his close connection with the emperor Augustus. He first appears in history in 40 B.C., when he was employed by Octavian in arranging his marriage with Scribonia, and afterwards in assisting to negotiate the peace of Brundusium and the reconciliation with Mark Antony. As a close friend and advisor he acted even as deputy for Augustus when he was abroad. In later years their relationship grew colder, probably in part because Augustus had an affair with his wife Terentia. Before he died, he appointed Augustus as his sole heir. An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Scribonia (70 BC/68 BC-16) was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo and Cornelia Sulla, the granddaughter of Pompey the Great and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ...


It was in 39 B.C. that Horace was introduced to Maecenas, who had before this received Varius and Virgil into his intimacy. In the "Journey to Brundusium," (Horace, Satires, i. 5) in 37, Maecenas and Cocceius Nerva are described as having been sent on an important mission, and they were successful in patching up, by the Treaty of Tarentum, a reconciliation between the two claimants for supreme power. During the Sicilian war against Sextus Pompeius in 36, Maecenas was sent back to Rome, and was entrusted with supreme administrative control in the city and in Italy. He was vicegerent of Octavian during the campaign of Actium, when, with great promptness and secrecy, he crushed the conspiracy of the Lepidus the Younger; and during the subsequent absences of his chief in the provinces he again held the same position. Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Nerva redirects here. ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Younger was the only child of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the triumvir. ...


During the latter years of his life he fell somewhat out of favour with his master. Suetonius (Augustus, 66) attributes the loss of the imperial favour to Maecenas having indiscreetly revealed to Terentia, his wife, the discovery of the conspiracy in which her brother Murena was implicated, but according to Dio Cassius (liv. 19) it was due to the emperor's relations with Terentia. Maecenas died in 8 B.C., leaving the emperor sole heir to his wealth; the emperors would continue to amass personal fortunes and patronize the arts, one of the major court departments – in fact its treasury – being styled largitiones, literally 'liberalities', even though most expenses had more pragmatic purposes than generosity. Murena, the name of a Roman plebeian family from Lanuvium, belonging to the Licinian gens, said to be derived from the fondness of one of the family for lampreys (murenae). ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ...


Opinions were much divided in ancient times as to the personal character of Maecenas; but the testimony as to his administrative and diplomatic ability was unanimous. He enjoyed the credit of sharing largely in the establishment of the new order of things, of reconciling parties, and of carrying the new empire safely through many dangers. To his influence especially was attributed the more humane policy of Octavian after his first alliance with Antony and Lepidus. The best summary of his character as a man and a statesman, by Marcus Velleius Paterculus (ii. 88), describes him as "of sleepless vigilance in critical emergencies, far-seeing and knowing how to act, but in his relaxation from business more luxurious and effeminate than a woman." Expressions in the Odes of Horace (ii. 17. a) seem to imply that Maecenas was deficient in the robustness of fibre characteristic of the average Roman. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ... Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. ...


'Mecenate' (patronage)

Maecenas is most famous for his support of young poets, hence his name has become a synonym to "patron of arts". He supported Virgil who wrote the Georgics in his honour. It was Virgil, impressed with examples of Horace's poetry, who introduced Horace to Maecenas. Indeed Horace begins the first poem of his Odes (Odes I.i) by addressing his new patron. He was given full financial support, as well as an estate in the Sabine mountains, by Maecenas in a spirit close to Greek evergetism. Propertius and the minor poets Varius Rufus, Plotius Tucca, Valgius Rufus and Domitius Marsus also were his protégés. For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican The Georgics, published in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Evergetism is a term coined by French historian A Boulanger, it derives directly from Greek εύεργετέω meaning « I do good things Â». It is the practice of notables to distribute a part of their wealth to the community of the hoi polloi, rather than to individuals (clientelism). ... Sextus Aurelius Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet born between 57 BC and 46 BC in or near Mevania, who died in around 12 BC. Like Virgil and Ovid, Propertius was also a member of the poetic circle of neoteric poets which collected around Mæcenas. ... Lucius Varius Rufus (c 74 - 14 BC), Roman poet of the Augustan age. ... Gaius Valgius Rufus, Latin poet, friend of Horace and Maecenas, and consul in 12 BC. He was known as a writer of elegies and epigrams, and his contemporaries believed him capable of great things in epic. ... Domitius Marsus was a Latin poet, friend of Virgil and Tibullus, and contemporary of Horace. ...


His character as a munificent patron of literature - which has made his name a household word - is gratefully acknowledged by the recipients of it and attested by the regrets of the men of letters of a later age, expressed by Martial and Juvenal. His patronage was exercised, not from vanity or a mere dilettante love of letters, but with a view to the higher interest of the state. He recognized in the genius of the poets of that time, not only the truest ornament of the court, but a power of reconciling men's minds to the new order of things, and of investing the actual state of affairs with an ideal glory and majesty. The change in seriousness of purpose between the Eclogues and the Georgics of Virgil was in a great measure the result of the direction given by the statesman to the poet's genius. A similar change between the earlier odes of Horace, in which he declares his epicurean indifference to affairs of state, and the great national odes of the third book is to be ascribed to the same guidance. Maecenas endeavoured also to divert the less masculine genius of Propertius from harping continually on his love to themes of public interest. But if the motive of his patronage had been merely politic it never could have inspired the affection which it did in its recipients. The great charm of Maecenas in his relation to the men of genius who formed his circle was his simplicity, cordiality and sincerity. Although not particular in the choice of some of the associates of his pleasures, he admitted none but men of worth to his intimacy, and when once admitted they were treated like equals. Much of the wisdom of Maecenas probably lives in the Satires and Epistles of Horace. It has fallen to the lot of no other patron of literature to have his name associated with works of such lasting interest as the Georgics of Virgil, the first three books of Horace's Odes, and the first book of his Epistles. Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... (ital. ... Glory can refer to: Glory (religion) Glory (optical phenomenon) Glory (film) Glory (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ... Horace Translation: The Necessity For Reform The sins of your fathers although guiltless you will expiate, Roman Youth, until the temples are remade from the fallen buildings (temples) of the gods and defiled from the blackness with images of smoke. ... A kiss can express affection. ... Look up charm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Works

Maecenas also wrote literature himself in both prose and verse. The some twenty fragments that remain show that he was less successful as an author than as a judge and patron of literature. Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


His prose works on various subjects - Prometheus, dialogues like Symposium (a banquet at which Virgil, Horace and Messalla were present), De cultu suo (on his manner of life) and a poem In Octaviam ("Against Octavia") of which the content is unclear - were ridiculed by Augustus, Seneca and Quintilian for their strange style, the use of rare words and awkward transpositions. For other uses, see Prometheus (disambiguation). ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ...


According to Dio Cassius, Maecenas was also the inventor of a system of shorthand. Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Shorthand is an abbreviated, symbolic writing method that improves speed of writing or brevity as compared to a normal method of writing a language. ...


Legacy

His name has become a byword for a well-connected and wealthy patron. In various languages, it has even been coined into a word for (private) patronage (mainly cultural, but sometimes wider, usually perceived as more altruistic than sponsorship), e.g. mecenaat in Dutch, mesenaatti in Finnish, mécénat in French, Mäzen in German, mecenatismo in Italian, mecen in Slovenian, mecenas in Spanish. ... Sponsorship can refer to several concepts: A sponsors support of an event, activity, person, or organization. ...


A version of Gaius Maecenas was portrayed by Alex Wyndham in HBO's series Rome. Rome title design There are several minor but significant characters featured in the HBO television series Rome. ... Alex Wyndham has appeared in films including As You Like It and Arn, and Oxford theater productions ranging from Romeo and Juliet to Cabaret. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Rome is a multiple Emmy Award-winning historical drama, produced in Italy for television by the BBC (UK), HBO (USA), and RAI (Italy). ...


Sources and references

(incomplete)

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • For a modern biography of Maecenas, see Jean–Marie André, Mécène, essai de biographie spirituelle. Paris, Les Belles lettres, 1967.
  • The fragments of Maecenas' poetry have been collected and edited by J. Blänsdorf (ed.), Fragmenta poetarum Latinorum epicorum et lyricorum praeter Ennium et Lucilium, 3rd ed., Stuttgart: Teubner, 1995, pp. 243-48.
  • V. Gardthausen, Augustus and seine Zeit, i. 762 seq. ; ii. 432 seq.
  • Ancient authorities for his life are Horace (Odes with Scholia), Dio Cassius, Tacitus (Annals), Suetonius (Augustus).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gaius Cilnius Maecenas - Wikipedia (586 words)
Gaius Cilnius Maecenas is de naam van een beroemde Romeinse staatsman en kunstbeschermer.
Maecenas was ook zelf literair actief, maar er bleef weinig van zijn werk bewaard: kenners beweren dat het bol staat van neologismen, rare woorden en gezochte wendingen.
Oud en ziek geworden smeekte hij de goden in een satirisch gedicht om hem desnoods een bochel te bezorgen of zijn tanden uit te hollen, als ze hem maar in leven lieten.
Gaius Maecenas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (232 words)
Villa of Maecenas in Tivoli, Italy, Jacob Philipp Hackert, 1783.
Gaius or Cilnius Maecenas (70 - 8 BC) was a confidant and political advisor to Augustus Caesar, as well as an important sponsor of young poets.
Maecenas is probably most famous for his support of young poets, hence his name has become a synonym to "patron of arts" in many languages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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