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Encyclopedia > Gaius Gracchus

Gaius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that ultimately ended in his death. Gaius was indirectly killed by the Roman faction of the Optimates, which some believe convinced his slave to kill him. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 159 BC 158 BC 157 BC 156 BC 155 BC - 154 BC - 153 BC 152 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC - 121 BC - 120 BC 119 BC... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (168 BC-133 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ...

Contents

Early life

Gaius was born in 154 BC, the son of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus or Tiberius Gracchus Major (who died in the same year) and Cornelia Africana, and brother of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. The Gracchi were of noble descent and were one of the politically most important families of Rome, very rich and well connected. His mother, Cornelia Africana, was daughter of Scipio Africanus Major and his sister Sempronia was the wife of Scipio Aemilianus, another important general. Gaius was raised by his mother, a Roman matrona of high moral standards and virtue. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 159 BC 158 BC 157 BC 156 BC 155 BC - 154 BC - 153 BC 152 BC... Sempronius may mean: nomen of gens Sempronia, a plebeian clan of ancient Rome Sempronius, New York, a town in Cayuga County, New York in the USA Sempronius, Texas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tiberius Gracchus Major ( Major, Latin for the elder, Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·P·F·TI·N·GRACCVS) (about 210 BC - about 150 BC) or Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. Tiberius was of Plebs status and was a member of the well connected gens Sempronia... Cornelia pushes away Ptolemys crown, by Laurent de La Hyre Cornelia Scipionis Africana (born ca. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (163 BC-132 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. In his short life he caused a political turmoil in the Republic, by his attempts, as plebeian tribune, to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Cornelia pushes away Ptolemys crown, by Laurent de La Hyre Cornelia Scipionis Africana (born ca. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Scipio Africanus. ... A woman an ancient Rome, vehemently criticized by Sallust for her openness of talent and intellect. ... Storybook illustration depicting Scipio as the reluctant servant of the Senate as he orchestrated the genocide of the Carthaginians. ...


Gaius’ military career started in Numantia, as a military tribune appointed to the staff of his brother in law, Scipio Aemilianus. As a young man, he watched the political turmoil caused by his older brother Tiberius Gracchus, as he tried to pass laws for agrarian reforms. Tiberius was killed in 133 BC near the Capitol, during an armed confrontation with political enemies, led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, their cousin. With this death, Gaius inherited the estate of the Gracchii family. History would prove that he inherited his brother's ideals too. Soria province (red) in Spain (grey) Numantia (Numancia in Spanish) was a town in Hispania (modern-day Spain), which for a long time resisted conquest by Romans in what was known as the Numantine War. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (168 BC-133 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 138 BC 137 BC 136 BC 135 BC 134 BC - 133 BC - 132 BC 131 BC... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio was consul in 138 BC. He had a prominent part in the murder of Tiberius Gracchus; in order to save him from the vengeance of the populares, he was sent by the Senate on a pretended mission to Asia. ...


Political career

Quaestorship and first tribunate

Gaius started his political career in 1998 BC, as ablank quaestor to consul Lucius Aurelius Orestes in Sardinia. After a few years of political peace in Rome, in 123 BC, Gaius was elected for the tribunate of the plebs, as every man in his family before him. The conservators soon understood that they might expect trouble from him. Gaius had similar ideals as Tiberius, but he had time to learn from his brother's mistakes. His program included not only agrarian laws, that stated that lands illegally acquired by the rich should be redistributed to the poor, but also laws that regulated the price of the grain. He also tried to limit the number of years and campaigns a man was obliged to serve in the army. Other measures included the reformation of the extortion court, which prosecuted illegal appropriations of money by members of the senate and a law concerned with the constitution of the jury, which was previously composed only of senators, subject to bribery, who would be judging their peers. His law changed the jury-draft pool to include equites. He also proposed the extension of Roman citizenship to several Italian allied nations. All of this displeased the senators. // The pyramid ruin of Amenemhet I at Lisht. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ...


Second tribunate and death

In 122 BC, Gaius ran, unconstitutionally, for another term as tribune of the plebs – and succeeded, with the overwhelming support of Rome's lower classes. During this year, he continued to pursue his reforms and to deal with increasing opposition of the senate. Gaius tried to run for a third time, with Marcus Fulvius Flaccus as his colleague and partner. But in this year, they lost and could do nothing besides watching the removal of all their laws by the new conservative consuls (Quintus Fabius Maximus and Lucius Opimius). In order to prevent the loss of all his work, Gaius and Fulvius Flaccus resorted to violent measures. The senate responded by tagging them as enemies of the Republic and they eventually had to run. Fulvius Flaccus was murdered with his sons, but Gaius managed to escape with Philocrates, his faithful slave. Upon coming to the Grove of the Furies, he likely ordered Philocrates to kill him. Following his death, about 3,000 men suspected of supporting him were killed and their estates confiscated. According to Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans Gaius Gracchus was killed by Philocrates, who then killed himself. One of Gracchus's enemies decapitated the body, and the head was taken by Septimuleius (a client of Opimius) and, it is said, cracked the skull open and filled it with molten lead and took the head to Opimius. It weighed in on the scale at over seventeen pounds and so Opimius paid Septimuleius this weight in gold, as he had promised.[1] Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC - 122 BC - 121 BC 120 BC... Marcus Fulvius Flaccus was a Roman senator and an ally of the Gracchi. ... Lucius Opimius was Roman consul in 121 BC. He is first mentioned for crushing the revolt of the town of Fregellae in 125 BC. He was elected consul in 121 BC with Q. Fabius Maximus Allobrigicus, and while Fabius was campaigning in Gaul, he took part in perhaps the most...


Family

Gaius Gracchus married Licinia Crassa, the second daughter of Publius Licinius Crassus (consul in 131 BC) and Claudia. They had a son and daughter. The fate and name of their son is unknown. Their daughter Sempronia Gracchae (about 123 BC - 63 BC), who became the future heiress to the Gracchi Estate, married Marcus Fulvius Flaccus Bambalio, son to his political ally Marcus Fulvius Flaccus (consul 125 BC). Their only child was Fulvia Flacca Bambula. Fulvia married the Roman politicians Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio and Mark Antony. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 136 BC 135 BC 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC - 131 BC - 130 BC 129 BC... A woman an ancient Rome, vehemently criticized by Sallust for her openness of talent and intellect. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Marcus Fulvius Flaccus was a Roman senator and an ally of the Gracchi. ... Fulvia (77 BC - 40 BC) was a Roman woman who lived in the first century BC. Fulvia (as she is known by the ancient sources) was born with the name Fulvia Flacca Bambula and is also known as Fulvia Bambaliae. ... Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC, died January 18, 52 BC), was a Roman politician, chiefly remembered for his feuds with Titus Annius Milo and Marcus Tullius Cicero and introducing the grain dole. ... Gaius Scribonius Curio was the name of a father and son who lived in the late Roman Republic. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ...


See also: Scipio-Paullus-Gracchus family tree The Scipio-Paullus-Gracchus family tree includes the Roman Scipio, Paullus and Gracchus families. ...


References

  1. ^ Plutarch.Gracchus. (75 A.C.E.). Retrieved on September 4, 2006.
John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gracchus - LoveToKnow 1911 (2409 words)
Gaius then decided to act; against the wishes of his mother he became a candidate for the tribuneship, and, in spite of the determined opposition of the aristocracy, he was elected for the year 123, although only fourth on the list.
Gaius also proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy (at Tarentum and Capua), and sent out to the site of Carthage 6000 colonists to found the new city of Junonia, the inhabitants of which were to possess the rights of Roman citizens; this was the first attempt at over-sea colonization.
Gaius managed to escape across the Tiber, where his dead body was found on the following day in the grove of Furrina by the side of that of a slave, who had probably slain his master and then himself.
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