FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gaia (mythology)
Tellus Mater, the Roman equivalent of Gaia, steps out of her chariot - detail of a sarcophagus in Glyptotheck in Munich
Tellus Mater, the Roman equivalent of Gaia, steps out of her chariot - detail of a sarcophagus in Glyptotheck in Munich

Gaia (pronounced /ˈgeɪə/ or /ˈgaɪə/) ("land" or "earth", from the Ancient Greek Γαîα; also Gæa or Ge (Modern Greek Γῆ) is the primal Greek goddess personifying the Earth. Look up Gaia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Terra Mater or Tellus Mater was a goddess personifying the Earth in Roman mythology. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Gaia is a primordial and chthonic deity in the Ancient Greek pantheon and considered a Mother Goddess or Great Goddess. The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ...


Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra. Terra Mater or Tellus Mater was a goddess personifying the Earth in Roman mythology. ...

Contents

In Greek mythology

Hesiod's Theogony (116ff) tells how, after Chaos, arose broad-breasted Gaia the everlasting foundation of the gods of Olympus. She brought forth Uranus, the starry sky, her equal, to cover her, the hills, and the fruitless deep of the Sea, Pontus, "without sweet union of love," out of her own self through parthenogenesis. But afterwards, as Hesiod tells it, she lay with her son, Uranus, and bore the World-Ocean Oceanus, Coeus and Crius and the Titans Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, and Phoebe of the golden crown, and lovely Tethys. "After them was born Cronus the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire." Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chaos. ... The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Pontus (or Pontos, sea) was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, son of Gaia and Aether, the Earth and the Air. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... Ouranos is the Greek name of the sky, latinized as Uranus. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... In Greek mythology, Coeus (also Koios) was the Titan of intelligence. ... In Greek mythology, Crius was one of the Titans, a son of Uranus and Gaia. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... This article is about Hyperion, a Titan in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology Iapetus, or Iapetos, was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius and through Prometheus and Epimetheus and Atlas an ancestor of the human race. ... In Greek mythology, Theia (also written Thea or Thia), also called Euryphaessa (wide-shining), was a Titan. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... Mnemosyne (Greek , IPA in RP and in General American) (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. ... Phoebe (pronunced fee-bee) was one of the original Titans, one set of sons and daughters of Uranus and Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... Not to be confused with Chronos, the personification of time. ...


Hesiod mentions Gaia's further offspring conceived with Uranus: first the giant one-eyed Cyclopes: Brontes ("thunderer"), Steropes ("lightning") and the "bright" Arges: "Strength and might and craft were in their works." Then he adds the three terrible hundred-handed sons of Earth and Heaven, the Hecatonchires: Cottus, Briareos and Gyges, each with fifty heads. This page is about the mythical creature. ... For the Greek mythological figure Brontes, see Cyclops. ... In Greek mythology, Steropes (flasher) was one of the first generation of Cyclopes (one-eyed giants). ... In Greek mythology, one of the first generation of Cyclopes, Arges (brightener) was a giant with one eye. ... The Hecatonchires, or Hekatonkheires, were three gargantuan figures of an archaic stage of Greek mythology. ... Cottus may mean: Cottus, one of the Hecatonchires of Greek mythology Cottus, a genus of sculpin fish This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The hecatonchires or hecatoncheires (the hundred-handed) were figures of Greek mythology, giants with a hundred arms and fifty heads. ... Gyges can be: A figure from Greek mythology, one of the Hecatonchires. ...

Greek deities
series
Primordial deities
Chthonic deities

Hades and Persephone,
Gaia, Demeter, Hecate,
Iacchus, Trophonius,
Triptolemus, Erinyes The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For the rock band, see Muse (band). ... Asclepius (Greek , transliterated Asklēpiós; Latin Aesculapius) is the demigod of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chaos. ... Aether (upper air), in Greek mythology, was the personification of the upper sky, space and heaven. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Eros was the god responsible for lust, love, and sex; he was also worshipped as a fertility deity. ... For other uses, see Erebus (disambiguation). ... For other uses of NYX, see NYX (disambiguation). ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Iacchus is an uncertain person. ... Trophonius (the Latinate spelling) or Trophonios (in the transliterated Greek spelling) was a Greek hero or daimon or god - it was never certain which one - with a rich mythological tradition and an oracular cult at Lebadaea in Boeotia. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... Two Furies, from an ancient vase. ...

Uranus hid the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes in Tartarus so that they would not see the light, rejoicing in this evil doing. This caused pain to Gaia (Tartarus was her bowels) so she created grey flint (or adamantine) and shaped a great flint sickle, gathering together Cronos and his brothers to ask them to obey her. Only Cronos, the youngest, had the daring to take the flint sickle she made, and castrate his father as he approached Gaia to have intercourse with her. And from the drops of blood and semen, Gaia brought forth still more progeny, the strong Erinyes and the armoured Gigantes and the ash-tree Nymphs called the Meliae. This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... Adamantine is a mineral, often referred to as adamantine spar. ... Castration, gelding, neutering, orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testes. ... Two Furies, from an ancient vase. ... Gigantomachia: Dionysos attacking a Gigante, Attic red-figure pelike, ca. ... Species Many, see text. ... In Greek mythology, the Meliae were nymphs of the manna-ash tree. ...


From the testicles of Uranus in the sea came forth Aphrodite. For this, a Greek etymologist urged, Uranus called his sons "Titans," meaning "strainers" for they strained and did presumptuously a fearful deed, for which vengeance would come afterwards; for, as Uranus had been deposed by his son, Cronos, so was Cronos destined to be overthrown by Zeus, the son born to him by his sister-wife Rhea. In the meantime, the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, and Cronos was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age. Ouranos is the Greek name of the sky, latinized as Uranus. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Headline text --67. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After Uranus's castration, Gaia gave birth to Echidna and Typhon by Tartarus. By Pontus, Gaia birthed the sea-deities Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto, and Eurybia. Aergia, a goddess of sloth and laziness, is the daughter of Aether and Gaia. In the most ancient layers of Greek mythology Echidna (ekhis, meaning she viper) was called the Mother of All Monsters. Echidna was described by Hesiod as a female monster spawned in a cave, who mothered with her mate Typhoeus (or Typhon) every major monster in the Greek myths, (Theogony, 295... Zeus darting his lightning at Typhon, Chalcidian black-figured hydria, ca. ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Nereus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Thaumas (wonder) was a sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia. ... Phorcys and Ceto, Mosaic, Late Roman, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia In Greek mythology, Phorcys, or Phorkys was one of the names of the Old One of the Sea, the primeval sea god, who, according to Hesiod, was the son of Pontus and Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Ceto, or Keto (Greek: Κητος, Ketos, sea monster) was a hideous aquatic monster, a daughter of Gaia and Pontus. ... In Greek mythology, Eurybia was married to the titan Crius and gave birth to three known offspring Astraios, Perses, and Pallas. ... Aether (upper air), in Greek mythology, was the personification of the upper sky, space and heaven. ...


Zeus hid Elara, one of his lovers, from Hera by hiding her under the earth. His son by Elara, the giant Tityas, is therefore sometimes said to be a son of Gaia, the earth goddess, and Elara. In Greek mythology, Elara was the daughter of King Orchomenus and mother of Tityos. ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Tityas (also spelled Tityus) was a giant, the son of Elara, one of Zeus lovers. ...


Gaia also made Aristaeus immortal. A minor god in Greek mythology, Aristaeus or Aristaios was the son of Apollo and the huntress Cyrene, who despised spinning and other womanly arts but spent her days hunting. ...


Gaia is believed by some sources (Joseph Fontenrose 1959 and others) to be the original deity behind the Oracle at Delphi. She passed her powers on to, depending on the source, Poseidon, Apollo or Themis. Apollo is the best-known as the oracle power behind Delphi, long established by the time of Homer, having killed Gaia's child Python there and usurped the chthonic power. Hera punished Apollo for this by sending him to King Admetus as a shepherd for nine years. For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... In Greek mythology Python, serpent, was the earth-dragon of Delphi, always represented in sculpture and vase-paintings as a serpent. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Admetus was a king of Pherae in Thessaly, succeeding his father Pheres after whom the city was named. ...


Oaths sworn in the name of Gaia, in ancient Greece, were considered the most binding of all. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In classical art Gaia was represented in one of two ways. In Athenian vase painting she was shown as a matronly woman only half risen from the earth, often in the act of handing the baby Erichthonius (a future king of Athens) to Athena to foster (see example below).


Later in mosaic representations she appears as a woman reclining upon the earth surrounded by a host of Carpi, infant gods of the fruits of the earth (see example below under Interpretations).


Family tree

Gaia hands her newborn, Erichtonius, to Athena as Hephaestus watches - an Attic red-figure stamnos, 470–460 BC
Gaia hands her newborn, Erichtonius, to Athena as Hephaestus watches - an Attic red-figure stamnos, 470–460 BC

Gaia is the titan of Earth and these are her offspring as related in various myths. Some are related consistently, some are mentioned only in minor variants of myths, and others are related in variants that are considered to reflect a confusion of the subject or association. For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Red-figure pottery is a style of Greek pottery in which the figure outlines, details and the background are painted black, while the figure itself is not painted. ... A stamnos is a type of Greek pottery used to store liquids. ...

For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Pontus (or Pontos, sea) was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, son of Gaia and Aether, the Earth and the Air. ... In Greek mythology, Elara was the daughter of King Orchomenus and mother of Tityos. ... In Greek mythology, Tityas (also spelled Tityus) was a giant, the son of Elara, one of Zeus lovers. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... In Greek mythology, four people had the name Creusa. ... In Greek mythology, Spercheus (also Sperchius, Spercheius, Spercheios, Sperkheios) was the name of and the god of a river in Thessaly. ... In Greek mythology, Pontus (or Pontos, sea) was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, son of Gaia and Aether, the Earth and the Air. ... In Greek mythology, Ceto, or Keto (Greek: Κητος, Ketos, sea monster) was a hideous aquatic monster, a daughter of Gaia and Pontus. ... In Greek mythology, Eurybia was married to the titan Crius and gave birth to three known offspring Astraios, Perses, and Pallas. ... Phorcys and Ceto, Mosaic, Late Roman, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia In Greek mythology, Phorcys, or Phorkys was one of the names of the Old One of the Sea, the primeval sea god, who, according to Hesiod, was the son of Pontus and Gaia. ... For other uses, see Nereus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Thaumas (wonder) was a sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia. ... Aether (upper air), in Greek mythology, was the personification of the upper sky, space and heaven. ... Ouranos is the Greek name of the sky, latinized as Uranus. ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... Heracles and Antaeus, red-figured krater by Euphronios, 515–510 BC, Louvre (G 103) Heracles and Antaeus. ... In Greek mythology, Charybdis, or Kharybdis (sucker down, Greek Χάρυβδις), is a sea monster, daughter of Poseidon and Gaia, who swallows huge amounts of water three times a day and then belches it back out again. ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... In the most ancient layers of Greek mythology Echidna (ekhis, meaning she viper) was called the Mother of All Monsters. Echidna was described by Hesiod as a female monster spawned in a cave, who mothered with her mate Typhoeus (or Typhon) every major monster in the Greek myths, (Theogony, 295... Zeus darting his lightning at Typhon, Chalcidian black-figured hydria, ca. ... Ouranos is the Greek name of the sky, latinized as Uranus. ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... In Greek mythology, one of the first generation of Cyclopes, Arges (brightener) was a giant with one eye. ... For the Greek mythological figure Brontes, see Cyclops. ... In Greek mythology, Steropes (flasher) was one of the first generation of Cyclopes (one-eyed giants). ... The Hecatonchires, or Hekatonkheires, were three gargantuan figures of an archaic stage of Greek mythology. ... The hecatonchires or hecatoncheires (the hundred-handed) were figures of Greek mythology, giants with a hundred arms and fifty heads. ... Cottus may mean: Cottus, one of the Hecatonchires of Greek mythology Cottus, a genus of sculpin fish This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The hecatonchires or hecatoncheires (the hundred-handed) were figures of Greek mythology, giants with a hundred arms and fifty heads. ... For other uses, see Mneme (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Melete was one of the three original (Boeotian) Muses, though there were later nine; her sisters were Aoide and Mneme. ... In Greek mythology, Aoide (or Aoede) was one of the three original Muses, though there were later nine. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Coeus (also Koios) was the Titan of intelligence. ... In Greek mythology, Crius was one of the Titans, a son of Uranus and Gaia. ... Not to be confused with Chronos, the personification of time. ... This article is about Hyperion, a Titan in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology Iapetus, or Iapetos, was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius and through Prometheus and Epimetheus and Atlas an ancestor of the human race. ... Mnemosyne (Greek , IPA in RP and in General American) (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... Phoebe (pronunced fee-bee) was one of the original Titans, one set of sons and daughters of Uranus and Gaia. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... In Greek mythology, Theia (also written Thea or Thia), also called Euryphaessa (wide-shining), was a Titan. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... King Erichthonius (also called Erechtheus I) was, according to some legends, autochthonous (born of the soil), and in other accounts he was the son of Hephaestus and Gaia or Athena or Atthis. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... Mimas may refer to: Mimas, son of Gaia in Greek mythology, was one of the Giants slain by Heracles. ... In Greek mythology, Cranaus was the second King of Athens, succeeding Cecrops I. He was autochthonous (born from the earth), like his predecessor. ... In Greek mythology, Pheme (Φημη) (Roman equivalent: Fama) was the personification of fame and renown. ... Representation of Cecrops I The name Cecrops (Greek: ) means face with a tail and it is said that this mythical Greek king, born from the earth itself, had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. ... Amphictyon, in Greek mythology, was the second son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, although there was also a tradition that he was autochthonous (born from the earth). ... In Greek mythology Python, serpent, was the earth-dragon of Delphi, always represented in sculpture and vase-paintings as a serpent. ...

Interpretations

Etymologically Gaia is a compound word of two elements. Ge, meaning "Earth", is found in many neologisms, such as Geography (Ge/graphos = writing about Earth) and Geology (Ge/logos = words about the Earth). *Ge is a pre-Greek substrate word that some relate to the Sumerian Ki, also meaning Earth. Aia is a derivative of an Indo-European stem meaning "Grandmother". The full etymology of Gaia would, therefore, appear to have been "Grandmother Earth" [1]. Some sources, such as anthropologists James Mellaart, Marija Gimbutas and Barbara Walker, claim that Gaia as the Mother Earth is a later form of a pre-Indo-European Great Mother who had been venerated in Neolithic times, but this point is controversial in the academic community. Belief in a nurturing Earth Mother is often a feature of modern Neopagan "Goddess" worship, which is typically linked by practitioners of this religion to the Neolithic goddess theory. For more information, see the article Goddess. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgian to refer to groups of people who preceded the Greeks and dwelt in several locations in mainland Greece, Crete, and other regions of the Aegean as neighbors of the Hellenes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Ki (earth) in Sumerian mythology was the goddess and personification of the earth and underworld, chief consort of An (heaven) the sky god. ... James Mellaart is an English archaeologist who is responsible for discovering and excavating the Neolithic village of Catalhoyuk in Turkey. ... Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... Barbara G. Walker (born July 2, 1930, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an U.S. author and feminist. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ... The Great Mother manifests itself in myth as a host of archaic images. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ...


Hesiod's separation of Rhea from Gaia was not rigorously followed, even by the Greek mythographers themselves. Modern mythographers like Karl Kerenyi or Carl A. P. Ruck and Danny Staples, as well as an earlier generation influenced by Frazer's The Golden Bough, interpret the goddesses Demeter the "mother," Persephone the "daughter" and Hecate the "crone," as understood by the Greeks, to be three aspects of a former Great Goddess, who could be identified as Rhea or as Gaia herself. Such tripartite goddesses are also a part of Celtic mythology and may stem from the Proto-Indo-Europeans. In Anatolia (modern Turkey), Rhea was known as Cybele, a goddess derived from Mesopotamian Kubau, Hurrian Kebat or Kepa. The Greeks never forgot that the Mountain Mother's ancient home was Crete, where a figure some identified with Gaia had been worshipped as Potnia Theron (the "Mistress of the Animals") or simply Potnia ("Mistress"), an appellation that could be applied in later Greek texts to Demeter, Artemis or Athena. One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scotland – May 7, 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. ... J. M. W. Turners painting of the Golden Bough incident in the Aeneid The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ... A Mother Goddess is a goddess portrayed as the Earth Mother who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... The nature and functions of these ancient gods can be deduced from their names, the location of their inscriptions, their iconography, the Roman gods they are equated with, and similar figures from later bodies of Celtic mythology. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... See Kug-Baba for the sumerian queen. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Kehitysyhteistyön palvelukeskus (Service Centre for Development Cooperation), often refered as KEPA, is a service base for nongovernmental organizations in Finland interested in development work and global issues. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... Potnia (PIE *potnih2, Sanskrit ), Ancient Greek for Mistress, Lady, title of a goddess Potnia theron Artemis Athena This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ...

Aion and Terra Mater (Gaia) with four children, perhaps the personified seasons, mosaic from a Roman villa in Sentinum, first half of the 3rd century BC, (Munich Glyptothek, Inv. W504)
Aion and Terra Mater (Gaia) with four children, perhaps the personified seasons, mosaic from a Roman villa in Sentinum, first half of the 3rd century BC, (Munich Glyptothek, Inv. W504)

In Rome the imported Phrygian goddess Cybele was venerated as Magna Mater, the "Great Mother" or as Mater Nostri, "Our Mother" and identified with Roman Ceres, the grain goddess who was an approximate counterpart of Greek Demeter, but with differing aspects and venerated with a different cult. Her worship was brought to Rome following an Augury of the Cumaean Sibyl that Rome could not defeat Hannibal the Carthaginian until the worship of Cybele came to Rome. As a result she was a favoured divinity of Roman legionaries, and her worship spread from Roman military encampments and military colonies. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 656 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2120 × 1938 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 656 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2120 × 1938 pixel, file size: 2. ... Aion, also known as Æon, was a minor Anatolian deity in classical times. ... Terra Mater or Tellus Mater was a goddess personifying the Earth in Roman mythology. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... Sentinum was an ancient town of le Marche, Italy, lying to the S. of the modern town of Sassoferrato, in the low ground. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures (hence Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve). ... Phrygian can refer to: A person from Phrygia The Phrygian language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea (great Idaean mother of the gods) was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... Omens or portents are signs encountered fortuitously that are believed to foretell the future. ... Michelangelos rendering of the Cumaean Sibyl The Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples, Italy. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... Roman legionaries, 1st century. ...


In other cultures

The idea that the fertile earth itself is female, nurturing mankind, was not limited to the Greco-Roman world. These traditions themselves were greatly influenced by earlier cultures in the Central area of the ancient Middle East. In Sumerian mythology Tiamat influenced Biblical notions of The Deeps in Genesis 1. The title "The mother of life" was later given to the Akkadian Goddess Kubau, and hence to Hurrian Hepa, emerging as Hebrew Eve (Heva) and Phygian Kubala (Cybele). In Norse mythology the Great Mother, the mother of Thor himself, was known as Jord, Hlódyn, or Fjörgyn. The Irish Celts worshipped Danu, whilst the Welsh Celts worshipped Dôn. Dana played an important part in Hindu mythology and hints of their names throughout Europe, such as the Don river, the Danube River, the Dnestr and Dnepr, suggest that they stemmed from an ancient Proto-Indo-European goddess [2]. In Lithuanian mythology Gaia - Žemė is daughter of Sun and Moon. Also she is wife of Dangus (Varuna). In Pacific cultures, the Earth Mother was known under as many names and with as many attributes as cultures who revered her for example Māori whose creation myth included Papatuanuku, partner to Ranginui - the Sky Father. In South America in the Andes a cult of the Pachamama still survives (in regions of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Argentina and Chile). The name comes from Pacha (Quechua for change, epoch) and Mama (mother). While ancient Mexican cultures referred to Mother Earth as Tonantzin Tlalli that means "Revered Mother Earth". Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... For other uses, see Tiamat (disambiguation). ... The Deeps is the English term for the Hebrew Tehwom, found in the opening verses of the Book of Genesis. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... See Kug-Baba for the sumerian queen. ... The mother goddess of the Hurrians. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Eve, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Eve from the side of Adam. ... A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Jord was, in Norse mythology, the goddess of the Earth. ... This article is about the European people. ... In Irish mythology, Danu or Dana was the mother goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danann (peoples of the goddess Danu), although little is recorded about her as a character. ... Dôn was a Welsh mother goddess, equivalent of the Irish Danu. ... There are at several rivers named Don: Don River, Russia Don River, Toronto River Don, England River Don, Aberdeenshire This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Lithuanian mythology is an example of pagan mythology containing archaic elements. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... The Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, tell the following story, or creation myth, to explain how the world was created: Heaven and earth were once joined as Ranginui, the Sky Father, and Papatuanuku, the Earth Mother, lay together in a tight embrace. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... In Inca mythology, Mama Pacha or Pachamama was a dragoness fertility goddess who presided over planting and harvesting. ...


In Indian religions, the Mother of all creation is called "Gayatri", a surprisingly close form of Gaia. Gayatri (Sanskrit: , IAST: ) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ...


Only in Egyptian Mythology is the reverse true - Geb is the Earth Father while Nut is the Sky Mother. Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... Geb (also spelt Seb, and Keb) was the personification of the earth, amongst the group who believed in the Ennead, a form of Egyptian mythology centred in Heliopolis, Since the Egyptians held that their underworld was literally that, under the earth, Geb was sometimes seen as containing the dead, or... In Egyptian mythology, Nuit or Nut was the sky goddess, in contrast to most other mythologies, which usually have a sky father. ...


Carl Gustav Jung suggested that the archetypal mother was a part of the collective unconscious of all humans, and various Jungian students, e.g. Erich Neumann and Ernst Whitmont have argued that such mother imagery underpins many mythologies, and precedes the image of the paternal "father", in such religious systems. Such speculations help explain the universality of such mother goddess imagery around the world. Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the neopsychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... People called Erich Neumann: Erich Neumann (politician) Erich Neumann (psychologist) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ...


The Upper Paleolithic Venus figurines have been sometimes explained as depictions of an Earth Goddess similar to Gaia[3] Gaia (land or earth, also spelled Ge or Gaea) is a Greek goddess personifying the Earth. ... Look up Gaia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Neopaganism

Many Neopagans actively worship Gaia. Beliefs regarding Gaia vary, ranging from the common Wiccan belief that Gaia is the Earth (or in some cases the spiritual embodiment of the earth, or the Goddess of the Earth), to the broader Neopagan belief that Gaia is the goddess of all creation, a Mother Goddess from which all other gods spring. Gaia is sometimes thought to embody the planets and the Earth, and sometimes thought to embody the entire universe. Worship of Gaia is varied, ranging from prostration to druidic ritual. Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ...


Unlike Zeus, a roving nomad god of the open sky, Gaia was manifest in enclosed spaces: the house, the courtyard, the womb, the cave. Her sacred animals are the serpent, the lunar bull, the pig, and bees. In her hand the narcotic poppy may be transmuted to a pomegranate. For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ...


Some who worship Gaia attempt to get closer to Mother Earth by becoming unconcerned with material things and more in tune with nature. Others who worship Gaia recognize Gaia as a great goddess and practice rituals commonly associated with other forms of worship. Many sects worship Gaia, even more than worship Themis, Artemis, and Hera.[citation needed] Some common forms of worship may include prostration, attempting to reach a greater connection to the earth, shamanistic practices, tithing, praising and praying, creating inspired works of art dedicated to the goddess, burning oils and incense, rearing plants and gardens, the creation and maintaining of Sacred Groves.[citation needed] Other forms of worship may indeed be common, as worship of Gaia is very broad and can take many forms. In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Sacred groves were a feature of the mythological landscape and the cult practice of Old Europe, of the most ancient levels of Scandinavian mythology, Greek mythology, Slavic mythology, Roman mythology, and in Druidic practice. ...


In modern ecological theory

Main article: Gaia hypothesis

The mythological name was revived in 1969 by James Lovelock, in Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth; his Gaia hypothesis was supported by Lynn Margulis. The hypothesis proposes that living organisms and inorganic material are part of a dynamic system that shapes the Earth's biosphere, and maintains the Earth as a fit environment for life. In some Gaia theory approaches the Earth itself is viewed as an organism with self-regulatory functions. Further books by Lovelock and others popularized the Gaia Hypothesis, which was widely embraced and passed into common usage as part of the heightened awareness of planetary vulnerability of the 1990s. For other uses, see Gaia. ... Dr. James Ephraim Lovelock, CH, CBE, FRS (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, author, researcher, environmentalist, and futurologist who lives in Cornwall, in the south west of Great Britain. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... The word dynamics can refer to: a branch of mechanics; see dynamics (mechanics) the volume of music; see dynamics (music) When used referring to mechanics, it is referring to the study of the motion of both rigid bodies and particles. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


In Literature

Gaia (Gaea) is referenced through the re-naming of a character in Ayn Rand's science fiction novella, "Anthem." Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... Anthem is a dystopian, science-fiction novella by philosopher Ayn Rand, first published in 1938. ...


Gaia, a preternaturally beautiful and highly skilled teenaged girl born without the fear gene, is also the protagonist of Francine Pascal's young adult series, "Fearless."


Gaia is described as the Earth Mother and aids the protagonists in Chris D' Lacey's The Fire Within series. She takes on many animal forms, such as an albino hedgehog (dubbed 'Spikey') and the legendary mate of one of the seven bears that ruled the ice, Sunasala. The Fire Within (Le feu follet) is a French 1963 film directed by Louis Malle and starring Maurice Ronet as Alain Leroy, a recovering alcoholic living in Versailles who suffers from depression. ...


See also

Bold textDewi Shris biography Dewi Shri is the goddess of rice (paddy)in Bali island. ...

References

  1. ^ This topic has been discussed on various Indo-European fora such as cybalist
  2. ^ Indo-European scholars at [http://groups.yahoo.com/groups/cybalist| sybalist suggest *Don may come from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning "Swift" as applied to the flowing rivers mentioned
  3. ^ Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe, "Women in the Stone Age," in the essay "The Venus of Willendorf" (accessed March 13, 2008)
  • Joseph Fontenrose, Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and its Origins, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959; reprint 1980
  • Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks 1951
  • Carl A.P. Ruck and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth, 1994.
  • Gaia's voice is heard throughout the first God of War, voiced by Linda hunt, telling the story of the main character's, Kratos, journey from Spartan general all the way through to his becoming the new god of war. She also appears in God of War 2 and helps Kratos get out of Hades and on his way to exacting revenge against Zeus

is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Edward Fontenrose (1903-1986) was an American classical scholar. ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gaia
  • Theoi Project, Gaia references to Gaia in classical literature and art

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gaia (476 words)
She was an early earth goddess and it is written that Gaia was born from Chaos, the great void of emptiness within the universe, and with her came Eros.
Gaia took as her husband Uranus, who was also her son, and their offspring included the Titans, six sons and six daughters.
Gaia being the primordial element from which all the gods originated was worshiped throughout Greece, but later she went into decline and was supplanted by other gods.
Gaia (mythology) (788 words)
Echoes of Gaia's power lingered into the mythology of classical Greece, where her roles were divided among Zeus' consort Hera, Apollo's twin and consort Artemis, and Athena.
This caused pain to Gaia (Tartarus was her bowels) so she created grey flint (or adamantine) and shaped a great sickle and gathered together Cronus and his brothers to ask them to obey her.
By Pontus, Gaia birthed Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto and Eurybia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m