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Encyclopedia > Gagra
Gagra, View from the Black Sea
Gagra, View from the Black Sea

Gagra is a city in the Abkhazia region of western Georgia, sprawling for 5 km on the northeast coast of the Black Sea, at the foot of the Caucasus Mountains. Its subtropical climate made Gagra a popular health resort in Imperial Russian and Soviet times. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Abkhazia (Abkhaz Аҧсны/Aphsny, Georgian აფხაზეთი/Apkhazeti, Russian Абха́зия/Abkhazia) is a region of 8,600 km² (3,300 sq. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... // General Information The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... The Russian Empire in 1913 Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик (СССР)  listen; tr. ...


Since the Abkhazian war in the 1990s, however, the city has become depopulated and increasingly decrepit. It had a population of 26,636 in 1989 but this has certainly fallen considerably due to the mass expulsion of ethnic Georgians from Abkhazia. The town is still much frequented by Russian tourists, who come from the Russian resort of Sochi, situated just 22 km to the north. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, the last decade of the 20th Century. ... Sochi Coat of Arms, adopted on 15 June 1967 Sochi (Russian: Со́чи) is the most popular Russian resort, situated in the Krasnodar Krai, near the Russian border with Abkhazia, Georgia. ...

Contents


History

The city was established as a Greek colony called Triglite, inhabited by Greeks and aboriginal Abkhazians. It came under the control of the kingdom of Pontus in the 1st century BC before being absorbed by the Roman Empire, which renamed the city as Nitika. Its geographical position led the Romans to fortify the city, which was repeatedly attacked by Goths and other invaders. After the fall of Rome, its successor, the Byzantine Empire, took control of the city. Along with the rest of Abkhazia, Gagra was incorporated into the Georgian kingdom of Imereti from the 9th century onwards. It became a major trading settlement in which Genoan and Venetian merchants were prominent, trading in the city's main exports - wood, honey, wax and slaves. The name "Gagra" appears for the first time on a map of 1308 made by the Italian Pietro Visconti, which is now in the Library of Saint Mark in Venice. After the colonisation of the Anatolian shores by the Ionian Greeks, Pontus soon became a name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the Main), by... (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Events The Roman Republic... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation) The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. ... Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova (jeno-vah), Genoese Zena (zaynah), French Gênes) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of Liguria. ... Venetian could mean of Venice of the venetia territory of the Republic of Venice of the venet nation the Venetian language The Venetian, a hotel and casino in Las Vegas, Nevada A venetian blind - a horizontally slatted window blind. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venessia in the local dialect), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′N 12°19′E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ...


Gagra under the Russians

In the 16th century, Gagra and the rest of Abkhazia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The western merchants were expelled and the city entered a prolonged period of decline, with much of the local population fleeing into the mountains. By the 18th century the city had been reduced to little more than a village surrounded by forests and disease-ridden swamps. Its fortunes were restored in the 19th century when the Russian Empire expanded into the region, annexing Abkhazia. The swamps were drained and the town was rebuilt around a new military hospital. Its population, however, was still small: in 1866, a census recorded that 336 men and 280 women, mostly local families or army officers and their dependents, lived in Gagra. The town suffered badly in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878, when Turkish troops invaded, destroyed the town and expelled the local population. Russia won the war, however, and rebuilt Gagra again. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ...

View of Gagra's wharf 90 years ago.
View of Gagra's wharf 90 years ago.

After the war, the town was "discovered" by Prince Peter of Oldenburg, a member of the Russian royalty. He saw the potential of the region's subtropical climate and decided to build a high-class resort there. Having raised a large sum of money from the government, he built himself a palace there and constructed a number of other buildings in an eclectic variety of styles from around Europe. A park was laid out with tropical trees and even parrots and monkeys imported to give it an exotic feel. Despite the expensive work, the resort was not initially a success, although it did later attract a growing number of foreign tourists visiting on cruises of the Black Sea. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x717, 304 KB)Wharf in Gagry. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x717, 304 KB)Wharf in Gagry. ...


Gagra under the Soviet Union

In the Russian Revolution of 1905, a local uprising produced a revolutionary government in the town, which founded a short-lived Republic of Gagra. This was soon defeated and the revolutionaries arrested en masse. The First World War a few years later was a disaster for Gagra, destroying the tourist trade on which it depended. The Russian Revolution shortly afterwards saw the Bolsheviks take over the city; despite a brief French attempt to repel them during the Russian Civil War, the city was firmly incorporated into the new Soviet Union. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... Clockwise from top: Trenches in frontline, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks and a Sopwith Camel biplane. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia which reached its peak in 1917 with the overthrow of the Provisional Government that had replaced the Russian Czarist system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922. ...


The Bolshevik leader, Lenin, issued a decree in 1919 establishing a "worker's resort" in Gagra, nationalising the resort that had been built by Oldenburg. It became a popular holiday resort for Soviet citizens and during World War II gained a new role as a site for the rehabilitation of wounded soldiers. After the war, various state-run sanatoriums were built there. The resort grew and was developed intensively as part of the "Soviet Riviera". Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest...


Gagra in separatist Abkhazia

In the late 1980s, tensions grew between the Georgian and Abkhazian communities in the region. All-out war erupted in 1992-1993 which ended in a catastrophic defeat of the Georgian government's forces. Hundreds of thousands of ethnic Georgians were expelled from their homes in Abkhazia in an outbreak of mass ethnic cleansing in which thousands died. Gagra and the Abkhazian capital Sukhumi were at the centre of the fighting and suffered heavy damage. The notorious Chechen rebel commander Shamil Basayev fought in Gagra on the Abkhazian side, as the commander of a detachment of Chechen volunteers. The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Media:Example. ... Sukhumi (სოხუმი in Georgian, Аҟəа in Abkhaz language) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent state that is internationally recognised, however, as being part of Georgia. ... Chechen can mean: Chechen people, an ethnic group Chechen language Related to Chechnya This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Shamil Basayev Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Russian: Шамиль Салманович Басаев) (born January 14, 1965) is a Chechen warlord, politician, terrorist, and Chechnyas most famed contemporary national hero. ...


Since then, Gagra has stagnated along with the rest of Abkhazia. The conflict has still not been resolved, although ongoing skirmishes are confined to the Abkhazian/Georgian border well to the east of the city.


Monuments

The chief landmarks of Gagra are:

  • ruins of the Abaata fortress (4th-5th cent. AD);
  • 6th-century church, said to be the oldest in Abkhazia;
  • Marlinsky defensive tower (1841);
  • 19th-century palace of Prince of Oldenburg.

External links

  • gagra.iatp.org.ge/index-eng.htm
  • gagra.narod.ru

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hotell Gagra & Reseguide Gagra (368 words)
Denna sida handlar om hotell i Gagra och vi hoppas att du bokar ett hotellrum på någon av våra prisgaranterade orter när du åker på din weekend i Gagra.
Om du inte åker till Gagra för en weekendresa så kanske du är på semester i Gagra och då är det minst lika viktigt att ha ett bra hotell för att kunna njuta av din resa.
Boka Hotellrum redan nu för att göra din resa till Gagra mer bekväm.
Russia - Gagra (845 words)
Gagra is a city in the Abkhazia region of western Georgia, sprawling for 5 km on the northeast coast of the Black Sea, at the foot of the Caucasus Mountains.
In the 16th century, Gagra and the rest of Abkhazia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
Gagra and the Abkhazian capital Sukhumi were at the centre of the fighting and suffered heavy damage.
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