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Encyclopedia > Gaeta
Città di Gaeta
Province Latina
Region Lazio
Area 28 km²
Altitude 2m
Location 41°13′N 13°34′E
Population 21,135
Population density 755 /km²
Name of inhabitants Gaetani
Patron saint Saint Erasmus (feast: June 2)
Mayor Massimo Magliozzi (since May, 2002)
Official Site www.gaeta.it

Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. The town has played a conspicuous part in military history: its fortifications date back to Roman times, and it has several traces of the period, including the first-century mausoleum of the Roman general Lucius Munatius Plancus at the top of the Montagna Spaccata («Split Mountain»). Gaeta's fortifications were extended and strengthened in the 15th century, and indeed throughout the history of the Kingdom of Naples (later the Two Sicilies). Nowadays Gaeta is a fishing and oil seaport, and a renowned tourist resort. NATO maintains a base of operations at Gaeta. Image File history File links Gaeta_stemma. ... In Italy, the province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of an intermediate level, between municipality (comune) and region (Regione). ... Latina (It. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Latium (now Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Saint Erasmus of Formiae (died AD 303), also known as Saint Elmo, is the patron saint of sailors. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... This article is about the month of May. ... 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Latina (It. ... Latium (now Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Lucius Munatius Plancus (c. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the new name that the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV of Naples gave to his domain (including Southern Italy and Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4...

Contents


History

According to Virgil's Aeneid (vii.1–9), Caieta was Aeneas’ wet-nurse, whom he buried here. According to Strabo the name stemmed from the Greek kaiétas, which means "cave", probably referring to the several harbours. In the classical age Caieta, like the neighbouring Formia and Sperlonga, was a tourist resort and site of the seaside villas of many important and rich characters of Rome. Like the other Roman resorts, Caieta was linked to the capital of the Empire by Via Appia and its end trunk Via Flacca (or Valeria), through an apposite diverticulum or bye-road. A sculpture of Virgil, probably from the 1st century AD. Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC–19 BC), known in English as Virgil or Vergil, is a Latin poet, the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics and the Aeneid, the last being an epic poem of twelve books that... The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BCE (between 29 and 19 BCE) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ... Aeneas (Greek: Αινείας, Aineías) was a Trojan hero, the son of prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus in Roman sources). ... Strabo (squinty) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. ... Formia is a small town/city on the Mediterranean Coast of Italy. ... Sperlonga is a coastal town in Italy, about half way between Rome and Naples. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Roman villa. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,823,807 almost 4,000,000 1... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation) The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine... Remains of the Appian Way in Rome, Italy The Appian Way (Latin: Via Appia) is a famous road built by the Romans. ...


At the beginning of the Middle Ages, after the Lombards invasion, Gaeta remained under Byzantine Empire suzerainty. In the following years, like Amalfi, Sorrento and Naples, it would seem to have established itself as a practically independent port and to have carried on a thriving trade with the Levant. Its history, however, is rather obscure until, around 830, it become a lordship ruled by hereditary Hypati, or consuls: the first one was Constantine (839866), who was followed by Marino I and then Docibile I (867-906). Greatest of the Hypati was John I (906933), who crushed the Saracens at Garigliano in 915 and gained the title of patricius from the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Scandinavia that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Amalfi coast. ... Sorrento is the name of many cities and towns: Sorrento,_Italy Sorrento,_Florida, United States of America Sorrento, suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Sorrento, suburb of Perth, Western Australia, Australia Sorrento, Hong Kong, the largest residential development on Kowloon Station This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Events Louis the Pious attempts to divide his empire among his sons. ... Events Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 906 ... Events Jersey was seized by William Longsword, Duke of Normandy . ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... The Battle of Garigliano was fought in 915 between the forces of the Christian League and the Saracens. ... Events Fatimid armies invaded Egypt. ... Patricians (patricii) were originally the elite caste in ancient Rome. ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos (the Purple-born) (Constantinople, 905 – Constantinople, November 9, 959) was the son of Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karvounopsina. ...


In the 11th century the duchy fell into the hands of the Norman counts of Aversa, who were afterwards princes of Capua; in 1135 it was definitively annexed to his kingdom by Roger of Sicily. The town, however, maintained its own coinage as late as 1229. In 1227 Frederick II was in the city and strengthened the castle. However, in the struggle between the Frederick and the Papacy, Gaeta fell to the latter, and the Papal forces destroyed the imperial castle in the fray. In 1233, Frederick regained control of the important port and fortress. In 1279 Charles I of Anjou rebuilt the castle and enhanced the fortifications. In 1289 James of Aragon besieged the city in vain. From 1378 Gaeta hosted for some years antipope Clement VII. The future King of Naples Ladislas lived in Gaeta from 1387. Here, on 21 September, he married Costanza Chiaramonte, whom he repudiated three years later. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Norman may refer to: the Normans, the Norman people. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Capua (modern Santa Maria Capua Vetere) was the chief ancient city of Campania, and one of the most important towns of ancient Italy, situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Neapolis, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Roger II (1093-1154), son and successor of Roger I, began his rule in 1112. ... Events March 18 - Sixth Crusade of Emperor Frederick II ends in truce with Sultan al-Kamil and coronation of Frederick as King of Jerusalem. ... Events Henry III of England declares himself of age and assumes power Births September 30 - Pope Nicholas IV Deaths March 18 - Pope Honorius III (b. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... // Events Fortress of Kalan built. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... For the other Clement VII who was Pope from 1523 to 1534, see Pope Clement VII. Robert of Geneva (1342-16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, thereby becoming the first antipope of the Western Schism, as Pope Clement VII. He... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... King Ladislas of Naples, the Magnanimous (February 11, 1377–August 6, 1414), was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier 1386–1414, and titular King of Hungary 1390–1414. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ...


Alfons I of Naples made Gaeta his beachhead for the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples in 1435. He enlarged the castle, which became his royal palace, and created a mint. In 1495 Charles VIII of France conquered the city and sacked it. The following year, however, Frederick I of Aragon regained it with a tremendous siege which lasted from September 8 to November 18. Alfons V of Aragon (also Alfons I of Naples) (1396 – June 27, 1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, was the King of Aragon and Naples and count of Barcelona from 1416 to 1458. ... The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154... For other uses, see number 1435. ... Events February 22 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the citys throne. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years), with 43 remaining. ...


In 1528 Andrea Doria, admiral of Charles V, defeated a French fleet in the waters off Gaeta and gave the city to its emperor. Gaeta was thenceforth protected with a new and more extensive wall, which also encompassed Monte Orlando. Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... For the ship of the same name, see SS Andrea Doria. ... Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I, Dutch: Karel V, German: Karl V.) (24 February 1500–21 September 1558) is considered (the first) King of Spain though in fact his son was the first to use that title. ...

Gaeta's historic quarter from Monte Orlando.
Gaeta's historic quarter from Monte Orlando.

On September 30, 1707 Gaeta was stormed and taken after a three months' siege by the Austrians under Daun. On 6 August 1734 it was taken, after a siege of four months, by French, Spanish and Sardinian troops under the future King Charles of Naples. The fortifications were again strengthened; and in 1799 it was temporarily occupied by the French. On July 18, 1806 it was captured, after an heroic defence, by the French under Masséna. On July 18, 1815 it capitulated, after a three months' siege, to the Austrians. Historic port of Gaeta (Gaeta S. Erasmo), visible from the church of St. ... Historic port of Gaeta (Gaeta S. Erasmo), visible from the church of St. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 92 days remaining. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Act of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Leopold Josef, count von Daun (or Dhaun) (September 24, 1705 - February 5, 1766), prince of Thiano, Austrian field marshal, was born at Vienna. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... André Masséna, Marshal of France André Masséna (May 6, 1758 - April 4, 1817), Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling, was a French soldier in the armies of Napoleon and a Marshal of France. ...


In November 1848 Pope Pius IX, after his flight in disguise from Rome, found a refuge at Gaeta, where he remained until September 4, 1849. Finally, in 1860, it was the scene of the last stand of Francis II of the Two Sicilies against the forces of United Italy. Shut up in the fortress with 12,000 men, after Garibaldi's occupation of Naples, the king, inspired by the heroic example of Queen Maria, offered a stubborn resistance, and it was not till February 13, 1861 that he was forced to capitulate after the withdrawal of the French fleet made bombardment from the sea possible,. 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was pope for a record pontificate (not counting the Apostle St. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... King Francis II of the Two Sicilies (January 16, 1836 – December 27, 1894) was the son and heir of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and Maria Cristina of Savoy. ... Garibaldi in 1866 Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento. ... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


After the Risorgimento and until World War II, Gaeta grew in importance and wealth as a seaport. The nearby town of Elena, separated after the Risorgimento and named after the queen of Italy, was reunited to Gaeta following World War I. Mussolini transferred Gaeta from the southern region known today as Campania (formerly Terra di Lavoro, to which it is historically and culturally attached) to the central region of Lazio. During World War II, the city retained its strategic importance for Mussolini and later for his Nazi allies. After the king dismissed Mussolini, the latter was initially taken via Gaeta to the island prison of Ponza (where Mussolini had previously locked up many of his political enemies). To keep the population ignorant of the massive convoy, a false air-raid siren sounded. Mussolini would later be transferred to Gran Sasso, from where the Germans rescued him. After Italy surrendered to the Allies, however, the town's fortunes began to decline. Recognizing the city's strategic importance, and fearful of an Allied landing in the area, German troops occupied the city and expelled most of the population. The zone of exclusion began with a five-kilometre border from the historical city centre. Soon after, however, the population was expelled even beyond this point. The Gaetani were finally ordered to leave the area completely. Those who could not were placed in a concentration camp, and a few were taken to Germany. Italian unification process Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate countries of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy between the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... Clockwise from top: Trenches in frontline, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks and a Sopwith Camel biplane. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (Predappio near Forlì, July 29, 1883 – Giulino di Mezzegra near Como, April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... Campania is a region of Southern Italy, bordering on Lazio to the north-west, Molise to the north, Puglia to the north-east, Basilicata to the east, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... Latium (now Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Ponza and the Pontine Islands. ... Gran Sasso (Italian for great stone), a massif located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy, is the highest of the Apennines and the centerpiece of a national park (established 1991). ...


Following the Allied advance across the Garigliano and the Allied occupation of Rome, the Gaetani were allowed to return to their city and begin the process of rebuilding. In subsequent decades the city has boomed as a beach resort, and it has seen some success at marketing its agricultural products, primarily its tomatoes and olives. Many of its families count seamen among their number. However, the decades since World War II have been as difficult for Gaeta as they have been for most of Italy's Mezzogiorno. In particular, its importance as a passenger seaport has nearly vanished: ferries to Ponza and elsewhere now leave from the nearby town of Formia. All attempts to build a permanent industry as a source of employment and economic well-being for the town have failed. Notable losses include the Littorina rail line (now used as a parking lot and a marketplace), the AGIP refinery (nowadays a simple depot), and the once-thriving glass factory, which has become an unused industrial relic. The Garigliano is a river in central Italy. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,823,807 almost 4,000,000 1... The Mezzogiorno or Southern Italy is the area of Italy south of Rome. ... Ponza and the Pontine Islands. ... Formia is a small town/city on the Mediterranean Coast of Italy. ... Agip (Azienda Generale Italiana Petroli) is an Italian automotive oil and fuel manufacturer. ...


Main sights

Castle of the houses of Anjou and Aragon.
Castle of the houses of Anjou and Aragon.

Main monuments of the city include: Castle of the houses of Angio and Aragon at Gaeta. ... Castle of the houses of Angio and Aragon at Gaeta. ...

  • The massive Castle.
  • The Mausoleum of Lucius Munatius Plancus (22 BC) is a cylindrical travertine monument at the top of Monte Orlando (168 m). It stands at 13.20m and has a diameter of 29.50 m. Another important Roman public man, Lucius Sempronius Atratinus, Marc Antony's fleet commander, has a mausoleum, sited in the more recent district of Gaeta: of similar diamater, it is however not as well preserved.
  • The Sanctuary of SS. Trinità, mentioned as early as the 11th century and visited, among the others, by St. Francis and Saint Philip Neri. The Crucifix Chapel was built in 1434 over a rock which had fallen from the nearby cliffs. From the sanctuary the Grotta del Turco can be visited: it is a grotto which ends directly in the sea and where the waves create atmospheric effects of light.
  • The Church of Annunziata (1320), was rebuilt at the beginning of the 17th century in Baroque style by Andrea Lazzari. It houses works by Luca Giordano, Sebastiano Conca and Giacinto Brandi, as well as the sarcophagus of Enrico Caracciolo, a notable Gothic work of art. The most interesting sight is however the Golden Grotto, a Renaissance room where Pope Pius IX devised the dogma of Papal infallibility. The walls of the grotto are decorated with 19 panels by Giovan Filippo Criscuolo (1531) into carved and gilded frames with small pilasters. On the altarpiece is an Immacolata by Scipione Pulzone.
  • Church of San Giovanni a Mare was built by the hypate Giovanni IV in the 10th century, outside the old sea walls of the city. It is a rare example of fusion between the basilica form with the Byzantine one. The simple façade has a Gothic portal and a dome, while the interior has a nave with two aisles. The inner pavement is slightly inclined to allow waters to flow away after sea floods.
  • The Cathedral of Assunta and Sant'Erasmo. It was erected over a more ancient church, Santa Maria del Parco, and consecrated by Pope Paschal II in 1106: it had a nave with six aisles separated by columns with Gothic capitals. In 1778, however, two of the aisles were suppressed and the Gothic lines hidden. In the 13th century Moorish arches were added over the capitals. In 1663 the crypt was decorated in Baroque style. The interior houses a banner from the Battle of Lepanto, donated by Pope Pius V to Don John of Austria, who used it as his admiral's flag. The main sight of the church is however the marble Paschal candelabrum, standing 3.50 m tall, from the late 13th century: it is in Romanesque style, decorated with 48 reliefs in 4 vertical rows, telling the Stories of the Life of Jesus. There are also paintings by Giacinto Brandi and Giovan Filippo Criscuolo.
  • The large church of St. Francis was constructed, according to the legend, by the Saint himself in 1222.
  • The Cathedral has a great belfry, standing at 57 m, which is considered the city's finest piece of art. The base has two marble lions, and the whole construction made large reuse of ancien Roman architectural elements. The upper part, octagonal in plan, with small Romanesque arches with majolica decoration, was completed in 1279.
  • The parish church of Santa Lucia, the former St. Maria in Pensulis, was once a Royal chapel and here prayed Margherita of Durazzo and king Ladislas. It had originally Romanesque and Sicilian-Arab lines, but in the 1456 it was rebuilt in Renaissance style, and in 1648 adapted to a Baroque one. The side has a Mediaeval pronaos with ancient fragments and figures of animals.
  • The Medieval Quarter of Gaetais itself of interest. It lies on the steep sides of Mount Orlando and has characteristic houses from the 11th-13th centuries.

Gaeta is also the centre of the Regional Park of Riviera di Ulisse, which includes Monte Orlando, Gianola and the Scauri Mounts, and the two promontories of Torre Capovento and that of Tiberius' Villa at Sperlonga. Lucius Munatius Plancus (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17... Travertine A carving in travertine Travertine, a natural stone, is a white concretionary form of calcium carbonate that is usually hard and semicrystalline. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Bust of Marcus Antonius Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Numerous saints have been named Francis. ... S. Filippo Neri Philip Romolo Neri (Filippo de Neri; called, Apostle of Rome), (July 21, 1515 - May 26, 1595), was an Italian churchman, noted for founding a society of secular priests called the Congregation of the Oratory. He was was born at Florence, the youngest child of Francesco Neri, a... Events May 30, Battle of Lipany in the Hussite Wars Jan van Eyck paints the wedding of Giovanni Arnoflini The Honorable Passing of Arms at the bridge of Obrigo The Portuguese reach Cape Bojador in Western Sahara. ... Events January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... For the Baroque style in a more general sense, see Baroque. ... The creation of man, fresco in the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence, 1684-1686. ... Sebastiano Conca (1679 - 1764), Italian painter of the Florentine school, was born at Gaeta, and studied at Naples under Francesco Solimena. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was pope for a record pontificate (not counting the Apostle St. ... Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion or any kind of organisation to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that the Pope, when he solemnly defines a matter of faith or morals ex cathedra (that is, officially and as pastor of the universal Church), is correct, and thus does not have the possibility of error. ... Events January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake-- thousands die October 1 - Battle of Kappel - The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Basilica of St. ... The 11th-century monastery of Hosios Lukas in Greece is representative of the Byzantine art during the rule of Macedonian dynasty. ... Paschal II, né Ranierius (d. ... Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... // Events Prix de Rome scholarship established for students of the arts. ... The naval Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571, at the northern edge of the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (then the Gulf of Lepanto), off western Greece. ... Saint Pius V, né Antonio Ghislieri, from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri (January 17, 1504 – May 1, 1572) was pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church. ... The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Romanesque St. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... King Ladislas of Naples, the Magnanimous (February 11, 1377–August 6, 1414), was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier 1386–1414, and titular King of Hungary 1390–1414. ... The Nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave anticipates the Gothic style. ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... A pronaos is the inner area of the portico of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, situated between the colonnade or walls of the portico and the entrance to the cella or shrine. ... A bust of younger Emperor Tiberius For the city in Israel, see Tiberias. ... Sperlonga is a coastal town in Italy, about half way between Rome and Naples. ...


Culture

Gaeta has erected a monument to Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot), who according to many sources was born there (although other sources give Genoa). Other important people which was born in Gaeta include: Pope Gelasius II, writer and Papal diplomatic Tommaso De Vio, and the painters Giovanni da Gaeta, Giovan Filippo Criscuolo (c. 1500-1584), Scipione Pulzone (1550-1597) and Sebastiano Conca (1680-1764). John Cabot gazes across Bristol Harbour Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes, German Genua, Spanish Genova) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Gelasius II, né Giovanni Coniulo (d. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... Sebastiano Conca (1679 - 1764), Italian painter of the Florentine school, was born at Gaeta, and studied at Naples under Francesco Solimena. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Gaetani speak a dialect of Italian that, while similar to the nearby Neapolitan, is one of the few Italian dialects to preserve Latin's neuter gender.


Distinctive local cuisine includes the tiella, which resembles both a pizza and a calzone. The tiella can be made with a number of stuffings. Typical stuffings include diced calamari with parsley, garlic, oil, hot pepper and just enough tomato sauce for color. Other stuffings include escarole and baccala (dried codfish), egg and zucchini, spinach, and ham and cheese. A Pizza Margherita made in Naples (Napoli), Italy. ...


Sciuscielle, mostaccioli, susamelli, and roccocò are also local desserts most often made during the Christmas season.


The most famous folklore event of Gaeta is Gliu Sciuscio of December 31, in which bands of young Gaetani in traditional costumes head to the city's streets, playing mainly self-built instruments. December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


The town is also notable for its distinctive brand of olives, marketed throughout the world (the main production, however, takes place in neighbouring Itri) and its splendid beaches (Serapo, Fontania, Ariana, Sant'Agostino). Itri is a small city in the central Italian region of Latium and the Province of Latina. ...


External links

  • gaeta.it

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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Gaeta

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Gaeta - definition of Gaeta in Encyclopedia (578 words)
Gaeta (ancient Caieta) is a seaport in the province of Latina in Lazio, Italy.
During the break-up of the Roman empire, Gaeta, like Amalfi and Naples, would seem to have established itself as a practically independent port and to have carried on a thriving trade with the Levant.
Gaeta has erected a monument to Giovanni Caboto John Cabot, who according to many sources was born there (although other sources give Genoa).
Encyclopedia: Gaeta (672 words)
Gaeta's fortifications were extended and strengthened in the 15th century, and indeed throughout the history of the Kingdom of Naples (later the Two Sicilies).
Gaeta underwent further attacks in 1806 and 1815 by the French and the Bourbons.
In 1227 Frederick II was in the city and strenghtened the castle; however, in the struggle between the Emperor and the Papacy Gaeta fell to the latter, and the Papal forces destroyed the imperial castle in the frey.
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