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Encyclopedia > Gaels
Gaels
Total population

approx. 400,000 or more Gaël (Gwazel in Breton) is a small commune of France, in the Ille-et-Vilaine département, located southwest of Rennes. ...

Regions with significant populations
Republic of Ireland[1]:
260,000
Northern Ireland[2]:
95,000
Scotland[3]:
58,652
United States[4][5]:
26,475
Canada[6][7]:
6470
Isle of Man[8]:
1729
Languages
Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx
Religions
Catholicism, Protestantism(Mainly Presbyterian)
Related ethnic groups
Brythons

The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group which originated in Ireland and subsequently spread to Scotland and the Isle of Man. Their language is of the Gaelic family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. The word in English was adopted in 1810 from Scottish Gaelic Gaidheal (compare Irish Gael/Gaedheal and Old Irish Goídel) to designate a Highlander (OED). Gael or Goídel was first used as a collective term to describe people from Ireland; it is thought to have come from Old Welsh Guoidel 'raider' (modern Welsh Gwyddel 'Irish person'). Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a Christian ecclesiastical... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. ... This article is about the country. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Scottish Gaelic and the recently extinct Manx, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Welsh, Breton, and the moribund Cornish. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be, more or less, fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from the time it developed from the Brythonic language, generally thought to be in the period between the middle of the 6th century and the middle of the 7th century, until the early 12th century when it developed... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Many people who do not speak fluent Gaelic consider themselves to be "Gaels" in a broader sense because of their ancestry and heritage. [1] Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ...

Contents

Mythological origin

The Gaels, during the beginning of the Christian era (at which time Gaelic people were mostly restricted to Ireland), believed themselves to be descendants of the Milesians - the sons of Míl Espáine - of the Iberia. This belief persists in the Gaelic cultures of Ireland and Scotland up to the present day, with many if not most clan leaders in either country claiming descent from their predecessor, back to famous historical kings going back into pre-history such as Cormac Cas. Much of this is covered in the Lebor Gabála Érenn, which catalogues the path of the Gaels' ancestors in a way that, while mostly mythic, may be an embellished account of actual historical events. Anno Domini (Latin: In the year of the Lord), or more completely Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi (in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly abbreviated AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the dominant Christian Era in the world today. ... In Irish mythology Míl Espáine (Latin Miles Hispaniae, Soldier of Hispania, that is Iberia or modern Spain and Portugal) is the ancestor of the final inhabitants of Ireland, the sons of Míl or Milesians, who represent the Goidelic Celts. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. ...


Historical expansion

It is not known with any certainty when speakers of a Goidelic (or Q-Celtic) language reached Ireland, or how they came to be the dominant culture, or if Q-Celtic didn't develop entirely in Ireland from a previous dialect. Some believe Goidelic replaced some pre-existing Brythonic (or P-Celtic) language(s), but it is not known whether this represents one population displacing others, an invader becoming a new ruling caste, or simply the spread of a new lingua franca. Before and during the age of the Roman Empire there was a great deal of movement, interaction and competition among the peoples who, though of neither ethnicity, fell within the Celtic and Germanic cultural ferment. Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... This article is about the European people. ...


Estimates of the arrival of proto-Gaelic in Ireland vary widely from the introduction of agriculture circa 4000 BC to around the first few centuries BC. Little can be said with certainty, as the language now known as Old Irish, ancestral to modern Irish, Scots Gaelic and Manx, only began to be properly recorded with the Christianization of Ireland in about the 5th Century AD. (It is believed that Ireland's pre-Christian culture disparaged written language.) However, Old Irish — or more correctly, its precursor Primitive Irish — does appear in a specialized written form, using a unique script known as Ogham. This is known to us now almost only in the form of memorial inscriptions or short epitaphs on pillar-like stone monuments (see Mac Cairthinn mac Coelboth. Ogham stones are found both throughout Ireland and where Gaelic invaders settled across post-Roman Britain. It is thought to have been in use as early as A.D. 400. They frequently encode nothing more than a name, and it is thought they may represent territorial claims. Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be more or less fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Primitive Irish is the oldest known form of the Irish language, known only from fragments, mostly personal names, inscribed on stone in the ogham alphabet in Ireland and western Britain up to about the 4th century. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... An epitaph ( literally: on the gravestone in ancient Greek) is text honoring the deceased, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ... Mac Cairthinn mac Coelboth of the Uí Enechglaiss, King of Leinster, died 446. ...


Starting sometime around the 5th century Gaelic language and culture spread from Ireland to the southwest coast of Scotland where it may have already existed since Roman times. Uncertainty over this comes as a result of the fact that there is disputed archaeological evidence to support the generally accepted tale of migration while there is some to suggest that there was none — the evidence also points to the population of the area (modern day Argyll) being constant during the time of the alleged Scottish invasion[citation needed]. This area was known as Dál Riata. The Gaels soon spread out to most of the rest of the country. Culturo-linguistic dominance in the area eventually led to the Latin name for Gaelic speaking peoples, "Scoti", being applied to the state founded by the Gaels, Scotland (Alba in Latin). Since that time Gaelic language rose and, in the past three centuries, greatly diminished, in most of Ireland and Scotland. The most culturally and linguistically Gaelic regions are in the north west of Scotland, the west of Ireland and Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia where the descendants of the Highland Clearances were transplanted. Argyll, archaically Argyle (Airthir-Ghaidheal in Gaelic, translated as [the] East Gael, or [the] East Irish), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Scoti or Scotti (Old Irish Scot, modern Scottish Gaelic Sgaothaich) was the generic name given by the Romans to Gaelic raiders from Ireland. ... Look up Alba in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ...


The Isle of Man (Manx: Ellan Vannin, 'Mannin's Isle', from the pre-Christian deity known as Manannán mac Lír) also came under massive Gaelic influence in its history. The last native speaker of Manx died in the 1970s, though use of the Manx language never fully ceased. There is now a resurgent language movement and Manx is once again taught in all schools as a second language and in some as a first language. A large part of the island's cultural heritage is Gaelic. Motto: Quocunque Jeceris Stabit  (Latin) Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand Anthem: Isle of Man National Anthem Capital Douglas Largest city Douglas English, Manx Government Crown Dependency (UK)   - Lord of Mann Elizabeth II  - Lieutenant Governor Paul Haddacks  - Chief Minister Donald Gelling  - First Deemster Michael Kerruish  - President of Tynwald Noel... In Irish, Scots and Manx mythology, Manannán mac Lir is the god of the sea. ... First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Current distribution

The two comparatively 'major' Gaelic nations in the modern era are Scotland (Scottish Gaelic-speaking population approx. 60,000 native speakers) and Ireland (which has over 200,000). Communities where the language is still spoken natively are restricted largely to the west coast of each country and especially the Hebrides in Scotland. However, large proportions of Gaelic speakers also live in the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland, as well as Galway, Cork and Dublin in Ireland. There are between 500 - 1,000 Canadian Gaels although they are generally of a very advanced age and concentrated in Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island and Newfoundland. According to the 2000 US CensusPDF (123 KiB), there are over 25,000 Irish-speakers in the United States with the majority found in urban areas with large Irish-American communities such as Boston, New York City and Chicago. This article is about the country. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánach) are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in the west European nation of Ireland. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


Famous Gaels

Art Mac Cumhaigh (1738- 1773) was, along with Cathal Buí Mac Giolla Ghunna, Peadar Ó Doirnín and Séamas Dall Mac Cuarta, among the most celebrated of the south Ulster and north Leinster poets in the eighteenth century. ... A much later engraving of Brian Boru Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (926 or 941[1] – 23 April 1014) (known as Brian Boru in English) was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... See Columba (disambiguation) and St Columb for other uses. ... Saint Columba (7 December 521 - 9 June 597), the Latinized version of the Irish name Colmcille (Old Irish Columb Cille) meaning Dove of the church, was the most outstanding among the group of Dark Ages Irish missionary monks who reintroduced Christianity to Scotland and the north of England. ... A separate article is titled Columba (constellation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Rob Donn (Brown haired Rob) was a Scottish Gaelic poet from Sutherland. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Patrick Pearse Patrick Henry Pearse (known as Pádraic Pearse or, in the Irish language, as Pádraic Anraí Mac Piarais) (November 10, 1879 - May 3, 1916) was a teacher, poet, writer and political activist who led the Irish Easter Rising in 1916. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (Pronounced fee-na fall.) (English: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... St. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... Diarmait Mac Murchada (also known as Diarmait na nGall, Dermot of the Foreigners, Daimait MacMorchada), anglicized as Dermot MacMurrough (died 1 January 1171) was the King of Leinster, and is often considered to have been the most notorious traitor in Irish history. ... Statistics Area: 19,774. ... Note: Rory OConnor can also refer to the Irish Republican of the 1920s, who fought in the Anglo-Irish War and the Irish Civil War Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (d. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ... The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, QC (January 11, 1815 - June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada from July 1, 1867 - November 5, 1873 - and - October 17, 1878 - June 6, 1891. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Edward Ned Maddrell (1877?–December 27, 1974) was a fisherman from the Isle of Man who was arguably the last surviving native speaker of the Manx language. ... Máire Mhac an tSaoi is an Irish language scholar and academic. ... A Catholic Unionist is a Northern Irish, Roman Catholic, who supports continuing ties between Northern Ireland and Great Britain. ... Conor Cruise OBrien (Irish: ; born 3 November 1917) is an Irish politician, writer and academic. ... Enya, birth name Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin (IPA: ), sometimes presented in the media as Enya Brennan, was born on 17 May 1961, in Gweedore, County Donegal, Ireland, and is a four-time Grammy Award-winning singer, an Academy Award-nominated songwriter, and Irelands best-selling solo artist and... Máire Ní Bhraonáin, IPA: better known as Máire Brennan or Moya Brennan (born August 4, 1952, Gweedore, County Donegal, Ireland), is a Celtic folk singer. ... Clannad are a Grammy Award-winning Irish musical group, from Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair), County Donegal. ... Éamon Ó Cuív (born June 23, 1950) is a senior Irish Fianna Fáil politician and is currently the Minister for Community, Rural & Gaeltacht Affairs. ... The Minister for Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs is the senior minister at the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs (An Roinn Gnóthaí Pobail, Tuaithe agus Gaeltachta) in the Irish Government. ... Séamas Dall Mac Cuarta (c. ... Oriel (dervied from Irish orgialla meaning hostage of gold; also Airgialla, Uriel, Orgialla, Orgiall, Oryallia, Ergallia) was an ancient Irish kingdom. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... http://www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... Micheál Ó Muircheartaigh (born 1930) is an Irish Gaelic games commentator for Radio Telifís Éireann. ... For other uses, see GAA (disambiguation). ... Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ; Irish for Radio and Television of Ireland) is the national publicly-funded broadcaster of Ireland. ... Hugh ONeill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (c. ... The title of Earl of Tyrone was an Irish peerage title created several times. ... The title of Earl of Tyrone was an Irish peerage title created several times. ... Eoghan Rua Ó Néill, anglicised as Owen Roe ONeill (c. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... The Irish Confederate Wars were fought in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. ... Antoine Ó Raifteiri (Anthony Raftery) (1784 - 1835) was an Irish language poet who is often called the last of the wandering bards. ... Cathal Ó Searcaigh (pronounced ) is an Irish poet who writes in the Irish language (specifically the Ulster dialect). ...

See also

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... The Gàidhealtachd, sometimes known as A Ghàidhealtachd (the Gàidhealtachd), usually refers to the Scottish Highlands in Scottish Gaelic. ... Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... Gaelicization (NAE or CwE) or Gaelicisation (CwE) is the act or process of making something Gaelic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ==unique aspect versus other Celts is the reliance on a battle axe in earlier society. ... It has been suggested that Schottenklöster be merged into this article or section. ... Newfoundland Irish (Irish: Gaeilge Talamh an Éisc) is a dialect of the Irish language specific to the island of Newfoundland and widely spoken until the mid-20th century. ... This article is about the country. ... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gle
  2. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gle
  3. ^ http://www.scotland.gov.uk/consultations/culture/glbc-03.asp
  4. ^ http://www.usenglish.org/foundation/research/lia/languages/irish_gaelic.pdfPDF (123 KiB)
  5. ^ http://www.usenglish.org/foundation/research/lia/languages_of_the_usa.pdfPDF (89.8 KiB)
  6. ^ http://www.gov.ns.ca/dtc/pubs/GaelicStrategy-English.pdfPDF (196 KiB)
  7. ^ Statistics Canada 2001 Census
  8. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=MJD

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

External links

  • DNA shows Scots and Irish should look to Spain for their ancestry
  • Myths of British ancestry
  • Aberdeen University Celtic Department Information and courses on all aspects of Celts, Gaels and related peoples, languages and cultures
  • Iomairt Cholm Cille (The Columban Institute) An institute with the aim of promoting links between Irish and Scottish Gaelic speakers.

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